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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 
OF WASHINGTON 



YEAR BOOK No. 42 
July 1, 1942— June 30, 1943 

With Administrative Reports through December 7, 1943 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1943 



THE LORD BALTIMORE PRESS, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

Officers and Staff v-x 

Organization, Plan, and Scope xi 

Articles of Incorporation xii-xiv 

By-Laws of the Institution xv-xviii 

Abstract of Minutes of the Forty-fifth Meeting of the Board of Trustees xix 

Report of the Executive Committee xxi— xxv 

Report of Auditors xxvi— xxxii 

Report of the President i—io 

Reports of Departmental Activities and Cooperative Studies 
Astronomy 

Mount Wilson Observatory 1-22 

Special Projects 

Dirk Brouwer 23 

S. A. Mitchell 23- 25 

Terrestrial Sciences 

Geophysical Laboratory 27— 29 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 31— 59 

Special Projects 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations 61—69 

S. E. Forbush and Isabelle Lange 62— 63 

Victor F. Hess 63— 64 

Thomas H. Johnson 64— 65 

S. A. KorfiF 65-66 

Robert A. Millikan and Carl D. Anderson 66- 68 

Carl E. Nielsen and Wilson M. Powell 68- 69 

Biological Sciences 

Division of Plant Biology 71—104 

Department of Embryology 105-122 

Department of Genetics 123— 161 

Nutrition Laboratory 163—165 

Special Projects 

W. E. Castle 167 

Paul S. Conger 168-169 

Arthur T. Hertig and John Rock 169-170 

T. H. Morgan, Helen Redfield, and L. V. Morgan 171-174 

G. Oscar Russell 174-175 

iii 



CONTENTS 

Historical Research pages 

Division of Historical Research 177—187 

Special Projects 

Marion E. Blake 189 

Paleontology, Early Man, and Historical Geology: John C. Merriam 190—198 

Bibliography 199-200 

Index 201—208 



IV 



PRESIDENT AND TRUSTEES 



Thomas Barbour 
James F. Bell 
Robert Woods Bliss 
Lindsay Bradford 
Frederic A. Delano 
Homer L. Ferguson 
W. Cameron Forbes 
Walter S. Gifford 



Vannevar Bush 
Frederic A. Delano 



Henning W, Prentis, Jr. 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Henry R. Shepley 
Richard P. Strong 
Charles P. Taft 
James W. Wadsworth 
Frederic C. Walcott 
Lewis H. Weed 



PRESIDENT 

Vannevar Bush 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

W. Cameron Forbes, Chairman 

Walter S. Gifford, V ice-Chairman 

Frederic A. Delano, Secretary 

Herbert Hoover 
Walter A. Jessup 
Frank B. Jewett 
Alfred L. Loomis 
Roswell Miller 
Henry S. Morgan 
Seeley G. Mudd 
John J. Pershing 

Executive Committee 

W. Cameron Forbes, Chairman 

Walter S. Gifford 
Walter A. Jessup 
Henry R. Shepley 

V inane e Committee 

Frederic C. Walcott, Chairman 
Lindsay Bradford Henning W. Prentis, Jr. 

Walter S. Gifford Elihu Root, Jr. 

Auditing Committee 

Frederic A. Delano, Chairman 
Robert Woods Bliss James W. Wadsworth 

STANDING COMMITTEES FOR THE YEAR 1944 

Committee on Astronomy 

Herbert Hoover, Chairman 



Frederic C. Walcott 
Lewis H. Weed 



Walter S. Gifford 
Roswell Miller 



Seeley G. Mudd 
Elihu Root, Jr. 



Committee on Terrestrial Sciences 

Frank B. Jewett, Chairman 
Frederic A. Delano Henry S. Morgan 

Homer L. Ferguson Frederic C. Walcott 

Committee on Biological Sciences 
Lewis H. Weed, Chairman 



Thomas Barbour 
James F. Bell 



Alfred L. Loomis 
Henning W. Prentis, Jr. 



Committee on Historical Research 

Henry R. Shepley, Chairman 
Robert Woods Bliss Charles P. Taft 

Richard P. Strong James W. Wadsworth 



FORMER PRESIDENTS AND TRUSTEES 



PRESIDENTS 

Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902—04 Robert Simpson Woodward, 

John Campbell Merriam, President 1921—38; President Emeritus 1939— 



1904—20 



Alexander Agassiz 
George J. Baldwin 
John S. Billings 
Robert S. Brookings 
John L. Cadwalader 
William W. Campbell 
John J. Carty 
Whitefoord R. Cole 
Cleveland H. Dodge 
William E. Dodge 
Charles P. Fenner 
Simon Flexner 
William N. Frew 
Lyman J. Gage 
Cass Gilbert 
Frederick H. Gillett 
Daniel C. Gilman 
John Hay 
Myron T. Herrick 
Abram S. Hewitt 
Henry L. Higginson 
Ethan A. Hitchcock 
Henry Hitchcock 
William Wirt Howe 
Charles L. Hutchinson 
Samuel P. Langley 
Charles A. Lindbergh 
William Lindsay 
Henry Cabot Lodge 
Seth Low 



TRUSTEES 




1904—05 


Wayne MacVeagh 


1902-07 


1925—27 


Andrew J. Mellon 


!9 2 4-37 


1902—13 


Darius O. Mills 


1902—09 


1910—29 


S. Weir Mitchell 


1902—14 


1903-14 


Andrew J. Montague 


1907-35 


1929-38 


William W. Morrow 


1902—29 


1916-32 


William Church Osborn 


1927-34 


!9 2 5-34 


James Parmelee 


I 9 I 7"3 I 


1903-23 


Wm. Barclay Parsons 


1907-32 


1902-03 


Stewart Paton 


1916—42 


1914—24 


George W. Pepper 


1914-19 


1910— 14 


Henry S. Pritchett 


1906-36 


1902—15 


Elihu Root 


1902-37 


1902—12 


Julius Rosenwald 


1929-31 


1924-34 


Martin A. Ryerson 


1908-28 


1924-35 


Theobald Smith 


1914-34 


1902—08 


John C. Spooner 


1902—07 


1902-05 


William Benson Storey 


1924-39 


1915-29 


William H. Taft 


1906-15 


1902-03 


William S. Thayer 


1929-32 


1902—19 


Charles D. Walcott 


1902—27 


1902-09 


Henry P. Walcott 


1910—24 


1902-02 


William H. Welch 


1906-34 


1903-09 


Andrew D. White 


1902—03 


1902-04 


Edward D. White 


1902—03 


1904-06 


Henry White 


1913-27 


r 934-39 


George W. Wickersham 


1909-36 


1902-09 


Robert S. Woodward 


1905—24 


1914-24 


Carroll D. Wright 


1902—08 


1902-16 







Besides the names enumerated above, the following were ex-ofncio members of the Board 
of Trustees under the original charter, from the date of organization until April 28, 1904: 
the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the President of the 
National Academy of Sciences. 



vi 



STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS FOR THE YEAR 1943 



ASTRONOMY 

Mount Wilson Observatory 

Organized in 1904; George E. Hale, Director 1 904-1 923, Honorary Director 1 923-1 936 



Walter S. Adams, Director 

Alfred H. Joy, Secretary 
*Arthur S. King, Supt. Physical Laboratory 
*John A. Anderson 

Walter Baade 

Harold D. Babcock 

William H. Christie 

Theodore Dunham, Jr. 

Joseph Hickox 

Edison Hoge 

Edwin P. Hubble 

Milton L. Humason 



Robert B. King 
Paul W. Merrill 
Rudolph Minkowski 
Seth B. Nicholson 
Edison Pettit 
Robert S. Richardson 
Roscoe F. Sanford 
gustaf stromberg 
Adriaan van Maanen 
Olin C. Wilson 
Ralph E. Wilson 



TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Geophysical Laboratory 

Organized in 1906, opened in 1907; Arthur L. Day, Director 1 907-1 936 



Leason H. Adams, Director 
John S. Burlew 
Joseph L. England 
Ralph E. Gibson 
Roy W. Goranson 
Joseph W. Greig 
Earl Ingerson 
Frank C. Kracek 
Orville H. Loeffler 
Herbert E. Merwin 
George W. Morey 



Elburt F. Osborn 
Charles S. Piggot 
Eugene Posnjak 
Howard S. Roberts 
John F. Schairer 
Earnest S. Shepherd 
George Tunell 
William D. Urry 
Fred E. Wright 
Emanuel G. Zies 



Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
Organized in 1904; Louis A. Bauer, Director 1904— 1929 



John A. Fleming, Director 

Oliver H. Gish, Assistant Director 

Philip H. Abelson 

Casper J. Aronson 

Lloyd V. Berkner 

Scott E. Forbush 

George K. Green 

Lawrence R. Hafstad 

Norman P. Heydenburg 

Ellis A. Johnson 

Henry F. Johnston 

Mark W. Jones 

Paul G. Ledig 

Alvin G. McNish 

* Retired in 1943. 



Robert C. Meyer (resigned) 
Wilfred C. Parkinson 
Richard B. Roberts 
William J. Rooney 
Walter E. Scott 
Stuart L. Seaton 
Kenneth L. Sherman 
William F. Steiner 
Oscar W. Torreson 
Merle A. Tuve 
Ernest H. Vestine 
George R. Wait 
Harry W. Wells 



vn 






BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

Division of Plant Biology 

Desert Laboratory, opened in 1903, became headquarters of Department of Botanical Research in 1905. 
Name changed to Laboratory for Plant Physiology in 1923; reorganized in 1928 as Division of Plant 
Biology, including Ecology. 

Herman A. Spoehr, Chairman Emmett V. Martin 

Jens C. Clausen Harold W. Milner 

Garrett J. Hardin Forrest Shreve 

William M. Hiesey James H. C. Smith 

David D. Keck Harold H. Strain 
Winston M. Manning 

Department of Embryology 

Organized in 1914; Franklin P. Mall, Director 191 4-1 9 17; George L. Streeter, Director 191 8-1940 

George W. Corner, Director Chester H. Heuser, Curator of the 

Robert K. Burns, Jr. Embryological Collection 

Louis B. Flexner Margaret R. Lewis 

Samuel R. M. Reynolds 

Department of Genetics 

Station for Experimental Evolution, opened in 1904, combined with Eugenics Record Office in 1921 to 
form Department of Genetics. Charles B. Davenport, Director 1904-193 4; Albert F. Blakeslee, Director 
1935-1941. 

Milislav Demerec, Director James S. Potter 

Ugo Fano, Research Associate Oscar Riddle 

Berwind P. Kaufmann Morris Steggerda 

Edwin C. MacDowell Harry E. Warmke 
Barbara McClintock 

Nutrition Laboratory 
Organized in 1907, opened in 1908; Francis G. Benedict, Director 1 907-1 937 
Thorne M. Carpenter, Director Robert C. Lee 

V. COROPATCHINSKY 

HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

Division of Historical Research 

Department of Historical Research organized in 1903; Andrew C. McLaughlin, Director 1 903-1 905, 
J. Franklin Jameson, Director 1 905-1 928. In 1930 this Department was incorporated as the Section of 
United States History in a new Division of Historical Research. 

Alfred V. Kidder, Chairman 

Section of Aboriginal American History Section of Post-Columbian American History 

Sylvanus G. Morley Eleanor B. Adams 

Earl H. Morris Robert S. Chamberlain 

Harry E. D. Pollock Ralph L. Roys 

Tatiana Proskouriakoff France V. Scholes 

Karl Ruppert Leo F. Stock 

Anna O. Shepard 

Edwin M. Shook Section of the History of Science 

A. Ledyard Smith ^ 

„ ~ George Sarton 

Robert h. Smith a t, 

^ .. Alexander Pogo 

Gustav Stromsvik 

Sol Tax 

J. Eric S. Thompson 

Alfonso Villa R. 

viii 



RESEARCH ASSOCIATES 

Marion E. Blake, Archaeology Newton B. Drury, Study of Primitive Areas 

Paul S. Conger, Biology *Frank A. Perret, Geophysics 



Research Associates Engaged in Post-Retirement Studies 

Albert F. Blakeslee, Genetics George L. Streeter, Embryology 

Frederick H. Seares, Astronomy 



Research Associates Connected with Other Institutions 

Ernest B. Babcock (University of California), Genetics 

Edward L. Bowles (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Physics 

Joseph C. Boyce (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Physics 

E. H. Bramhall (University of Alaska), Terrestrial Magnetism 

G. Breit (University of Wisconsin), Physics 

Dirk Brouwer (Yale University), Astronomy 

John P. Buwalda (California Institute of Technology), Geology and Paleontology 

W. E. Castle (University of California), Biology 

Ralph W. Chaney (University of California), Paleobotany 

A. H. Compton (University of Chicago), Physics 

Th. Dobzhansky (Columbia University), Genetics 

Charles Elton (Oxford University), Climatology 

G. Gamow (George Washington University), Physics 

Frank T. Gucker, Jr. (Northwestern University), Chemistry 

Ross Gunn (United States Naval Research Laboratory), Terrestrial Magnetism 

Arthur T. Hertig (Boston Lying-in Hospital), Embryology 

Victor F. Hess (Fordham University), Physics 

A. Hollaender (National Institute of Health), Genetics 

Thomas H. Johnson (Bartol Research Foundation), Physics 

Elliott P. Joslin (New England Deaconess Hospital), Nutrition 

Remington Kellogg (United States National Museum), Paleontology 

George B. Kistiakowski (Harvard University), Chemistry 

S. A. Korff (Bartol Research Foundation), Physics 

E. A. Lowe (The Institute for Advanced Study), Paleography 

Edwin D. McKee (United States National Park Service), Geology and Paleontology 

Robert A. Millikan (California Institute of Technology), Physics 

S. A. Mitchell (University of Virginia), Astronomy 

T. H. Morgan (California Institute of Technology), Biology 

Walter H. Newhouse (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Geophysics 

Wilson M. Powell (University of California), Physics 

Robert Redfield (University of Chicago), Anthropology 

Henry N. Russell (Princeton University), Astronomy 

H. C. Sherman (Columbia University), Nutrition 

Joel Stebbins (University of Wisconsin), Astronomy 

Chester Stock (California Institute of Technology), Paleontology 

John T. Tate (University of Minnesota), Physics 

* Deceased. 



IX 



OFFICES OF ADMINISTRATION 



Office of the President 

Vannevar Bush, President 

Walter M. Gilbert, Executive Officer 

Samuel Callaway, President's Secretary 



Office of Publications and Public Relations 

*Theodore H. Dillon, Director 
Ailene J. Bauer, Assistant to the Director 
Dorothy R. Swift, Editor 



Office of the Bursar 

Earle B. Biesecker, Bursar 

J. Stanley Lingebach, Assistant Bursar 



Investment Office (New Yor\ City) 

Devereux Josephs, Investment Officer 
Parker Monroe, Investment Officer 

* On leave of absence. 



ORGANIZATION, PLAN, AND SCOPE 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Andrew Carnegie, 
January 28, 1902, when he gave to a board of trustees an endowment of registered 
bonds of the par value of ten million dollars. To this fund an addition of two 
million dollars was made by Mr. Carnegie on December 10, 1907, and a further 
addition of ten million dollars was made by him on January 19, 191 1. Further- 
more, the income of a reserve fund of about three million dollars, accumulated 
in accordance with the founder's specifications in 191 1, is now available for general 
use and a sum of five million dollars has been paid by the Carnegie Corporation 
of New York as an increase to the Endowment Fund of the Institution, payments 
having been completed in 1931. The Institution was originally organized under 
the laws of the District of Columbia and incorporated as the Carnegie Institution, 
articles of incorporation having been executed on January 4, 1902. The Institu- 
tion was reincorporated, however, by an act of the Congress of the United States, 
approved April 28, 1904, under the title of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
(See existing Articles of Incorporation on following pages.) 

Organization under the new Articles of Incorporation was effected May 18, 1904, 
and the Institution was placed under the control of a board of twenty-four trustees, 
all of whom had been members of the original corporation. The trustees meet 
annually in December to consider the affairs of the Institution in general, the prog- 
ress of work already undertaken, and the initiation of new projects, and to make 
the necessary appropriations for the ensuing year. During the intervals between 
the meetings of the trustees the affairs of the Institution are conducted by an Execu- 
tive Committee chosen by and from the Board of Trustees and acting through 
the President of the Institution as chief executive officer. 

The Articles of Incorporation of the Institution declare in general "that the 
objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal 
manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge 
to the improvement of mankind." 

The Institution is essentially an operating organization. It attempts to advance 
fundamental research in fields not normally covered by the activities of other agen- 
cies, and to concentrate its attention upon specific problems, with the idea of shift- 
ing attack from time to time to meet the more pressing needs of research as they 
develop with increase of knowledge. Some of these problems require the collabora- 
tion of several investigators, special equipment, and continuous effort. Many close 
relations exist among activities of the Institution, and a type of organization repre- 
senting investigations in astronomy, in terrestrial sciences, in biological sciences, 
and in historical research has been effected. Conference groups on various subjects 
have played a part in bringing new vision and new methods to bear upon many 
problems. Constant efforts are made to facilitate interpretation and application of 
results of research activities of the Institution, and an Office of Publications and 
Public Relations provides means for appropriate publication. 

xi 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 

Public No. 260. An Act to incorporate the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the persons following being persons who are 
now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, 
John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, 
Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. 
Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, 
Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, 
Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. 
Wright, their associates and successors, duly chosen, are hereby incorporated and 
declared to be a body corporate by the name of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington and by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession, with the 
powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained. 

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest 
and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the applica- 
tion of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular — 

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of science, 
literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, universities, col- 
leges, technical schools, learned societies, and individuals. 

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

(c) To publish and distribute documents. 

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings, and acquire and maintain a library. 

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such building or 
buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation. 

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the objects 
of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees hereinafter appointed 
and their successors from time to time to modify the conditions and regulations 
under which the work shall be carried on, so as to secure the application of the 
funds in the manner best adapted to the conditions of the time, provided that the 
objects of the corporation shall at all times be among the foregoing or kindred thereto. 

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corporation and 
the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested in a board of trus- 
tees, twenty-two in number, to be composed of the following individuals : Alexander 
Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. 
Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William 
Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth 
Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, 
Ethan A. Hitchcoc\, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. 
Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The 
board of trustees shall have power from time to time to increase its membership 

xii 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 

to not more than twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resigna- 
tion, or otherwise shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the 
by-laws shall prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees 
and also members of the said corporation. The principal place of business of the 
said corporation shall be the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold, and administer 
the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew Carnegie to the 
trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds or property as may at any 
time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, or to such corporation, for the pur- 
poses of the trust; and with full power from time to time to adopt a common seal, 
to appoint such officers, members of the board of trustees or otherwise, and such 
employees as may be deemed necessary in carrying on the business of the corpora- 
tion, at such salaries or with such remuneration as they may deem proper; and 
with full power to adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules or regulations 
as may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction of the business of 
the corporation; and with full power and discretion to deal with and expend the 
income of the corporation in such manner as in their judgment will best promote 
the objects herein set forth and in general to have and use all powers and authority 
necessary to promote such objects and carry out the purposes of the donor. The 
said trustees shall have further power from time to time to hold as investments 
the securities hereinafter referred to so transferred by Andrew Carnegie, and any 
property which has been or may be transferred to them or such corporation by 
Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, persons, or corporation, and to invest 
any sums or amounts from time to time in such securities and in such form and 
manner as are permitted to trustees or to charitable or literary corporations for in- 
vestment, according to the laws of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or Massa- 
chusetts, or in such securities as are authorized for investment by the said deed of 
trust so executed by Andrew Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and testa- 
ment to be hereafter made or executed. 

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional donations, 
grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of the purposes 
of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof the personal ex- 
penses which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or otherwise in carrying 
out .the business of the trust, but the services of the trustees as such shall be gratuitous. 

Sec. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a meeting 
of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gilman, John S. 
Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, Elihu Root, and Carroll D. 
Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, 
by notice served in person or by mail addressed to each trustee at his place of resi- 
dence; and the said trustees, or a majority thereof, being assembled, shall organize 
and proceed to adopt by-laws, to elect officers and appoint committees, and generally 
to organize the said corporation; and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the 
corporation hereby incorporated, shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into 
possession, custody, and management of all property, real or personal, of the cor- 
poration heretofore known as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as hereinbefore 
set forth under "An Act to establish a Code of Law for the District of Columbia, 

xiii 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

January fourth, nineteen hundred and two," and to all its rights, contracts, claims, 
and property of any kind or nature; and the several officers of such corporation, or 
any other person having charge of any of the securities, funds, real or personal, 
books, or property thereof, shall, on demand, deliver the same to the said trustees 
appointed by this Act or to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; 
and the trustees of the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall 
and may take such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of 
this Act. 

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation known as 
the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by the passage of this 
Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore mentioned, nor shall any liability 
or obligation for the payment of any sums due or to become due, or any claim 
or demand, in any manner or for any cause existing against the said existing cor- 
poration, be released or impaired; but such corporation hereby incorporated is de- 
clared to succeed to the obligations and liabilities and to be held liable to pay 
and discharge all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said corporation so 
existing to the same effect as if such new corporation had itself incurred the obliga- 
tion or liability to pay such debt or damages, and no such action or proceeding 
before any court or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been discontinued 
by reason of the passage of this Act. 

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this Act 
of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall thereby 
be divested or impaired. 

Sec 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved, April 28, 1904. 



xiv 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION 

Adopted December 13, 1904. Amended December 13, 1910, December 13, 1912, 
December 10, 1937, December 15, 1939, December 13, 1940, and December 18, 1942 

Article I 

THE TRUSTEES 

1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members, with power to 
increase its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. The Trustees 
shall hold office continuously and not for a stated term. 

2. In case any Trustee shall fail to attend three successive annual meetings of the 
Board he shall thereupon cease to be a Trustee. 

3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such. 

4. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees shall be filled by the Trustees by ballot. 
Sixty days prior to an annual or a special meeting of the Board, the President shall 
notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled and each Trustee may sub- 
mit nominations for such vacancies. A list of the persons so nominated, with the 
names of the proposers, shall be mailed to the Trustees thirty days before the meet- 
ing, and no other nominations shall be received at the meeting except with the 
unanimous consent of the Trustees present. Vacancies shall be filled from the 
persons thus nominated, but no person shall be declared elected unless he receives 
the votes of two-thirds of the Trustees present. 

Article II 

MEETINGS 

1. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City of 
Washington, in the District of Columbia, on the first Friday following the second 
Thursday of December in each year unless the date and place of meeting are other- 
wise ordered by the Executive Committee. 

2. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Executive Committee by 
notice served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address of, each Trustee twenty 
days prior to the meeting. 

3. Special meetings shall, moreover, be called in the same manner by the Chairman 
upon the written request of seven members of the Board. 

Article III 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD 

1. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice-Chairman, 
and a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the members of the 
Board, by ballot to serve for a term of three years. All vacancies shall be filled by 
the Board for the unexpired term; provided, however, that the Executive Com- 
mittee shall have power to fill a vacancy in the office of Secretary to serve until 
the next meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual powers 
of a presiding officer. 

2 xv 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall perform 
his duties. 

4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its transactions, 
and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the Board and to his duties. 

Article IV 

EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION 

The President 

1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold office 
during the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive officer of the 
Institution. The President, subject to the control of the Board and the Executive 
Committee, shall have general charge of all matters of administration and super- 
vision of all arrangements for research and other work undertaken by the Institu- 
tion or with its funds. He shall devote his entire time to the affairs of the Insti- 
tution. He shall prepare and submit to the Board of Trustees and to the Executive 
Committee plans and suggestions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its 
general correspondence and the correspondence with applicants for grants and with 
the special advisers of the Committee, and shall present his recommendations in 
each case to the Executive Committee for decision. All proposals and requests for 
grants shall be referred to the President for consideration and report. He shall have 
power to remove and appoint subordinate employees and shall be ex officio a 
member of the Executive Committee. 

2. He shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the Institution 
whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall sign and execute on behalf 
of the corporation all contracts and instruments necessary in authorized adminis- 
trative and research matters and affix the corporate seal thereto when necessary, 
and may delegate the performance of such acts and other administrative duties in 
his absence to the Executive Officer. He may execute all other contracts, deeds, 
and instruments on behalf of the corporation and affix the seal thereto when ex- 
pressly authorized by the Board of Trustees or Executive Committee. He may, within 
the limits of his own authorization, delegate to the Executive Officer authority to 
act as custodian of and affix the corporate seal. He shall be responsible for the 
expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the Institution in accordance with 
the directions of the Board and of the Executive Committee, and shall keep accurate 
accounts of all receipts and disbursements. He shall submit to the Board of Trustees 
at least one month before its annual meeting in December a written report of the 
operations and business of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year with his 
recommendations for work and appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year, which 
shall be forthwith transmitted to each member of the Board. 

3. He shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

4. There shall be an officer designated Executive Officer who shall be appointed by 
and hold office at the pleasure of the President, subject to the approval of the Execu- 
tive Committee. His duties shall be to assist and act for the President as the latter 
may duly authorize and direct. 

xvi 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION 

5. The President shall retire from office at the end of the calendar year in which 
he becomes sixty-five years of age. 

Article V 

COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be the following standing Committees, viz. an Executive Committee, 
a Finance Committee, and an Auditing Committee. 

2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman and Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees and the President of the Institution ex officio and, in addition, 
five trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a term of three years, who 
shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve 
for the remainder of his predecessor's term: Provided, however, that of the Execu- 
tive Committee first elected after the adoption of these by-laws two shall serve for 
one year, two shall serve for two years, and one shall serve for three years; and such 
Committee shall determine their respective terms by lot. 

3. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and has 
not given specific directions, have general control of the administration of the affairs 
of the corporation and general supervision of all arrangements for administration, 
research, and other matters undertaken or promoted by the Institution; shall ap- 
point advisory committees for specific duties; shall determine all payments and 
salaries; and keep a written record of all transactions and expenditures and submit 
the same to the Board of Trustees at each meeting, and it shall also submit to the 
Board of Trustees a printed or typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at 
the annual meeting shall submit to the Board a report for publication. The Execu- 
tive Committee shall have power to authorize the purchase, sale, exchange, or 
transfer of real estate. 

4. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all ap- 
propriations made by the Board. 

5. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members to be elected by the 
Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

6. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the corporation 
and general charge of its investments and invested funds, and shall care for and 
dispose of the same subject to the directions of the Board of Trustees. It shall have 
power to authorize the purchase, sale, exchange, or transfer of securities and to 
delegate this power. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to 
time such measures as in its opinion will promote the financial interests of the 
Institution, and shall make a report at each meeting of the Board. 

7. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the 
Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

8. The Auditing Committee shall, before each annual meeting of the Board of 
Trustees, examine the accounts of business transacted under the Finance Committee 
and the Executive Committee. They may avail themselves at will of the services 
and examination of the Auditor appointed by the Board of Trustees. They shall 
report to the Board upon the collection of moneys to which the Institution is entitled, 
upon the investment and reinvestment of principal, upon the conformity of expen- 

xvii 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

ditures to appropriations, and upon the system of bookkeeping, the sufficiency of 
the accounts, and the safety and economy of the business methods and safeguards 
employed. 

9. All vacancies occurring in the Executive Committee and the Finance Committee 
shall be filled by the Trustees at the next regular meeting. In case of vacancy in 
the Finance Committee or the Auditing Committee, upon request of the remain- 
ing members of such committee, the Executive Committee may fill such vacancy 
by appointment until the next meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

10. The terms of all officers and of all members of committees shall continue until 
their successors are elected or appointed. 

Article VI 

FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 

i. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a previ- 
ous appropriation by the Board of Trustees, or as provided in Article V, paragraph 
6, hereof. 

2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of November 
in each year. 

3. The Executive Committee, at least one month prior to the annual meeting in 
each year, shall cause the accounts of the Institution to be audited by a skilled ac- 
countant, to be appointed by the Board of Trustees, and shall submit to the annual 
meeting of the Board a full statement of the finances and work of the Institution 
and a detailed estimate of the expenditures of the succeeding year. 

4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make general 
appropriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained herein shall pre- 
vent the Board of Trustees from making special appropriations at any meeting. 

5. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds invested 
and to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in the custody of 
such trust company and under such safeguards as the Trustees and Finance Com- 
mittee shall designate; and the income available for expenditure of the Institution 
shall be deposited in such banks or depositories as may from time to time be desig- 
nated by the Executive Committee. 

6. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the Finance 
Committee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made Fiscal Agent of 
the Institution, upon an agreed compensation, for the transaction of the business 
coming within the authority of the Finance Committee. 

Article VII 

AMENDMENT OF BY-LAWS 

I. These by-laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the Board 
of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided written notice 
of the proposed amendment shall have been served personally upon, or mailed to 
the usual address of, each member of the Board twenty days prior to the meeting. 

xviii 



ABSTRACT OF MINUTES OF THE FORTY-FIFTH MEETING OF 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

The meeting was held in New York, N. Y., in the Board Room of the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York, on Tuesday, December 7, 1943. It was called to order 
at 11:00 a. m. by the Chairman, Mr. Forbes. 

Upon roll call, the following Trustees responded : Thomas Barbour, James F. Bell, 
Robert Woods Bliss, Lindsay Bradford, Frederic A. Delano, Homer L. Ferguson, 
W. Cameron Forbes, Walter S. Gifford, Herbert Hoover, Frank B. Jewett, Roswell 
Miller, Henning W. Prentis, Jr., Elihu Root, Jr., Henry R. Shepley, Richard P. Strong, 
Charles P. Taft, James W. Wadsworth, Frederic C. Walcott, and Lewis H. Weed. 
The President of the Institution, Dr. Vannevar Bush, was also in attendance. 

The minutes of the forty-fourth meeting were approved as printed and submitted 
to the members of the Board. 

Reports of the President, the Executive Committee, the Auditor, the Finance 
Committee, the Auditing Committee, and of Chairmen of Divisions, Directors of 
Departments, and Research Associates of the Institution were presented and 
considered. 

The following appropriations for the year 1944 were authorized: 

Pension Fund $ 60,000 

Administration (including expenses of Investment Office and of Insurance) .... 130,780 

Publications (expenses of Office of Publications and Public Relations) 23,060 

Departmental Research Operations 927,339 



$1,141,179 

Dr. Jewett submitted his resignation as a member of the Finance Committee. 
This resignation was accepted with regret, and Mr. Prentis was duly elected to fill 
the existing vacancy, which terminates in 1944. 

The meeting adjourned at 12:35 p - M -> whereupon members journeyed to luncheon, 
upon invitation of Mrs. Carnegie, at her home. 



XIX 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
For the Year Ending October 31, 1943 

To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington: 

Gentlemen : Article V, section 3 of the By-Laws provides that the Executive Com- 
mittee shall submit, at the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, a report for 
publication; and Article VI, section 3 provides that the Executive Committee shall 
also submit, at the same time, a full statement of the finances and work of the Insti- 
tution and a detailed estimate of the expenditures for the succeeding year. In accord- 
ance with these provisions, the Executive Committee herewith respectfully submits 
its report for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1943. 

During this year the Executive Committee held six meetings, printed reports of 
which have been mailed to each Trustee and constitute a part of this report. 

A statement of activities of the Institution is contained in the report of the Presi- 
dent, which has been considered and approved by the Executive Committee, and is 
submitted herewith. Continued extension of use of resources and facilities of the 
Institution for war research by the government is a gratifying response to the offer 
by the Trustees of such services in the national interest. The Institution's contribution 
to the war effort provides a unique record of accomplishment within its own field of 
activity. The detailed estimate of expenditures for the succeeding year contained in 
the report of the President has been considered by the Executive Committee, which 
has approved the recommendations of the President in respect thereto and has pro- 
visionally approved the budget estimates based thereon and submitted therewith. 
Close attention has been given both by the Executive Committee and by the Finance 
Committee to the question of availability of funds for Institution activities in 1944, 
and budget recommendations are based upon the judgment of these Committees with 
respect to financial policy during the present national emergency. 

The Board of Trustees, at its meeting of December 18, 1942, appointed Arthur 
Young and Company to audit the accounts of the Institution for the fiscal year 
ending October 31, 1943. The report of the Auditor, including a balance sheet show- 
ing assets and liabilities of the Institution on October 31, 1943, is submitted as a part 
of the report of the Executive Committee. 

In addition to the report of the Auditor there is also submitted a financial statement 
for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1943, showing funds available for expenditures 
and amounts allotted by the Executive Committee, a customary statement of receipts 
and disbursements since the organization of the Institution on January 28, 1902, and a 
schedule of real estate and equipment at original cost. These statements together 
with the tables in the Auditor's report comprise a full statement of the finances of 
the Institution. 

xxi 



There are no vacancies in the membership of the Board of Trustees, of the Execu- 
tive Committee, of the Finance Committee, or of the Auditing Committee. 

W. Cameron Forbes, Chairman 
Vannevar Bush 
Frederic A. Delano 
Walter S. Gifford 
Walter A. Jessup 
Henry R. Shepley 
Frederic C. Walcott 
Lewis H. Weed 
November i, 1943 



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XXIV 



Real Estate and Equipment, Original Cost 

Administration (October 31, 1943) 
Washington, D. C. 

Building, site, and equipment $849,254.45 

Division of Plant Biology (September 30, 1943) 
Stanford University, California (Headquarters) 

Buildings and grounds $74,423.46 

Laboratory 39,799.05 

Library 25,862.02 

Operating equipment 13,901.82 153,986.35 

Department of Embryology (September 30, 1943) 
Wolfe and Madison Streets, Baltimore, Maryland 

Library $4,228.96 

Laboratory 18,569.82 

Administration 7,754.37 30,553.15 

Department of Genetics (September 30, 1943) 
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York 

Buildings, grounds, and field $289,989.35 

Operating equipment 33,600.13 

Laboratory apparatus 37,058.74 

Library - 52,202.41 

Archives 45,488.90 458,339.53 

Geophysical Laboratory (September 30, 1943) 
2801 Upton Street N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Building, library, and operating appliances $291,353.68 

Laboratory apparatus 171,304.96 

Shop equipment 21,103.00 483,761.64 

Division of Historical Research (September 30, 1943) 
10 Frisbie Place, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Operating equipment $32,233.08 

Library 13,685.60 45,918.68 

Nutrition Laboratory (September 30, 1943) 
29 Blackfan Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

Building, office, shop, and library $134,399.59 

Laboratory apparatus 32,611.21 167,010.80 

Mount Wilson Observatory (September 30, 1943) 
Pasadena, California 

Buildings and grounds $222,458.33 

Shop equipment 47,562.91 

Instruments 684,986.05 

Furniture and operating appliances 148,222.48 

Hooker 100-inch reflector 638,519.81 1,741,749.58 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (September 30, 1943) f 

5241 Broad Branch Road N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Building, site, and office $254,594.80 

Survey equipment 93,387.31 

Instruments, laboratory, and shop equipment 465,482.87 813,464.98 



$4,744,039.16 

XXV 



REPORT OF AUDITORS 

To the Board of Trustees 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, D. C. 

We have made an examination of the books and accounts of Carnegie Institution 
of Washington for the year ended October 31, 1943. 

Income from investments and other sources has been duly accounted for and all 
disbursements were evidenced by paid voucher checks and/or properly approved 
invoices. The cash and securities were verified by certificates received from deposi- 
tories and custodians. As in past years, the detailed accounts of the Departments of 
Research in the field have been audited by the Bursar of the Institution, and we are 
of the opinion, as a result of reviewing the internal audit methods in force, that such 
internal audit is satisfactorily conducted. 

The securities are stated at cost, amortized cost, or value at date acquired, this 
being the established custom of the Institution. In accordance with a recommenda- 
tion made in February 1940 by the Institution's Finance Committee, all premiums 
on all obligations purchased subsequent to January 1, 1940 are being amortized on 
a straight-line basis to the date on which an obligation is first callable or payable at 
par. The amortization of the premiums applicable to the year ended October 31, 1943 
amounted to $19,702.85 and has been deducted from the cost of such obligations. 

Real estate and equipment are stated at original cost and books on hand for sale 
at their sales prices. No provision has been made for depreciation of property owned 
by the Institution. 

We inspected certified copies of the minutes of the meetings of the Board of 
Trustees and Executive Committee as authority for the appropriations and allotments 
made during the year. 

In our opinion, on the basis of valuations stated above, the accompanying balance 
sheet, statement of receipts and disbursements, and detailed schedule of securities 
properly present the financial position of Carnegie Institution of Washington at 
October 31, 1943 and the transactions for the year ended that date. 

Arthur Young & Company 
Accountants and Auditors 
New Yor\, N. Y. 
November 24, 1943 



XXVI 



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xxvin 



Schedule of Securities 



Aggregate 

par or 

nominal value 



$300,000 

120,000 

460,000 

575,000 

304,000 

312,000 

200,000 

800,000 

1,239,000 

300,000 

350,000 

75,000 

1,200,000 

400,000 

50,000 

50,000 

50,000 

100,000 



$6,885,000 



$90,000 

100,000 

100,000 

57,000 

35,000 

91,000 

100,000 

100,000 

150,000 

100,000 

250,000 

100,000 



$1,273,000 



$275 

75 

247 

23 

83 

50 

40 

100 

200 

25 

200 

150 

87 

100 

50 

97 

100 

65 

50 

100 

100 

100 

200 

97 

100 

100 

141 

125 

300 

149 

300 

195 

120 

263 

225 



,000 
,000 
,000 
,900 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,000 



Description 



United States Government Bonds 



U. S. 
U. S. 
U. S. 

u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 



Guar. Federal Farm Mtg. Corp. 3s 

Guar. Reconstruction Finance Corp. Notes, Is. 

of America Treasury Notes 1 }4s 

of America Treasury 2s 

of America Treasury 2s 

of America Treasury 2s 

of America Treasury 2s 

of America Treasury 2 J^s 

of America Treasury 2 }4s 

of America Treasury 2 }4s 

of America Treasury 2 }4s 

of America Treasury 2 l /iS 

of America Treasury 2 yis 

of America Treasury 2 l As 

of America Savings Defense "G" 2 ]4s 

of America Savings Defense "G" 2 l As 

of America Savings Defense "G" 2 }4s 

of America Savings Defense "G" 2 }4s 



Total U. S. Government. 



Foreign Bonds 

Canadian National Ry. Co. 4^s Guar 

Canadian National Ry. Co. 4^s Guar 

Canadian National Ry. Co. 5s Guar 

Canadian National Ry. Co. 5s Guar 

Canadian National Ry. Co. 5s Guar 

Canadian Pacific Ry. Co. Coll. Tr. 5s 

Province of Alberta Deb. 4 yis 

Province of Alberta Deb. 5s 

Province of Manitoba Deb. 4>^s 

Province of Nova Scotia Deb. 4 Ks 

Shawinigan Water and Power Co. 1st Mtg. & Coll. Tr. S. F. 4Ks. 
City of Toronto Cons. Loan Deb. 5s 



Total Foreign. 



Public Utility Bonds 

Arkansas Power & Light Co. 1st & Ref. Mtg. 5s 

Blackstone Valley Gas & Electric Co. Mtg. & Coll. Tr. 4s. 
Columbus & Southern Ohio Electric Co. 1st Mtg. 3>^s. . . . 

Commonwealth Edison Co. Conv. Deb. 3 }4s 

Commonwealth Edison Co. 1st Mtg. 3 }4s 

Consolidated Edison Co. of N. Y. Deb. 3 }4s 

Consolidated Edison Co. of N. Y. Deb. 3 y 2 s \ 

Detroit Edison Co. Gen. & Ref. Mtg. 4s 

Gulf States Util. Co. 1st Mtg. & Ref. 3 y 2 s 

Houston Lighting & Power Co. 1st Mtg. 3 }4s 

Illinois Power & Light Corp. 1st & Ref. Mtg. 5s 

Louisiana Power & Light Co., 1st Mtg. 5s 

Metropolitan Edison Co. 1st Mtg. 4Ks 

Minnesota Power & Light Co. 1st & Ref. Mtg. 4^s 

Monongahela West Penn Pub. Serv. Co. 1st Mtg. 4^s. . . . 

Montana Power Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 3 Ks 

New Orleans Public Service Co. 1st & Ref. Mtg. 5s 

New York & Westchester Lighting Co. Deb. 5s 

Northern States Power Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 3^s 

Ohio Edison Co. 1st Mtg. 4s 

Ohio Power Co. 1st Mtg. 3 %s 

Ohio Public Service Co., 1st Mtg. 4s 

Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co., 1st Mtg. 3 Ks 

Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., 1st Mtg. 3 Hs 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 3 ^s 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 4s 

Public Service Co., of No. 111., 1st Mtg. 3Ks 

Puget Sound Power & Light Co., 1st Mtg. 4Ks 

Southern California Edison Co., Ltd. 1st & Ref. Mtg. 3s. . 
Southern Natural Gas Co., 1st Mtg. Pipe Line, S. F. 3%s. 

Texas Electric Service Co., 1st Mtg. 5s 

Texas Power & Light Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 5s 

Toledo Edison Co., 1st Mtg. 3 }4s 

Virginia Electric & Power Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 3Ks 

Wisconsin Electric Power Co., 1st Mtg. 3 yis , 



Ma- 
turity 



1949-44 

1944 

1946 

1950-48 

1951-49 

1951-49 

1952-50 

1955-52 

1954-52 

1958-56 

1967-62 

1968-63 

1969-64 

1969-64 

1953 

1954 

1954 

1955 



1951 
1957 
1969 
1969 
1970 
1954 
1958 
1950 
1958 
1952 
1967 
1949 



1956 
1965 
1970 
1958 
1968 
1948 
1958 
1965 
1969 
1966 
1956 
1957 
1968 
1978 
1960 
1966 
1955 
1954 
1967 
1967 
1968 
1962 
1966 
1955 
1961 
1964 
1968 
1972 
1965 
1956 
1960 
1956 
1968 
1968 
1968 



Cost, amortized 

cost, or 

value at date 

acquired 



$303 

120 

461 

578 

304 

312 

200 

800 

1,244 

300 

350 

75 

1,200 

400 

50 

50 

50 

100 



,070.31* 

,000.00 

,621.18* 

,275.14* 

, 000 . 00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,804.57* 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

,000.00 

, 000 . 00 

,000.00 



,898,771.20 



$90,292.74* 

112,000.00 

98,500.00 

62,138.88* 

38,002.04* 

90,835.11 

93,750.00 

101,150.00 

142,886.77 

100,312.50 

238,510.42 

96,164.59 



il, 264, 543. 05 



$267 

76 

264 

23 

85 

50 

40 

103 

213 

25 

196 

154 

95 

92 

52 

97 

99 

67 

47 

100 

101 

102 

205 

104 

102 

104 

145 

130 

313 

152 

292 

200 

121 

272 

232 



,953.12 

,875.00 

,639.52* 

,910.75 

,712.87 

,875.00 

,730.00 

, 500 . 00 

, 500 . 00 

,750.00 

,750.00 

,900.00 

,786.25 

,156.25 

, 000 . 00 

,970.00 

, 200 . 00 

,052.50 

, 500 . 00 

,266.25 

, 500 . 00 

,625.00 

,000.00 

,507.80 

, 500 . 00 

,000.00 

, 230 . 00 

,280.50* 

,362.80* 

,771.25* 

, 700 . 00 

,528.02 

, 800 . 00 

, 205 . 00 

,875.00 



$4,633,900 



Total Public Utility. 



:, 738,912. 88 



*After deduction for amortization of premiums on bonds purchased subsequent to January 1, 1940. Amortization 
is on a straight-line basis to the date on which bonds are first callable or payable at par. 



XXIX 



Schedule of Securities — Continued 



Aggregate 

par or 

nominal value 



Description 



Ma- 
turity 



Cost, amortized 

cost, or 

value at date 

acquired 



$280,000 
51,000 
314,000 
25,000 
52,000 
75,000 



Communication Bonds 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Conv. Deb. 3s. . . 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Deb. 3 *4s 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Deb. 3^s 

Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Co., Deb. 3}is. 
New England Telephone & Telegraph Co., 1st Mtg. 5s. . 
Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co., Deb. 3 ><s. . . 



1956 
1961 
1966 
1968 
1952 
1962 



$305,185.26* 
51,510.00 
326,706.75 
25,500.00 
51,748.00 
72,375.00 



$797,000 



Total Communications. 



$833,025.01 



$44,000 
82,000 



Railroad Equipment Trusts 



Illinois Central R. R. Co., 4^s 

Pennsylvania R. R. Co. 2 Hs Guar. 



1944 
1956 



$42,155.21 
81,283.64 



$126,000 



Total Railroad Equipment Trusts . 



$123,438.85 



$50,000 
100,000 

75,000 

50,000 
100,000 
150,000 

50,000 

75,000 
100,000 

50,000 
100,000 

69,000 
100,000 
200,000 
2,084,000 
100,000 
100,000 

50,000 



Railroad Bonds 

Central Pacific Ry. Co., 1st Ref. Mtg. 4s Guar 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co., Gen. Mtg. 4>£s 

Chicago & W. Indiana R. R. Co., Cons. 4s 

Great Northern Ry. Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 4K"s Std 

Great Northern Ry. Co., Gen. Mtg. 5s 

Louisville & Nashville R. R. Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 4>£s 

Oregon Short Line R. R. Co., Cons. 1st Mtg. 5s 

Pennsylvania R. R. Co., Gen. Mtg. 4>^s 

Pennsylvania R. R. Co., Cons. Mtg. 4*4s 

Pittsburgh, Cin. Chi. & St. L. R. R. Co., Gen. Mtg. 5s Guar.. 

Southern Rwy. Co., 1st Cons. Mtg. 5s 

Terminal R. R. Assn. of St. Louis S. F. Gen. Ref. Mtg. 4s 

Toledo & Ohio Central Ry. Co., Ref. & Imp. Mtg. 3^s Guar. 

Union Pacific R. R. Co., 1st Mtg. R. R. & Land Grant 4s 

Union R. R. Co., Deb. 6s Guar 

Virginian Ry. Co., 1st Lien & Ref. Mtg. 3 }is 

West Shore R. R. Co., 1st Mtg. 4s Guar 

Western Maryland Ry. Co., 1st & Ref. Mtg. 5^s 



1949 
1992 
1952 
1961 
1973 
2003 
1946 
1965 
1960 
1975 
1994 
1953 
1960 
1947 
1946 
1966 
2361 
1977 



99 
70 
50 

104 

149 
48 
75 

104 
51 

103 
62 
99 

215 
2,084 

102 
78 
42 



,250.00 

,464.29 

,357.66 

,113.59 

,385.84 

,475.00 

,405.15 

,918.75 

,662.50 

,898.98 

,580.34 

,695.29 

,000.00 

,154.08* 

,000.00 

,250.00 

,140.00 

,677.19 



$3,603,000 



Total Railroad. 



$3,590,428.66 



$21,000 

100,000 

150,000 

200,000 

3,000 

113,000 

98,000 

95,500 

54,000 

400,000 

295,000 

75,000 

150,000 

200,000 

230,000 

122,000 



Industrial and Miscellaneous Bonds 



Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., Conv. S. F. Deb. 4s 

Atlantic Refining Co., Deb. 3s 

Bethlehem Steel Corp. Conv. S. F. Deb. 3 y 2 s 

Empire Gas and Fuel Co., S. F. Deb. 3 }4s 

Phelps Dodge Corp. Conv. Deb. 3 Ks 

Railway Express Agency, Serial Notes 1 ^s-2 >£s , 

Republic Steel Corp. Gen. Mtg. 4>£s 

Republic Steel Corp. Gen. Mtg. 4jis 

Scovill Manufacturing Co., Deb. 3 }is 

Shell Union Oil Corp., Deb. 2 y 2 s 

Socony- Vacuum Oil Co., S. F. Deb. 2 Vss 

Socony- Vacuum Oil Co., Deb. 3s 

Standard Oil Co. of Calif. Deb. 2 Ks 

Standard Oil Co., of N. J. Deb. 2 Hs 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Deb. 2}is. . . . 
West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co., 1st Mtg. 3s. . . 



1952 
1953 
1952 
1962 
1952 
1943-48 
1956 
1961 
1950 
1954 
1955 
1964 
1966 
1953 
1951 
1954 



$21,666.54 
103,130.64* 
148,750.00 
185,687.50 
3,000.00 
113,000.00 
101,579.05* 
98,520.09* 
54,720.00* 
384,176.25 
306,751.80* 

78,000.00 
153,437.50* 
203,459.45* 
232,874.99* 
120,780.00 



$2,306,500 



Total Industrial and Miscellaneous . 



,309,533.81 



$100,000 
80,000 

90,000 
91,750 



Mortgages 

Lawyers Mtg. Co., Guaranteed 1st Mtg. Ctfs. ± l A%. No. 29940T. . . 
Lawyers Title and Guaranty Co., Guar. Mtg. 5}4% Par. Ctfs. 

No. D 424421381 

N. Y. Title and Mtg. Co., Guaranteed 1st Mtg. Ctfs., 5 yi%. No. N97, 
N. Y. Title and Mtg. Co., Guaranteed 1st Mtg. Ctfs., 4}4%. No. N86. 



1940 

1935 
1938 
1948 



$96,400.41 

79,686.80 
88,701.51 
90,745.92 



$361,750 



Total Mortgages. 



$355,534.64 



$19,986,150 



Bonds and Mortgages — Funds Invested 



$20,114,188.10 



*After deduction for amortization of premiums on bonds purchased subsequent to January 1, 1940. Amortization 
is on a straight-line basis to the date on which bonds are first callable or payable at par. 



XXX 



Schedule of Securities — Continued 



Number of 
shares 



Description 



Cost, amortized 

cost, or 

value at date 

acquired 



100 

2,257 

1,500 

1,500 

500 

600 

1,000 

1,125 

1,500 

225 

530 

5,000 

1,000 

1,000 

550 

550 

600 

600 

1,144 

1,000 

400 

3,100 



Preferred Stocks 

American Brake Shoe Co., 5)4% Cum. Pref 

American Cyanamid Co., 5% Cum. Pref 

Appalachian Electric Power Co., 4}4% Cum. Pref 

Bethlehem Steel Corp. 7% Cum. Pref 

Case (J. I.) Co., 7% Cum. Pref 

Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., $4.50 Cum. Pref 

Deere & Company, 7 % Cum. Pref 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., $4.50 Cum. Pref 

General Motors Corp. $5.00 Cum. Pref 

Grant (W. T.) Co., 5 % Cum. Pref 

Johns-Manville Corp. 7 % Cum. Pref 

Kress (S. H.) Co., 6% Cum. Spl. Pref 

New York State Electric & Gas Corp. 5.10% Cum. Pref.. 

Northern States Power Co., $5.00 Cum. Pref 

Ohio Power Co., 4K% Cum. Pref 

Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., $5.50 Cum. Conv. Prior Pref 

Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co., 6% Cum. Pref 

Public Service Co., of Oklahoma 5% Cum. Pref 

Sherwin-Williams Co., 5% Cum. Pref 

Standard Oil Co. of Ohio 5% Cum. Pref 

U. S. Rubber Co., 8% Non Cum. 1st Pref 

U. S. Steel Corp., 7% Cum. Pref 

Total Preferred Stocks 



$12,653.50 

25,280.87 

159,000.00 

183,637.50 

62,225.00 

68,112.25 

28,812.50 

116,125.00 

187,937.50 

7,642.76 

67,294.52 

58,269.00 

103,250.00 

103,000.00 

59,925.00 

62,142.51 

93,495.75 

60,900.00 

126,088.12 

109,385.47 

46,527.50 

443,407.57 



25,781 



$2,185,112.32 



1,800 
2,000 
2,000 
3,300 
4,000 

200 
2,600 
3,000 
3,200 
1,800 
2,300 

200 
3,900 

500 
2,408 
6,000 

980 
2,100 
1,900 

100 
10,900 
3,600 
8,800 
2,500 
4,900 

600 
7,100 
1,600 
4,300 
1,800 

908 

800 
5,000 

662.67 
1,100 
3,000 
2,100 
6,300 
1,500 
1,260 
5,100 
2,200 
2,600 
3,200 
1,400 
2,900 
1,600 
1,200 
2,500 
1,600 
3,700 
5,600 



Common Stocks 

Air Reduction Company 

American Brake Shoe Co 

American Can Company 

American Cyanamid Co. "B" 

American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corp 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co 

Caterpillar Tractor Co 

Chase National Bank of N. Y 

Chrysler Corporation 

Commercial Credit Co 

Commercial Investment Trust Corp 

Commercial National Bank and Trust Co. of N. Y 

Continental Can Co 

Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust Co. of Chicago. 

Continental Insurance Co 

Continental Oil Co. of Delaware 

Dow Chemical Co 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co 

Eastman Kodak Co 

First National Bank of N. Y 

General Electric Co 

General Foods Corporation 

General Motors Corporation 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 

Grant (W. T.) Co 

Guaranty Trust Co. of N. Y 

Gulf Oil Corp 

Hartford Fire Insurance Co 

Humble Oil & Refining Co 

Insurance Company of North America 

International Business Machines Corp 

Johns-Manville Corp 

Kresge (S. S.) Company , 

Lawyers Mortgage Corp., Voting Trust Ctf 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. "B" 

Merck & Co. Inc 

Monsanto Chemical Co 

Montgomery Ward & Co 

National Cash Register Co 

National Fire Insurance Co. of Hartford 

National Lead Co 

Newberry (J. J.) Co 

New Jersey Zinc Co 

Owens-Illinois Glass Co 

Parke, Davis & Co 

Penney (J. C.) Co 

Phillips Petroleum Co , 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co 

Procter & Gamble Co 

Scott Paper Co 

Sears, Roebuck & Co 

Sharp & Dohme, Inc 



(Continued on following page) 



$107 

87 

178 

95 

73 

21 

175 

97 

286 

81 

125 

36 

160 

44 

87 

162 

117 

329 

302 

152 

426 

145 

451 

94 

161 

161 

284 

134 

257 

128 

117 

76 

114 



110 
122 
204 
302 

36 

74 
108 
104 
172 
197 

51 
264 

79 
131 
138 

65 
287 

79 



905.16 
580.95 
587.43 
812.55 
114.91 
007 . 50 
811.00 
025.00 
011.32 
018.00 
904.94 
380.00 
404.55 
425.00 
913.30 
943.08 
622.28 
363.35 
933 . 75 
840.00 
469.09 
855.17 
720.90 
083 . 83 
259.93 
651.50 
515.31 
734.68 
024.26 
164.15 
182.04 
687.15 
950 . 90 



625.00 
980.85 
625.50 
892.84 
402.86 
842.50 
585.50 
039 . 50 
294.50 
239.00 
675.46 
135.69 
309.79 
399.75 
903.14 
750.98 
682.41 
972.65 



XXXI 



Schedule of Securities — Continued 



Number of 
shares 



Description 



Cost,«amortized 

cost, or 

value at date 

acquired 



1,500 
11,700 
1,500 
4,000 
6,200 
4,000 
2,300 
3,100 
3,800 
2,400 
1,400 
3,300 
2,000 



Common Stocks — Continued 

Sherwin-Williams Co 

Socony- Vacuum Oil Co 

Squibb (E. R.) & Sons 

Standard Oil Co., of California 

Standard Oil Co. of Indiana 

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey 

Texas Company 

Timken Roller Bearing Co 

Union Carbide & Carbon Corp 

United Fruit Company , 

United States Gypsum Co 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co 

Woolworth (F. W.) Co 

Total Common Stocks 

Common and Preferred Stocks — Funds Invested 

Aggregate Investments (Bonds and Stocks) . . . 



$147 
142 

86 
127 
181 
215 

96 
148 
321 
171 
132 
346 

73 



,079.47 
,824.05 
,250.00 
,044.00 
,751.70 
,173.50 
,823.98 
,831.25 
,683.50 
,224.48 
,882.32 
,049.63 
,770.85 



193,818.67 



$10,003,649.63 



219,599.67 



$12,188,761.95 



$32,302,950.05 



XXX11 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 



OF THE 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1943 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

OF THE 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

As provided in the By-Laws of the In- suits are proving of direct service in the 

stitution, the President has the honor to war effort. 

report to the Board of Trustees on the The Institution has loaned the services 

condition of the Institution and on its pro- of 40 members of its staff to engage in 

grams of research. war work in other organizations, some of 

The report for this year will be brief, whom continue on our salary rolls while 
for the efforts of the scientific staff are now on leave of absence. Others derive their 
so largely devoted to war research that salaries from their temporary associations, 
regular programs have been severely cur- and in such cases, by action of the Execu- 
tailed. The total research effort of the tive Committee, it is the general policy 
Institution is increased; in fact, measured of the Institution to pay the difference 
in rate of expenditure, it is over twice as between total government compensation 
large as in the years just prior to the war. and 80 per cent of the member's stated 
Results of value are indeed being attained, salary, and to pay premiums on annuity 
but they are nearly all of a confidential and collective insurance policies, 
nature, reported currently to the armed The Geophysical Laboratory is now corn- 
services, but not publicly. In due time pletely devoted to a war program, for 
many of these results will be reported which the nature of its facilities and staff 
in histories of the scientific aspects of the is specially fitted. The Department of 
war, but some, and indeed the most in- Terrestrial Magnetism is similarly occu- 
teresting, will undoubtedly not be made pied, with very little of its regular pro- 
generally known for many years. gram continuing. In this case also, the 

The conditions under which this large unique position and background of the 

volume of research for government is car- department has now become decidedly 

ried on remain substantially unaltered, useful in an important program which 

The Institution donates the use of its utilizes much of the talent normally pres- 

regular facilities and the services of its ent. Mount Wilson Observatory is not 

scientific staff. It is reimbursed, under its so fully converted to war research, but 

contracts with the War and Navy depart- has several important programs under 

ments, and with the Office of Scientific way which utilize the special knowledge 

Research and Development, only for its of astronomers and physicists. The war 

added expenses incident to the programs, effort continues to need more outstanding 

A total of 62 contracts, on 26 separate talent in the physical sciences than is 

projects, have now been entered into, in- available, and to utilize to a lesser extent 

volving a total expenditure through the men from the biological sciences. There 

Institution of government funds aggregat- are, however, war research programs in 

ing $2,500,000. Many of these contracts most departments, and all have loaned 

have been completed, with indication on numerous staff members. In addition to 

the part of the government that the re- direct effort in cooperation with govern- 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ment on problems in agricultural, medical, 
botanical, and chemical fields, a number 
of researches are being pursued on Insti- 
tution initiative and funds, which may 
later prove to have importance in connec- 
tion with the prosecution of the war, or 
the post-war period. The Division of His- 
torical Research has no war program of 
its own, although several members of its 
staff are on leave in various connections. 

The administration building in Wash- 
ington is full to overflowing. The Office 
of Scientific Research and Development 
makes its headquarters there, with the 
result that it is the focus of scientific 
research on weapons and on military 
medical problems. 

Though it is not appropriate to spread 
before the Board of Trustees the details 
of the war research being carried on by 
the Institution, much of it is known to 
members of the Board by reason of their 
individual connections. Practically all 
members of the Board are active in some 
phase of the war effort, and the duties of 
several bring them into contact with scien- 
tific war research generally, and with the 
efforts of the Institution in particular. The 
Chairman of the Board has of course been 
consulted frequently in connection with 
the many problems of management which 
arise in relations with government; and 
the Vice-Chairman, even though burdened 
with many duties because of the war, has 
aided in solving several knotty problems. 
It is a pleasure to record that Mr. Delano, 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees, has 
now occupied an office in the administra- 
tion building, where his generous counsel 
on the affairs of the Institution will be 
even more available than in the past. 
Dr. Jewett, as President of the National 
Academy of Sciences, comes into intimate 
contact with a wide range of war re- 
search, and, as a member of the National 



Defense Research Committee, one branch 
of the Office of Scientific Research and 
Development, aids in formulating and 
guiding a large program of research on 
weapons, a part of which is carried on in 
Institution laboratories. The Committee 
on Medical Research, which forms the 
other main branch of the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development, depends for 
its professional advice upon the com- 
mittees of the Division of Medical Sciences 
of the National Research Council. Dr. 
Weed is Chairman of this Division, and 
hence closely in touch with all medical 
research in the country, and in particular 
with the relatively small contribution 
which the Institution makes in this field. 
Colonel Strong, in his relations with the 
medical affairs of the War Department, 
also makes frequent contact with the broad 
program of medical research. Dr. Loomis 
is Chairman of one of the divisions of the 
National Defense Research Committee, 
and also a member of the important Scien- 
tific Advisory Council in the Navy De- 
partment. Lieut. Commander Miller and 
Lieut. Commander Morgan, through their 
official duties, see the results of certain 
parts of the Institution's programs of war 
research. Mr. Root has advised on many 
matters; notably, he has aided Dr. Rich- 
ards, the Chairman of the Committee on 
Medical Research, in connection with the 
research on penicillin, which promises to 
be the outstanding medical product of the 
war. Senator Walcott, in addition to his 
work on conservation, is a consultant to a 
division of the National Defense Research 
Committee, of which Dr. Leason H. 
Adams is Chairman. Other members of 
the Board, in their varied activities in 
connection with the prosecution of the 
war, have had occasional contact with the 
war effort of the Institution. 



4 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1943 



Finances 



The income of the Institution continues 
to decline, although the decrease since last 
year is not large. Estimated income for 
the present year will probably be realized, 
and in fact somewhat exceeded. Thus 
the deficit, which was anticipated in the 
current budget, will probably be small. 
The budget for the coming year again 
includes an estimated small deficit, to be 
charged against reserves. 

In budgeting, the full salaries of mem- 
bers of the staff on leave have again been 
included. The revertment of these salaries 
at the end of the year, less any amount 
which may be transferred for unusual ex- 
penses in connection with war research 
contracts, will undoubtedly more than 
cover the estimated deficit. Yet it is logical 
to budget in this manner, for we need to 
know the position of the Institution as 
it will be when absent members return. 
Currently, on this basis, the income does 
not quite meet costs. This has come about, 
both because of decreased income from 
endowment, and also because certain costs 
of operation have inevitably risen. 

The few and moderate increases of sal- 
ary included in the current budget, neces- 
sary to maintain the over-all salary scale 
of the Institution on a substantially level 
basis as older men retire, were put into 
effect. Salary rate schedules, including 
these increases, were prepared in accord- 
ance with instructions from the Director 
of the Office of Economic Stabilization, 
and they have now been approved by the 
National War Labor Board and by the 
Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Treasury 
Department. In the budget for next year 
similar small increases, in accordance with 
this schedule, have been included. 

Some problems have arisen by reason 
of the presence in our laboratories of tem- 
porary employees, working alongside our 



regular staff. Though the salaries of these 
temporary workers have been established 
entirely in accordance with such rules as 
apply, and with the general policies and 
customs pertaining to such work, there 
is a difference in the compensation of the 
two groups. This is natural, and in fact 
equitable, since those on temporary duty 
have added personal costs, and lack the 
relative security of permanent positions. 
There are, however, certain individual 
instances which have warranted correc- 
tion. In some of these, where men on our 
permanent staff have been carrying greatly 
increased burdens and responsibilities of a 
temporary nature, the problem has been 
met by added compensation, paid from a 
special fund, and on a definitely temporary 
basis. 

Owing to the continuing absence of 
General Dillon, on leave from his post as 
Director of the Office of Publications, and 
also because of general conditions, the 
publication program of the Institution has 
been much curtailed. Such publication as 
still occurs requires small appropriations, 
as there is still a balance in the publication 
fund. 

The program of field work of the Divi- 
sion of Historical Research is now sus- 
pended. Such members of the Division as 
are not on leave are engaged in working 
up the results of field work for publica- 
tion. This does not, however, need to 
result in added publication costs at once. 

The annual payment from Carnegie 
Corporation of New York continues to be 
utilized to carry research programs of a 
terminating nature. It had been planned 
to utilize the balance of the fund for 
improving relations with other research 
organizations by grants to research work- 
ers in fields adjacent to those of the Insti- 
tution. Under present conditions there is 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

little opportunity along such lines which is for next year, to keep the estimated deficit 

truly attractive, and hence there is an ac- small. As we now proceed, during the 

cumulating balance in this fund. Since, present year and next year, our reserves 

however, the grants from the Corporation will actually not be depleted, and they will 

are now on a terminating basis, this in- i n f act increase somewhat, since we are 

come should not be considered in con- not ma king full salary payments to absent 

nection with current budgeting of con- members of the staff. Should we return 

tinuing operations. to p eace ti m e conditions immediately, how- 

The matter of taxes in the District of ever? we should be spe nding slightly more 

Columbia is now definitely settled, as the tban our mcome 

bill passed by Congress in this connection Jhe Finance Commktee has given much 

exempts the Institution by name. ± h£ [Q ^ bkm ^ ^ situation 

The cyclotron, at the Department or n-v t .v n 

^ . i w • i i presents. The Institution will not soon 

1 errestnal Magnetism, has now been com- , . , , . i • j j 

i i T -ii i -i be in actual distress, unless indeed some 

pleted. It will at the present time be neces- . . . n . , ., , , 

., , . r , form of inflation follows the war, or the 
sary to provide only minor funds to oper- , . r , 
, . i c ' , . r l - general income from endowments con- 
ate it. In spite or the scarcity or certain & . . 

• i . • i • i . i .i tinues downward to a substantial extent, 

essential materials, it was completed, rather 

more slowly than had been anticipated, As matters now stand ' * c Instltutlon 
because of the recommendation of the would be able to carr y on almost as " 
Committee on Medical Research that it be but [t w( ^ uld not have that freedom whlch 
placed in use in connection with certain ' lt has had in the P ast t0 seize u P on re ' 
medical research problems. Such use will search opportunities, and to lead the way 
be taken care of largely by government in certain specific areas of scientific re- 
funds, for it will be related definitely to search, for that freedom is present only 
the war effort. when income is substantially more than 
With all these points included, it has enough to care for the bare operations of 
not been difficult, in preparing the budget regular departments. 

Programs and Research Results 

The reports of Directors concerning cess. Publication of a systematic classifica- 

normal research programs are brief, and tion of embryonic stages, combined with 

there are few opportunities this year to a catalogue of important human embryos 

emphasize particular research accomplish- i n tne Department's collection, has been 

ments for the especial attention of the begun. Programs of study of the effect 

Board or Irustees. Q £ sex -gl a nd hormones on very early em- 

In Dr. Corner's report of the work of bryos o£ the opossurri) and on thc f unc „ 

the Department of Embryology there is ^^ histology of ^ ovary? haye been 

a statement on developmental horizons in . , c , , . , A v 

, , i ■ i ■ -ii ci pushed forward during the year. A long 

human embryos which is especially useful r . ... £ . 

i -r • ji i • . • t j i . and comprehensive investigation or the 

in clarifying the historical development r ° 

and present outlook of the research pro- development of reflexes, postures, and be- 

gram of this department. Even under war havior patterns in the infant rhesus mon- 

conditions the collection and study of early key, aided by the Department, was brought 

human embryos has continued with sue- to final publication. 

6 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1943 

Under the direction of Dr. Spoehr, the At Mount Wilson Observatory Dr. 
Division of Plant Biology has investigated Adams and his staff still manage to con- 
in a preliminary way a number of subjects tinue some astronomical research. At a 
of potential importance in connection with time of minimum solar activity especial 
the war effort or the post-war period, of interest attaches to the appearance of the 
such nature that opportunities might be first sunspots of the new cycle, and a few 
overlooked except for the attention of an such spots have now been observed, some 
independent laboratory. Though none of of them at the highest solar latitudes ever 
these have as yet yielded results which recorded. The remarkable reversal of sign 
are striking or of great practical moment, of magnetic polarity characteristic of a new 
there are some which hold such promise cycle has been fully confirmed. Advances 
as fully to warrant intense preliminary in the efficiency of stellar spectrographs 
exploration, and possibly early and con- have led to notable discoveries regarding 
centrated effort to bring them to definite the structure of the expanding shells sur- 
fruition. Among these may be mentioned rounding the novae of our galactic sys- 
the breeding of new forage grasses of tern, and have aided in the interpretation 
importance for food production, and the of these extraordinarily important objects, 
determination of the products formed by Of exceptional interest is the discovery of a 
diatoms and other algae under various en- shell around the nova in Auriga of 1891. 
vironmental conditions. Excellent progress The powerful spectrographs in use with 
has also been made in the normal pro- the 100-inch telescope have opened new 
grams of biochemical investigation and fields in the analysis of stellar spectra, and 
experimental taxonomy. in the study of differential motions in 

The Department of Genetics, under Dr. stellar atmospheres and of the distribution 

Demerec, has aided in the war effort in an d composition of the gaseous clouds of 

cooperation with the Department of Agri- interstellar space. 

culture, the National Institute of Health, The Department of Terrestrial Magnet- 

and the Long Island Biological Associa- is m has almost entirely turned to war 

tion, and by change of emphasis in some research, fortunately in such manner as to 

of its normal programs, although the op- utilize to the full the services of a staff 

portunities for war service are not as large outstanding in certain fields of earth phys- 

in the biological field as in some other ics which now acquire a special signifi- 

types of scientific research. Dr. Riddle is cance. Most of this is of military nature, 

rounding out some of his research in endo- but there is still some which can be properly 

crinology, especially in regard to the action made known. Dr. Fleming has summa- 

of the parathyroid glands. Dr. MacDowell rized this in his report, and has also pre- 

is studying an interesting mutation in mice, sented the broader aspects of one phase of 

which aids in interpreting certain proc- the work in the eleventh Arthur lecture 

esses of normal development. Dr. McClin- under the auspices of the Smithsonian 

tock continues to learn more concerning Institution. 

broken chromosomes in maize, by highly So completely is the Geophysical Labora- 

ingenious methods. Dr. Demerec con- tory devoted to war research that its Direc- 

tinues to find that artificially produced mu- tor, Dr. Adams, can report little beyond 

tants in certain fungi throw light on the the preparation of earlier work for publi- 

mechanism of mutation. cation. This is plainly the situation also 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



in the Nutrition Laboratory under Dr. 
Carpenter. 

Dr. Kidder reports the field work of the 
Division of Historical Research suspended 
for the duration. Staff members who are 
not in government service will have op- 
portunity in the meantime to prepare ade- 
quate reports of their work. The present 
Maya program of cooperative studies was 
begun in 1929 and it has been planned to 
follow the period of field studies with a 
general summing up and submission of a 



definitive report by 1950. After the war 
it may be necessary to continue a number 
of limited field investigations, but the 
whole program of the Division is still 
definitely pointed toward the objective 
mentioned above. There is expectation, 
therefore, that the present archaeological 
and historical studies of the Maya will be 
brought to a conclusion as contemplated, 
and that there will then be opportunity 
for careful consideration with regard to 
inauguration of future programs. 



Post- War Problems 

It is not too early, certainly, to study their importance warrants, and this has 

the broad problem of the status of scien- led to normal programs which are farther 

tific research in this country after the war. from application than the programs of 

In this, the Institution occupies a unique almost any other organization in the 

position. It is the only fully independent country. They are not less important on 

institution of national scope devoted to a that account, but their importance has to 

wide range of' fundamental scientific re- be weighed in the vague terms of the 

search. Its presence affects the whole pat- fundamental knowledge and understand- 

tern of research in the United States in a ing of the race, rather than in terms of 

decidedly favorable manner. It has great their possible impact upon the daily life 

opportunities for creative work. of the people. There is some danger cer- 

When this war is over, and even a partial tainly, after a demonstration on the pres- 

account of the influence of scientific and ent scale of the importance of applied 

technical research upon its progress be- science to the security of the country, that 

comes generally known, there is no doubt the people generally, in their post-war in- 

that the American people will see the need sistence upon a vigorous national scientific 

for continuing sound scientific research effort, may be decidedly practical in their 

in this country. Those who have been approach. 

in a position to realize the position of Yet it is well to remember the long- 
science in modern war already see the demonstrated idealism of the American 
continuing need clearly. Yet the emphasis, people. If there is a post-war tendency to 
from this restricted viewpoint, may well insist upon the strictly applied, it will not 
be upon applied research, and upon the be in accordance with the general pattern 
material aspects of science generally. The during the history of the country, and it 
Institution has never devoted itself to ap- may hence be expected to be temporary, 
plied science; it is for this reason that One need only consider the history of 
much time and effort have been required American education, and particularly of 
to adapt its research to war purposes, and the state universities, to recognize the gen- 
that the adaptation is even now incomplete, eral background which controls. The 
Rather, it has wisely pursued especially people of this country have, in general, 
those branches of science which might insisted that many of these institutions be 
otherwise not receive the attention which essentially independent, even when they 

8 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1943 

paid their costs directly in taxes. There It is important, however, from the stand- 
have been many exceptions of course, but point of the Institution, to study the trends 
the general trend remains. This has ex- carefully; for the forms of organization 
tended to the handling of research of an and the nature of support may well alter 
advanced nature. Research, of any sort, in in the years just ahead. It would be sur- 
this country is a relatively recent growth, prising if incomes from present endow- 
It has appeared in organizations of many ments could carry as large a share of the 
types. But it is notable that some of the burden in the immediate future as in the 
finest research in the country, and some immediate past. It also does not seem 
of the most fundamental, has been car- probable that new and large independent 
ried on in state universities, which are endowments will be soon created to such 
directly dependent upon the public purse, an extent as to offer a solution. 
The great body of the people are interested The private universities would of course 
in matters of the spirit; they are interested be in difficulty should endowment incomes 
in the extension of knowledge for its own decrease substantially. They have, how- 
sake. Their interpreters often miss the ever, valuable assets in the interest and 
point; there is a tendency, for example, to support of their alumni bodies. The extent 
believe that a scientific subject is worth to which the alumni of American colleges 
writing about popularly only if its results rally to their support is extraordinary. Not 
in terms of more and cheaper gadgetry only do alumni of means thus aid their 
for daily use can be demonstrated to the own institutions, but families that are far 
reader. There is also a tendency at times from being affluent contribute generously 
for legislatures to consider that their con- and often. There is a tendency in some 
stituencies understand science only when quarters to be cynical about this type of 
it promises to cure human ills or defeat the giving; but there has been a tendency in 
insects that attack crops. Yet, if this were some quarters in the inter-war period to 
truly the case, there would have been sniff at all simple and wholesome reactions 
little truly great and fundamental science of the American people. This is one of 
in this country, and that little would have the finest. It stems from the days when the 
appeared only in the private institutions, town meeting voted of its painful income 
Actually this country has forged ahead to support the country school. It forms a 
until, in the years preceding the war, it great outlet for that altruistic urge which, 
was fully abreast of the world in most however limited in vision it may at times 
aspects of pure science, and in some aspects appear, is nevertheless the encouraging 
it had taken a definitely leading position, mark of a prosperous and unspoiled coun- 
This occurred because of a very large effort, try. While this spirit remains, our colleges 
and because of the work of many scientists, may indeed have times of retrenchment 
located in all sorts of organizations : in from overexpansion, but they will not have 
commercial laboratories, in government to become entirely practical and conven- 
laboratories, in universities both state and tional in order to survive, and they will 
private, and in definitely scientific institu- continue to be one place where pure science 
tions. It came about because of the support will find the freedom which is essential 
of the American people for this sort of for its creative work, 
endeavor, expressed in a multitude of There is no doubt, also, that government 
ways. In the long run there is no reason will continue to support the many labora- 
to fear that fundamental science will not tories which today form part of its struc- 
prosper in this country. ture. They perform a much needed func- 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



tion. The maintenance of standards, the 
scientific control of materials affecting the 
public health, the development of detailed 
knowledge of the public domain, the con- 
trol of injurious insects and blights, the 
prediction of weather, these and many 
other scientific tasks are best conducted 
centrally and under government auspices. 
Those who labor in these ways merit full 
support, and their labors are essential to 
our health and prosperity. At times they 
can also add to our fundamental scientific 
knowledge in notable ways. Yet their 
primary responsibilities are heavy and 
definite, and they cannot depart from them 
generally for that detached and often in- 
definite search for new and basic knowl- 
edge which is characteristic of pure science, 
and which is necessary if the body of 
our national scientific effort is to remain 
complete. 

The rise of the great industrial research 
laboratories in this country has been strik- 
ing. Equally striking, but not so apparent, 
is the tendency for these laboratories to 
accompany their applied research, directed 
at the immediate needs of the industry, 
by a backlog of more fundamental study, 
often as far removed from immediate 
utility as much of the research in uni- 
versities. It is an excellent trend, and it 
will certainly continue, if industry in this 
country is reasonably successful and pros- 
perous. Still, full progress in pure science 
would hardly occur in industrial labora- 
tories unless the independent scientist set 
the pace, and there are whole fields of pure 
science into which industrial laboratories 
would not be expected to enter. 

As the pattern of scientific research de- 
velops after the war, it will be fully clear 
that it will not be complete unless inde- 
pendent scientific institutions, among 
which the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 



ington is notable, continue to conduct 
their share of the effort. It is not because 
their contribution, measured in dollars or 
man-years, is any considerable fraction of 
the total research effort of the country in 
all forms; indeed, the fraction today is 
very small. It is rather because there are 
things to be done, regions of thought 
to be explored, for which institutions of 
this sort are peculiarly adapted; and be- 
cause their presence can have an inte- 
grating and inspiring effect upon research 
generally. If the trends should be such 
that no institution of this sort could func- 
tion effectively, the loss to American 
science would indeed be serious. 

There is no doubt that the Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington will continue. There 
is some doubt whether it can maintain its 
affairs on a basis where it can not only con- 
duct its own research programs, but also 
reach out with aid to others, and be in a 
position to initiate where there is need for 
the type of effort which it can alone supply. 
The problem of maintaining it in health 
through the vicissitudes of a post-war 
period is not yet even formulated to the 
point where it can be definitely grasped. 
At the proper time it must be solved. In 
the meantime the Institution is devoting 
its full effort to the winning of the war at 
the earliest possible moment. In this effort 
it is a partner with the great and powerful 
aggregate of American science in all its 
forms. It will undoubtedly continue to be 
a vigorous partner, when peace returns, 
in the task of bringing the true benefits 
of science to the people, to increase their 
safety and comfort, to remove their ills, 
and to add to their knowledge of their 
history and environment. Those who 
guide it have a serious obligation to ensure 
that it may thus contribute effectively 
and fully. 



10 



REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 
AND COOPERATIVE STUDIES 

ASTRONOMY 

Mount Wilson Observatory 
Special Projects 

TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Geophysical Laboratory 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

Special Projects 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

Division of Plant Biology 

Department of Embryology 

Department of Genetics 

Nutrition Laboratory 

Special Projects 

HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

Division of Historical Research 
Special Projects 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



Pasadena, California 
WALTER S. ADAMS, Director 



As the war has increased in intensity, 
demands upon scientific men throughout 
the country have also increased and every 
institution has felt the need for contribut- 
ing in all possible ways through its staff 
and its equipment to the success of the 
military forces. From the Observatory, 
additional members of the staff have 
gone to undertake research on problems 
relating to the war at various laboratories 
throughout the country; and of those who 
remain, several are giving a large propor- 
tion of their time to similar work with 
the facilities available in Pasadena. In 
addition, the instrument and optical shops 
are devoted almost exclusively to the design 
and construction of instruments for mili- 
tary use, under contracts with the Army 



and the Office of Scientific Research and 
Development. 

The reduction in the scientific staff has 
necessarily led to some decrease in the 
normal research activities of the Observa- 
tory and has thrown a heavier burden 
upon those who have continued their 
astronomical work. Although these con- 
sist for the most part of the older mem- 
bers of the staff, their interest and devo- 
tion have made it possible to continue 
the major investigations without interrup- 
tion and have led to results of interest 
in every field. Often the continuity of 
research, especially of astronomical obser- 
vation, adds very greatly to its permanent 
value. 



STAFF AND ORGANIZATION 



Research Division 

Solar Physics: Seth B. Nicholson, Harold D. 
Babcock, Joseph Hickox, Edison Hoge, 
Edison Pettit, Robert S. Richardson, Mary 
F. Coffeen, Elizabeth S. Mulders, Myrtle L. 
Richmond, Louise Ware. 

Stellar Motions and Statistics: Adriaan van 
Maanen, Ralph E. Wilson, A. Louise 
Lowen. 

Stellar Photometry: Walter Baade, Mary 
Joyner Seares. 

Stellar Spectroscopy: Walter S. Adams, Wil- 
liam H. Christie, Theodore Dunham, Jr., 
Milton L. Humason, Alfred H. Joy, Paul 
W. Merrill, Rudolph Minkowski, Roscoe 
F. Sanford, Gustaf Stromberg, Olin C. Wil- 
son, Ralph E. Wilson, Dorothy N. Davis, 
Ada M. Brayton, Sylvia Burd, Cora G. 
Burwell, A. Louise Lowen. 

Nebular Photography, Photometry, and Spec- 
troscopy: Edwin P. Hubble, Walter Baade, 



Milton L. Humason, Rudolph Minkowski, 

Sylvia Burd. 
Physical Laboratory: Arthur S. King, John A. 

Anderson, Robert B. King. 
Editorial Division: Paul W. Merrill,. editor; 

Elizabeth Connor, librarian; Alice S. Beach, 

secretary and stenographer. 

Alfred H. Joy has continued throughout 
the year as Secretary of the Observatory. 

Of the members listed, Edwin P. Hubble, 
Theodore Dunham, Jr., William H. Chris- 
tie, Olin C. Wilson, and Robert B. King 
are on leave of absence to engage in in- 
vestigations relating to the war. In addi- 
tion, Gustaf Stromberg and Dorothy N. 
Davis are devoting most of their time to 
war work in Pasadena. Many others have 
been engaged upon specific problems con- 
nected with the instruments for military 
use under construction in the optical and 
instrument shops. 



4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Two members of the scientific staff who 
have been associated with the Observatory 
almost from its beginning retired during 
the year. Dr. Arthur S. King, Superin- 
tendent of the Physical Laboratory, retired 
on February i, 1943, and Miss Louise 
Ware on August 1, 1942. The Observa- 
tory is deeply indebted to them for the 
many valuable contributions they have 
made to its success during the long period 
of their service. 

Research Associates 

Sir James Jeans, Dorking, England; Henry 
Norris Russell, Princeton University; Fred- 
erick H. Seares, Pasadena; Joel Stebbins, 
University of Wisconsin. 

Dr. Russell, during a visit to Pasadena 
in February and March 1943, continued 
his term analysis of the spectra of neutral 
and ionized gadolinium and succeeded in 
classifying many hundreds of lines accord- 
ing to energy levels. He also devoted 
considerable time to a study of the phys- 
ical characteristics of the companions of 
very small mass recently discovered in a 
few stellar binary systems. Dr. Stebbins, 
assisted by Mr. William Boricius, of the 
University of Wisconsin, during the sum- 
mer of 1942 measured about 150 stars of 
all spectral types with his photoelectric 
photometer. Dr. Seares, with the assistance 
of Miss Joyner, has completed and pre- 
pared for publication his extensive analysis 
of the colors, spectral types, and color 
temperatures of stars near the north pole, 
and has found interesting results for the 
structure and absorption of the obscuring 
clouds in this region. 

Temporary Associates 

Dr. S. A. Mitchell, Director of the 
Leander McCormick Observatory, and 
Dr. John C. Duncan, Director of the 
Whitin Observatory, both spent the sum- 
mer months of 1942 in Pasadena and 



carried on observations on Mount Wilson. 
Dr. Mitchell continued his investigation 
of the radial velocities of faint stars in a 
number of selected fields, and Dr. Duncan 
photographed several nebulae and star 
fields of special interest with the 100-inch 
telescope. Dr. Harold F. Weaver carried on 
photometric observations at the Observa- 
tory for about three months during the 
summer of 1942. 

Many other scientists visited the observa- 
tory during the year, among them Colonel 
F. G. M. Stratton, of Cambridge Univer- 
sity, and Dr. R. d'E. Atkinson, of the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Dr. P. 
Swings, formerly of the Yerkes Observa- 
tory, is now in Pasadena engaged upon 
optical problems relating to the war, and 
his association with the scientific staflf has 
been greatly appreciated. 

Instrument Construction and Design 

Design: Edgar C. Nichols, Harold S. Kinney. 

Optical Shop: John S. Dalton, Donald O. 
Hendrix. 

Instrument Shop: Albert Mclntire, foreman; 
Elmer Prall, instrument maker; Ernest W. 
Hartong, Myo C. Hurlbut, Fred Scherff, 
Oscar Swanson, Albert Labrow, Donald W. 
Yeager, machinists; James Chapman, pat- 
tern maker; Harry S. Fehr, cabinet maker. 

On October 1, 1942, Mr. Dalton retired 
from active service in the optical shop. 
He had been with the Observatory for 
many years, during which he had taken a 
large part in the completion of the 60-inch 
and 100-inch mirrors and many other im- 
portant optical units. 

Maintenance and Operation 

Office: Anne McConnell, bookkeeper; Doro- 
thea Neuens, stenographer and telephone 
operator. 

Operation: Ashel N. Beebe, superintendent 
of construction; Sidney A. Jones and Ken- 
neth de Huff, engineers; Thomas A. Nel- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



son, Floyd Day, Louis S. Graf, night as- 
sistants; Anthony Wausnock and Mrs. 
Wausnock, stewards; Arnold T. Ratzlaff, 
janitor. 



Several of the individuals whose names 
are listed above have been associated with 
the Observatory for but part of the year. 



OBSERVING CONDITIONS 



The winter season was characterized by 
abnormally heavy rainfall, three-fourths of 
which was concentrated in three storms 
in January, February, and early March. 
Within 24 hours ending at 4 p.m. on Janu- 
ary 22, 1943, 14-85 inches of rain fell, and 
in the succeeding 24 hours an additional 
13.40 inches. These precipitations are the 
heaviest for such periods on record at 
Mount Wilson. The total precipitation for 
the season was 65.85 inches, but the winter 
was unusually mild and the total snow- 
fall was only 9.5 inches. Observing con- 
ditions, indicated in the accompanying 
record for the 60-inch telescope, were con- 
siderably above the average. 

As a cooperative step toward the con- 
servation of tires and fuel for motor cars, 
the buildings of the Observatory were 
closed to the public for the present period 
of rationing. 



Month 



1942: 

July 

August 

September. . 

October. . . . 

November. . 

December. . 
1943: 

January. . . . 

February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 

Mean 31 years 



Observations 



All 

night 



30 
26 
26 
25 
18 
17 

12 
13 
12 
13 
16 
23 



231 
204 



Part of 
night 



5 

7 
11 

2 



63 
85 



None 



15 

7 

14 

10 

4 

5 



71 
76 



SOLAR RESEARCH 

Solar Photography servations were made on 341 days, the 

Solar photographs were made on 327 lar S est number since daily magnetic ob- 

days between July 1, 1942 and June 30, stations of sunspots were begun, 26 years 

1943 by Hickox, Hoge, Nicholson, Keith a § ' Slxteen da y s were wlthout s P ots in 

Pierce, and Richardson, as follows: l 94 2 > as compared with 2 in 1941. In 1942, 

189 spot groups were observed, 63 less 

" ,,.'"' ' i. tnan m I 94 I ? tne northern and southern 

Ha spectrohelioprams of spot groups, , . , , . n 

/re sr hemispheres being equally active. 

60-root rocus 660 r o ~\ j 

Ha spectroheliograms, 18-foot focus. . . 1296 The monthl Y mea » s of the numbers of 

K2 spectroheliograms, 7-foot focus. . . 9210 groups observed daily during the past two 

K2 spectroheliograms, 18-foot focus... 1252 and one-half years are given in the first 

K prominences, 18-foot focus 1203 table on the following page. 

The first sunspot group of the new cycle 

sunspot Activity appeared on December 20, 1942 in latitude 

During the calendar year 1942, sunspot N 32°. It was very small, with irregular 

activity continued to decrease notably. Ob- polarities. The second group appeared on 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Month 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Yearly average 



Daily number 



1941 



4.8 
5.5 
5.0 
2.7 
3.1 
4.7 
5.2 
5.4 
4.9 
3.7 
3.4 
3.7 



4.3 



1942 



3.3 

4.4 
4.9 
5.2 
2.6 
1.3 
1.9 
2.1 
2.1 
2.4 
3.0 
2.6 



3.0 



1943 



1.1 

2.0 
2.4 
2.1 
1.8 
1.7 



May 16, 1943 in latitude S 41 °. It was the 
farthest south and the largest group ever 
photographed more than 40 ° from the 
equator. The third group, which was very 
small, appeared on June 7, 1943 in the 
region where the large group of May 
had been. 



Sunspot Polarities 

Magnetic polarities in each spot group 
have, so far as possible, been observed at 
least once. The classification of groups 
observed between July 1, 1942 and June 
30, 1943 is indicated in the table given 
below. "Regular" groups of the old cycle 
in the northern hemisphere are those in 
which the preceding spot has N (north- 
seeking) polarity and the following spot S 



polarity; in the southern hemisphere the 
polarities are reversed. For spot groups 
of the new cycle, the distribution of mag- 
netic polarities is opposite to that just 
described for the old cycle. 

Solar Prominences 

In continuation of his study of solar 
prominences, mainly with the mono- 
chromator, Pettit has given especial atten- 
tion to the interactive and the tornado 
types. Photographs of an interactive promi- 
nence taken with the monochromator on 
August 7—8, 1942 showed clearly the inter- 
change of gases, although a survey of the 
past spectroheliograph records of the 
Mount Wilson and Yerkes observatories 
had shown only unidirectional motion of 
the knots and streamers in similar objects. 
If electric fields form the motive force, 
the fact that knots and streamers can move 
from one prominence to another indicates 
that electric charges of either sign can exist 
within a prominence. 

That interactive prominences may enter 
the eruptive state was demonstrated by the 
prominence of October 3, 1942, which 
showed velocities of 14, 21, and 42 km/sec, 
and moved along a trajectory inclined 34 ° 
to the solar radius. The angle of ejection 
of eruptive prominences, although usually 
small, is sometimes large, 63 ° in one case. 
Of the 39 available trajectories, two-thirds 
are inclined less than 20 ° to the radius. 

Eruptive prominences move great dis- 



POLARITY 



Hemisphere 


Regular 


Irregular 


Unclassified 




Old cycle 


New cycle 


Old cycle 


New cycle 


Old cycle 


New cycle 


North 

South 


50 

53 




2 


2 
2 


1 




19 
16 










Whole sun 


103 


2 


4 


1 


35 






MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



tances without change in velocity. Eight- 
een such motions which exceed 200,000 km 
have been observed, including two which 
exceed a solar radius. 

A discussion of all the available data 
seems to indicate that the frequency of 
eruptive prominences is about 400 per 
year at sunspot maximum, and 25 to 50 
per year at sunspot minimum. A study 
of the frequency with which eruptive 
prominences reach various heights shows 
that between 100,000 and 500,000 km the 
frequency is about the same, and that the 
chance that an eruptive prominence will 
exceed 500,000 km is only 0.2. 

In previous observations of tornado 
prominences it was found by motion- 
picture projection that the peripheral 
velocity amounted to 54 km/sec in one 
case, but spectroscopic evidence was lack- 
ing. A prominence was finally observed 
spectroscopically on March 23, 1943 in 
which Doppler displacements of the Ha 
line approximating ± 1 A were indicated. 
This implies a peripheral velocity of about 
45 km/sec. Higher velocities than this 
may be expected, since one tornado is 
known to have been destroyed by its cen- 
trifugal force. 

A study of quiescent prominences under 
good atmospheric conditions shows that 
the best examples have a palisaded struc- 
ture which might be compared to a forest 
of rodlike branches or withes. They are 
not necessarily connected with the chromo- 
sphere. At times 20 or 30 rods have been 
counted on the photographs. Each is about 
2000 km wide and may be 50,000 km high. 
Other prominences never show this struc- 
ture, although the dimensions of stream- 
ers in active prominences are of the same 
order. Measurements of a considerable 
number of streamers give widths which 
average 1000 km; widths of 500 km are 
common, of 4000 or 5000 km rare. Stream- 
ers may be several hundred thousand km 



long, but those in ordinary active promi- 
nences are only about 50,000 km long. 

The H and K Lines and Magnetic Storms 

The comparison by Richardson of pho- 
tographs of the H and K lines taken 
during the violent magnetic storms of 
September 18, 1941 and March 1, 1942 
with similar photographs taken during a 
period of magnetic calm is still in progress. 
The object is to test the suggestion by 
Chapman that a cloud of charged par- 
ticles moving earthward during a magnetic 
storm might be detected by a faint ab- 
sorption line on the violet side of the 
solar lines. Difficulty has been experienced 
in finding a satisfactory method of re- 
duction such that the intensities of the 
lines determined during periods of mag- 
netic calm and magnetic storm are strictly 
comparable. This difficulty has been solved, 
and reduction of the tracings is now prac- 
tically complete. A definite statement re- 
garding the presence of faint violet absorp- 
tion lines is impossible until a comparison 
and analysis of all the lines can be made 
in detail. 

Compounds in the Sun 

The occurrence of chemical compounds 
in spot and disk has been studied by Bab- 
cock and Mrs. CofTeen with the aid of 
vibrational analyses compiled by Pearse 
and Gaydon from laboratory data. Com- 
putations by Russell of molecular abun- 
dance have been extended to include (1) 
some additional molecules; (2) higher 
states of vibrational energy; (3) two states 
of electronic excitation for NH. This has 
led to the recognition of O2 in the sun, 
where it appears in several faint extensions 
of the Schumann-Runge band system. NH 
is probably present in two low states of 
electronic excitation. Excitation potentials 
ranging up to about 4 volts are found rep- 



8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

resented in the spectra of the more abun- Richardson to computations of tables of 

dant molecules, whereas for metallic oxides solar azimuths for use in experiments with 

they are restricted to a few tenths of a volt, sun compasses by the military forces. 
Presence of 0> in the solar atmosphere, 

even in great dilution, must reduce greatly Asteroids, Satellites, and Comets 
the outflow of radiation in the region 

A670-A2000 A because of its enormous ab- A search for the asteroid Adonis was 

sorptive power. made by Nicholson through photographic 

Seventeen compounds, including two or observations with the 100-inch telescope, 

three new ones, have been identified, but No definite evidence of the presence of the 

several claimed by other observers have asteroid was found on the photographs, 

been excluded. although the area covered corresponded 

to a range of 14 days in the time of 

Ultraviolet Solar Spectrum perihelion passage. Richardson assisted in 

the observations. 

With a new combination of filters, Bab- Nicholson has also reobserved the posi . 

cock has obtained several spectrograms dons of [he fainter ^^ o£ j ker 

which show many new lines between with the assistance of Miss Richmond, the 

A2950 and A3000. One plate shows 47 Qrbk of ] JX has been recalculated and 

lines between A2975.5 and A2983.6, where improved; and perturb ations from 1938 to 

the best previous list, compiled by Buisson ^ haye been computed _ 

and Fabry, from a spectrogram taken with n-j- T t 7 k t £ 11 

, 1 ,. . . 1 r ,. Periodic comet Wolt 1 was round by 

much lower dispersion, gives only 16 lines. r> j 1 1 1 j- j c 

_, r r 1 1 Baade close to the place predicted from 

ihe spectra or a tew large spots have T . . , ., , ^ . . , 

, 1 1 r 111 -i Kamienski s ephemens. Positions were ob- 

been observed as tar toward the ultraviolet , c • 1 • m i_ j 

, , tamed on five nights in November and 

^ -* ' December. The photographic magnitude 

was 18.6 on the international scale. 

Other Solar Investigations a . £ , , £ TTr1 _. 1 , 

A series ot photographs ot Whipple s 

A series of photographs in the green comet (1942Q obtained by Baade on March 

region of the spectrum has been taken 11-12, 1943 with the 60-inch telescope 

by Babcock with the Lummer plate and revealed surprisingly rapid changes at the 

accessories for the measurement of the base of the tail, strong streamers rising 

sun's general magnetic field, and additional from invisibility in less than three hours, 

photographs with the Lummer plate have Several previously unidentified features 

been made at various points on the equa- in the spectra of comets in the visual and 

torial radius to determine the solar rota- red regions have been found by Minkowski, 

tion. These spectrograms have not as yet in the course of a study of Whipple's 

been measured. comet, in which they are exceptionally 

Babcock has used a special liquid filter strong, to be due to bands of NH2 appear- 
to photograph a few sunspot groups at the ing in ammonia-oxygen and nitrous oxide- 
1 50-foot focus of the Solar Laboratory hydrogen flames. Spectrograms in the blue 
telescope at an effective wave length of region taken at heliocentric cometary dis- 
about A3200. Good contrast was obtained, tances of 2.1 A.U. showed as strong fea- 
but the appearance of the spots was about tures only the (0,0) bands of CN at A3883 
the same as in green or yellow light. and the A4050 group of CH2, with the CN 

Considerable time has been devoted by bands stronger than those of CH2. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY o 

STELLAR INVESTIGATIONS 

Parallaxes and Proper Motions Faint Companion of 6i Cygni 

In continuation of his program on stellar Dr. Russell has investigated the physical 

parallaxes, van Maanen has completed characteristics of the companion of small 

measurements of 14 faint stars of large mass in the system of 61 Cygni, the exist- 

proper motion. ence of which was inferred by Strand 

Observations of proper motion by van from systematic deviations in the orbits 
Maanen have included a search for very of the bright stars. The theories used by 
faint stars of considerable motion made Russell, although successfully applied to 
on photographs taken ten years or more normal lucid stars, require considerable 
apart. Second-epoch photographs of 14 extrapolation in the case of these small 
additional Cepheid variables have been ob- bodies, and the results are doubtless at- 
tained, making a total of 91 fields of such £ected h Y lar g e uncertainties. Nevertheless 
stars now available for measurement. An the conclusions are of much interest, 
interesting individual star under investiga- Wlth the mass S iven b Y Strand > the mini ' 
tion was found by Dr. Zwicky to have a mum radms 1S £ound to be comparable 
small color index, but seems to belong to Wlth that o£ Saturn; the maximum radlus > 

the Taurus cluster and should be a white rou S U y t 10 times that of the sun ' Above 

1 r two or three times the minimum radius, 

~ • r 1 1 r 1 the gas laws will hold approximately and 

Iwo pairs ot photographs of the h , ° . , rr / , 

-r, ., . ior r the mean internal temperature can be cal- 

rersei cluster taken at the 80-root focus 1 1 t- j- r 1 1 r 

r , r . , , . . . culated. ror a radius one-rourth that or 

or the 60-inch telescope and separated by , 1 11 ■ 1 t L 

. . r 11 the sun and a mean molecular weight or 

intervals ot 27 and 17 years have been , u . 1 . . • r 1 . 1 

_ -it r > the central temperature is round to be 

measured extensively by van Maanen. I?6oo?000 o K? but the sur£ace temperature 

About 800 stars to photographic magm- is beW that of sel f„i uminosity . As seen 
tude 16.1 have been included. Although from the bnght stars o£ the system? the 
the motion of the cluster with reference compan i on s hi n ing by reflected light would 
to the field stars is only about o'.'oo 4 , the be a planet much brighter than Saturn 
probable errors of measurement are so without its ring, but it is much too faint 
small that it has been possible to identify t0 De seen from the earth. The calculation 
over 100 stars as field stars. If there were indicates that the radiation of the corn- 
no space absorption, the total number to panion could be maintained by contraction 
be expected should lie between 150 and alone for a period of 5X10 9 years at a 
180. It is well known, however, that ab- cost of only 1/400 of its radius, 
sorption amounting to one or even two 

magnitudes is present in this region, the Photoelectric Measures of Stars 

effect of which would be to reduce the Stebbins has continued the measures of 

number of observable field stars. Probably co l ors £ stars witn a photometer devised 

all such stars to magnitude 15 are now an d constructed by Whitford. The combi- 

known, but among the fainter stars the nation of a photoelectric cell with suitable 

smaller proper motions and the larger filters isolates six spectral regions from 

probable errors of measurement make the A3500 to A10000. The study of interstellar 

separation of cluster from field stars in- absorption from reddened B-type stars has 

creasingly difficult. been completed and is ready for publica- 



I0 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

tion. About 150 other stars of all types result. Deviations from the mean absorp- 
have been measured. The principal devia- tion are appreciable but surprisingly small 
tions from black-body radiation are caused for so large a range in galactic latitude 
by the strong hydrogen absorption in the (18 — 38 ). The average deviation in- 
ultraviolet region of A-type stars and by creases with the distance of the stars, but 
the strong bands in the red and infrared at most the root mean-square value is 
regions of M stars. Otherwise the stars only 0.04 mag, or about one-seventh the 
are found to radiate much like black color excess. Incidentally, this part of the 
bodies. The color temperatures derived discussion provides an exacting test of the 
from these measures are not strikingly dif- constancy of the zero point of the color 
ferent from previous results, ranging from indices of the Polar Catalogue. For fields 
about 24,000° K for types O and early of 8 or 10 square degrees the local error 
B down to 2000° K for the reddest M is of the order of 0.01 mag. 
stars. The value for Ao is 1 1,000 ° K, and A further result of considerable astro- 
there seems to be no way of reconciling physical interest is the generally small dis- 
these measures with a higher temperature persion in color index for stars of the same 
for this type. spectral type, a matter on which hitherto 

we have had no reliable information. For 

Results from Colors and Spectral Types types Ko and earlier the upper limit of the 

of Polar Stars dispersion is 0.035 ma g- F° r K5-M stars it 

With the assistance of Miss Joyner, Seares is about 0.1 mag. 

has finished a series of investigations based The deviations from the mean absorp- 

on the colors and spectral types of stars tion and the dispersion in color are derived 

near the north pole, which confirm and from series of residuals given by a certain 

extend a number of provisional results equation of condition, and once determined 

summarized in earlier reports: The sys- can be used to find the principal remain- 

tematic errors in the color indices of the ing component of the residuals, namely, 

Mount Wilson Polar Catalogue affect only the accidental error of spectral classifica- 

stars brighter than the ninth magnitude tion. A good deal of information on the 

of types earlier than Go; the revised spec- errors of various classification systems has 

trum-color relation (international system, thus been obtained, 
absorption-free) and the resulting color 

temperatures of stars remain unchanged; Extension of the Photographic Scale in 
and the general uniformity of the obscur- Certain Selected Areas 
ing cloud over the polar cap, 20 ° in diam- Since a comparison of the final magni- 
eter, now seems to be well established. The tudes mentioned in last year's report with 
solar system is close to if not actually a those of the Mount Wilson Catalogue re- 
little within the cloud. The color excess vealed marked divergences for two of the 
increases at a nearly linear rate to a value Selected Areas, an additional series of 15- 
of 0.27 mag at about 450 parsecs, where minute exposures was obtained with the 
the cloud apparently ends. The total ab- half-filter to check the brighter end of the 
sorption of photographic light by the cloud earlier 60-minute series in all Areas investi- 
is therefore 70 per cent, of photovisual light gated. The discussion of both sets of ex- 
60 per cent (A -1 law) . . posures, which cover the magnitude range 

A subdivision of the polar cap into small 13.0 to 20.5, has been completed for S.A. 

fields shows everywhere much the same 68. It shows that the magnitude scales of 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



II 



the short and the long series are in ex- 
cellent agreement, and that the discord- 
ances noted in the intercomparison with 
the Mount Wilson Catalogue must be 
ascribed to irregularities in the scale of the 



star into the field with a pyroxalin film 
4(j thick, thus doubling the brightness and 
eliminating the troublesome out-of-focus 
image. 
The first measure was made on the 



latter. As a check, Miss Joyner has meas- ascending slope of the light-curve, and the 

ured the original plates for S.A. 68, all maximum brightness observed, +0.35 mag, 

of which were of poor quality (the meas- was on November 11. The general form 

ures for the Catalogue were by other of the light-curve is that characteristic of 

observers). Comparison of the revised rapidly changing novae, but no such large 

magnitudes with the half-filter magnitudes oscillations in light at time of transition 

shows that the waves of smaller amplitude from continuous to bright-line spectrum 

have disappeared entirely and that those were observed as occurred in Nova Persei 

of larger amplitude are much reduced. (1901) and Nova Aquilae (1918). The 

Discordances of this type are not surprising, residuals from the mean curve are less 



than 0.2 mag, the probable error of the 
magnitude from a single night's observa- 
tions being ±0.05 mag. The last meas- 
ures, on May 6, gave a magnitude of 8.35, 
the light-curve having shown a uniform 
drop of 1.04 mag per 100 days. 
The absolute magnitude of Nova Puppis 



since the paucity of stars in high-latitude 
fields often makes it difficult to insure uni- 
formity all along the scale. This difficulty 
does not affect the mean scale. 

Visual Light-Curve of Nova Puppis 
(1942) 

Nova Puppis was discovered independ- at maximum of light as determined spec- 

ently by Pettit on the morning of Novem- troscopically was — 10.1. This would cor- 

ber 10, 1942, and a series of measures with respond to an energy radiation of 5.3 X 10 44 

a Pickering wedge photometer was com- ergs, about 50 per cent more than that of 

menced which extended over 86 nights Nova Aquilae (191 8). The Harvard pho- 

distributed throughout 6 months. The in- tographs indicate that the pre-nova mag- 

strument was modified by replacing the nitude of the star must have been fainter 

parallel plate used to bring the artificial than 17. 



STELLAR SPECTROSCOPY 



With advances in the study of stellar 
spectra, the number of stars found to ex- 
hibit variable spectral characteristics has in- 
creased very greatly. Stars which vary in 
light and those which show emission lines 
in their spectra are especially subject to 
spectral variation, and in many the changes 
are of great astrophysical interest. Since 
the variations are not necessarily periodic, 
the study of individual stars over a con- 
siderable time rather than groups of stars 
for brief periods is essential. As observa- 
tional material accumulates, it becomes 



possible to establish relationships between 
different stars and to divide them into 
groups according to spectral variations. At 
present, however, studies of individual 
stars form a considerable part of the stellar 
spectroscopic work in progress. 

Interesting features of the year's work 
in this field have been the increasing ap- 
plication of the high dispersion of the 
Schmidt cameras of the coude grating 
spectrograph to the study of the finer detail 
and the structure of lines in the spectra 
of the brighter stars; and the extent to 



I2 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

which fainter stars have come within the have not yet been observed, and about 

reach of observation with moderate dis- 80 need additional observations, 

persion. The use of some of the extremely It is significant that practically all the 

rapid plates recently made by the Eastman ninth-magnitude A-type stars listed as 

Kodak Company has enabled Joy to carry members on the basis of common proper 

his observations of variable stars to mag- motion are definitely not members. The 

nitude 14 on an adequate scale; and the cluster stars, other than the few known 

same emulsions have made it possible to giants, fall very closely upon the main 

photograph early-type stars of the sixth type-luminosity sequence within the range 

magnitude with the 114-inch camera of A5 to K5. No member of class M has yet 

the coude spectrograph with an exposure been found, 
time of 2 hours. 

Early-Type Stars with Emission Lines 

Taurus Cluster Supplement to Catalogue. Ten years 

ago, Merrill and Miss Burwell published 

Because their distances, and hence their a Catalogue and bibliography of stars of 
absolute magnitudes, can be derived ac- classes B and A whose spectra have bright 
curately from their motions, the stars of hydrogen lines. This compilation, which 
the Taurus cluster are especially useful for lists 416 stars and 363 references, has proved 
determining the relation between spectral to be of considerable service to spectro- 
type and luminosity among the stars in scopic observers. The authors have now 
general. For this purpose it is essential brought the Catalogue up to date by pre- 
that we know which stars are members paring a supplement with 250 stars and 
of the cluster. Common proper motion 407 references. Numerous notes record un- 
is not necessarily decisive, owing to con- published data and call attention to the 
siderable stream motion in the general chief features of some of the more interest- 
direction of the cluster vertex. Common ing spectra. Of the 250 additional stars, 
radial velocity in addition to common 166 were discovered at Mount Wilson, 
proper motion should be fairly decisive. The tenth-magnitude star HD 242257, 
About 250 stars brighter than 11.0 have recently discovered to have bright lines in 
proper motions reasonably close to those its spectrum, is of interest because the 
of the brighter members of the cluster, hydrogen lines have displaced dark corn- 
Some years ago it was proposed to observe ponents, a fact which indicates that hydro- 
the radial velocities of as many as possible gen atoms are streaming outward from 
of these stars. the star's surface with a velocity of 530 

During the past year 142 spectrograms km/sec. Weak dark lines of neutral iron 

of 118 stars, with magnitudes 7.0 to 9.5, are undisplaced. The investigation of HD 

have been obtained by R. E. Wilson, who 142983 (48 Librae) has been continued by 

has measured all these and 69 earlier plates Merrill and Sanford. During the past year 

of 57 stars. All together, radial velocities the radial velocity has decreased by about 

are now available for 217 stars, although 20 km/sec. 

a considerable number depend upon but Combination spectra. A series of spectro- 

one plate. Of these, 150 are cluster mem- grams of the peculiar star BF Cygni, 

bers, 20 are probable, 25 doubtful, and 22 obtained in the fall of 1942, shows sur- 

certainly not members. Thirty-five stars, prisingly rapid changes in the intensities 

mainly between magnitudes 9.0 and 11.0, of the nebular lines. A detailed study of 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



13 



the displacements of various groups of 
bright lines is nearly complete. Other stars 
with combination spectra observed during 
the year are AX Persei, RW Hydrae, CI 
Cygni, and Z Andromedae. 

Dwarf Stars 

Much time has been devoted by Joy to 
the completion of the program planned 
some years ago for determining the radial 
velocities, spectral types, and spectroscopic 
absolute magnitudes of a selected list of 
dwarf stars with large proper motions. It 
is expected that within a few months the 
observations of about 120 stars having 
proper motions greater than 0V35 per year 
will have been completed. Emission lines 
of hydrogen and calcium have been found 
in the spectra of a number of these stars. 
The spectra of several very faint dwarf 
stars of especial interest have been observed 
by Humason. 

Variable Stars 

Spectrographic observations of stars be- 
longing to little-known classes such as RV 
Tauri, SS Cygni, R Coronae, W Virginis, 
and T Tauri variables have been con- 
tinued by Joy. The spectrum of one of 
the components of the double variable star 
UZ Tauri showed a remarkable change 
in the autumn of 1942. As the star in- 
creased in brightness, the emission spec- 
trum characteristic of the T Tauri stars 
appeared in such strength as to overshadow 
the dwarf Me spectrum previously seen. 
These observations indicate that the varia- 
tion of light is probably of the T Tauri 
type and that a third star may be present in 
addition to the visual pair originally seen. 

Observations of about 20 variable stars 
of high luminosity in the globular clusters 
have been continued. 

A new investigation of the ultraviolet 
region, A3400-A4000, of the spectra of long- 



period variables has been begun by Merrill. 
This region, which is free from heavy 
bands, is of especial interest for the study 
of atomic lines. 

N- and R-Type Stars 

Sanford has now determined the radial 
velocities of about 100 additional stars of 
types N and R, many of them from two 
or more spectrograms. Satisfactory agree- 
ment has been found between the results 
obtained with low dispersion and those 
for some of the brighter stars observed 
with the coude spectrograph. With the 
new Eastman IV N emulsion, spectra of 
three N-type stars were photographed in 
the region A7000— A8700, one of them, 19 
Piscium, with the 114-inch camera. 

Faint Blue Stars 

Spectroscopic observations of 48 stars 
found by Dr. Zwicky to have a very small 
color index have been completed by Hum- 
ason. Fifteen of the stars are in the 
vicinity of the Hyades cluster, and the 
remaining 33 near the north galactic pole. 
Most of the stars are fainter than photo- 
graphic magnitude 13.0 and have been ob- 
served with the low dispersion of 220 
A/mm. The spectral types range from 
Bo to A, most of them being Bo to B5. 

Identification of Elements and System- 
atic Displacements of Lines 

Miss Davis has utilized many of the 
high-dispersion coude spectrograms of late- 
type stars for a study of the identifications 
and the displacements of certain lines, es- 
pecially those of the rare earths. In the 
red region of (3 Pegasi the potassium lines 
are strong and displaced 2.5 km/sec to 
the violet in relation to the ordinary stellar 
lines. The rubidium pair is weak but 
present, and has a somewhat smaller dis- 
placement. 



j^ CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

From measurements of the lines of nu- nitude among the brighter stars, the sepa- 

merous elements in the spectra of several ration increasing progressively with lumi- 

giant stars of type M, Miss Davis draws nosity. As between dwarfs and giants the 

the following conclusions: (i) Resonance effect is very marked, having been noted 

lines of Ca n and Al i are displaced more qualitatively in earlier observations. A 

than lines of other elements. (2) Displace- recent spectrogram of 61 1 Cygni taken by 

ments are small and to the violet for lines Adams with the 114-inch coude spectro- 

arising from levels with excitation poten- graph shows H and K to have two emis- 

tials between 0.5 and 1.6 volts. (3) Absorp- sion components separated by only 0.17 A. 

tion components of TV resonance lines, The corresponding separation in a Orionis 

when the lines are double, are less widely is 1.38 A. 

separated than those of Fe, Cr, and Mn. A by-product of this study by Miss Davis 
The mean position of the components of is that the Hz line in emission, first found 
the double lines is found to be very close by O. C. Wilson in the spectrum of a 
to the normal position, as previous results Bootis, occurs in numerous stars of types 
had already shown. A comparison of the G and K, but is not present in M-type 
spectrograms of a Orionis by Adams gives spectra, 
definite evidence that the relative intensi- 
ties of the components of the double lines Three Bright Early-Type Stars 
are subject to considerable variation. Sanford has continued his observations 

of the variable Ha line in the spectrum 

H and K Lines in Late-Type Stars of p 0rionis The emission may be on 

The usual structure of the H and K either side or both sides of the absorption 
lines in late-type giant stars consists of two line, may be completely absent, or may be 
emission components separated by strong so strong that the absorption is nearly 
central absorption with wide absorption masked. No periodicity has yet been found 
wings on the outer sides of the emission for these changes. Variations in the radial 
lines. The emission components show wide velocity of the star do not conform to 
differences in relative intensity and width Plaskett's velocity-curve, 
from star to star, and appear to vary at Recent observations by Adams of the 
different times even in the same star. In spectrum of P Cygni with high dispersion 
many respects the similarity of behavior show the gradual disappearance of the 
to that in the solar spectrum is marked, greatly displaced violet absorption com- 
An upper limit of 0.03 has been deter- ponent of the hydrogen lines which was 
mined by Miss Davis for the ratio of discovered a few years ago. This corn- 
energy in the emission components in a ponent, which was relatively sharp, gave a 
Bootis to the total energy absorbed by the radial velocity of —240 km/sec. It disap- 
K line. The minimum equivalent width peared completely between July 1942 and 
of the absorption is 21 A. In the more April 1943. The remaining wide absorp- 
luminous stars the central absorption line tion showed many variations in structure, 
is displaced to the violet, but the mean Three coude spectrograms of t Scorpii, 
of the wave lengths of the emission lines dispersion 2.9 A/mm, provided the basis 
has the normal position. for a brief study by Merrill and Adams 

There seems to be considerable evidence of the widths and displacements of lines of 

that the separation of the emission com- various elements. Total widths are approxi- 

ponents is correlated with absolute mag- mately as follows: H, 23 A; He, 1-8 A; 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY ^ 

0, Ne, etc., 0.5 A. With a few exceptions, Some clouds are found to extend over 
lines of various elements yield accordant great areas. The narrowness of the corn- 
values of the radial velocity. Some of the ponents indicates the absence of any con- 
exceptions probably reflect the instability siderable turbulence in the clouds, 
of the corresponding lines in the labora- The additional sharp interstellar lines 
tory. The profiles and displacements of due to Ca 1 and Fe 1 and to the diatomic 
the helium lines offer strong evidence of molecules CN, CH 1, and CH 11 have 
Stark effect in the star's atmosphere. also been studied on these spectrograms. 

Marked differences in relative intensity be- 

T T tween the lines of CH 1 and CH 11 are 

Interstellar Lines . 1#rt . . . 

round in different stars. Comparisons or 

Numerous stars of spectral type B in radial velocity indicate which of the clouds 

open clusters are under observation by San- producing the components of H and K are 

ford both for correlation of the intensities involved in the formation of these addi- 

of the interstellar H and K lines with the tional lines. 

distances of the clusters and for a study An examination of the brighter stars in 

of the broad interstellar absorption line the cluster of the Pleiades shows the pres- 

near A4430. He has also added four stars ence of interstellar lines in eight of the 

of types N and R to the two previously nine stars investigated. They are probably 

known which show interstellar D lines masked by the strong absorption lines in 

separated from the stellar D lines. the present spectrum of Pleione. Marked 

The results of an investigation of the differences are found in the intensities of 

structure of the interstellar H and K lines the lines in the various stars, and perhaps 

in the spectra of 50 stars has been pub- the most interesting result is that two stars, 

lished by Adams. The spectrograms have Asterope and Merope, show interstellar 

the linear scale 2.9 A/mm. More than 80 lines of ionized CH without interstellar H 

per cent of these stars show complex lines and K. These are the first stars to be found 

consisting of from two to five components, showing this peculiarity. Evidently the di- 

thus indicating the same number of dis- versity in the physical conditions and per- 

crete gaseous interstellar clouds between haps in the composition of the clouds in 

the observer and the stars. As a rule, stars the direction of the Pleiades cluster is very 

in Perseus and Scorpius show the least considerable. 

complexity in these lines, and those in An attempt was made by Adams to de- 
Orion, Sagittarius, and Cygnus the great- tect possible interstellar lines of the red CN 
est. The intensities of the components have band in the region A6500— A9000 of the 
been estimated, and measurements of radial star £ Ophiuchi. No such lines were found, 
velocity provide a means for identifying but the interstellar lines of neutral potas- 
clouds in neighboring parts of the sky. sium near A7700 are well seen. 

GALACTIC NEBULAE AND NOVAE 

A survey by Minkowski of 63 objects, eral of these nebulae are of rare types, 

photographed by W. C. Miller with an Most of the remaining objects are B- and 

objective prism, which show Ha in emis- O-type stars with strong emission lines, but 

sion with little or no continuous spectrum, some are stars of peculiar types. The most 

indicates that 32 are planetary nebulae and interesting of these is an irregular variable 

7 are diffuse nebulae. The spectra of sev- of a type closely related to Z Andromedae. 



i6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



The spectrum shows numerous metallic 
emission lines and hydrogen absorption 
lines of most unusual structure. The ab- 
sorption lines consist of several compo- 
nents of rapidly varying intensities with 
displacements between —500 and —2200 
km/sec. These displacements are the larg- 
est yet observed, except in the spectra of 
some novae. 

The spectrum of Nova T Coronae Bore- 
alis has undergone some rapid changes. A 
shell absorption spectrum in the ultra- 
violet region, which was observed by Min- 
kowski in February 1943, disappeared one 
month later, and the spectrum is now 
similar to that observed before 1942. 

The faint nebulosity in Cygnus has been 
reobserved spectroscopically by Humason 
with higher dispersion than that used 
previously. 

Since important information can be 
gained from a study of the expanding 
shells around some of the nearer novae, 
both as to the luminosities of the novae 
and as to the mechanism of the election 
process, Baade, partly in cooperation with 
Humason, has investigated the shells 
around Nova Herculis (1934), Nova Persei 
(1901), Nova T Aurigae (1891), and R 
Aquarii. Some of the spectroscopic obser- 
vations of these objects by Humason have 
required exposure times of 20 hours. 

Nova Herculis. Photographs obtained at 
the Cassegrain focus of the 100-inch in the 
summer of 1942 showed the true ring struc- 
ture of the shell very clearly. Those taken 
in red light proved that, in contrast with 
the Ni and N2 emissions of [O 111], which 
are uniformly distributed throughout the 
shell, the strong red emissions are restricted 
to a wide band along the minor axis and 
to two faint clouds symmetrically arranged 
at the ends of the major axis. Spectra of 
the shell show that the [N 11] lines A6548 
and A6584 are responsible for these local- 
ized emissions. 



As previously reported, photographs of 
the shell in the light of the Ni,N2 lines 
have shown no trace of two components 
observed visually by Kuiper and others up 
to 1942. Baade and Humason, however, 
have succeeded in recording them in the 
spectral images of the shell, which permit 
the detection of very weak condensations 
because the light emanating from a given 
point of the nebular image is spread out by 
the spectrograph owing to the range in 
velocity. On spectra with the slit along the 
major axis of the envelope, the two Kuiper 
components are outstanding features in 
the Ni and N2 lines. 

With the newly constructed image rota- 
tor, a series of spectra has been obtained 
which, proceeding in steps of 15 ° in posi- 
tion angle, covers the whole shell. No 
additional condensations have been found, 
although components 1 to 2 magnitudes 
fainter than those of Kuiper should have 
been easy to detect. 

Nova Persei (1901). — Baade and Huma- 
son have investigated the expansion of the 
shell around Nova Persei by measuring 
the motions and radial velocities of about a 
dozen well defined condensations. The 
results show that practically all the ejected 
matter is contained in the rear part of the 
southwest quadrant. The motion of this 
main fragment of the shell seems to have 
been uniform since the outburst. The 
thickness of the shell, in terms of its outer 
radius, is 0.22, practically the same as that 
found for Nova Aquilae. The distance of 
the nova, derived from the expansion data, 
is 470 ±28 parsecs, and its luminosity at 
maximum was M= —8.4. 

Nova T Aurigae (1891). The close simi- 
larity in general behavior between Nova T 
Aurigae (1891) and Nova Herculis led 
Baade to undertake a search for a possible 
shell. Such a shell about 12" in diameter 
was discovered, and, although faint, is by 
no means a difficult object to photograph. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



17 



Like the shell of Nova Herculis, it is ellip- 
tical, a fact which suggests that the rota- 
tion of the star plays a role in cases in 
which the ejection of the shell extends over 
several months. A calculation based on 
the present diameter of the shell and the 
velocities observed during the outburst 
gives a distance for T Aurigae of 800 ± 
parsecs and a maximum luminosity of 
M=— 5.3. Like Nova Herculis, T Auri- 
gae is a nova of rather low luminosity. 
This result confirms earlier indications 
that slowly fading novae of this type are 
several magnitudes less luminous than 
rapidly fading novae of the Nova Aquilae 
type. 

R Aquarii. In a previous report Hubble 
called attention to definite changes in the 
nebulosity surrounding R Aquarii appear- 



ing on photographs separated by 17 years. 
Although outward motions seemed to be 
involved, the nature of the changes was 
not altogether clear. During the past sea- 
son Baade obtained an excellent plate of 
the nebulosity which matches closely a 
similar plate taken by Hubble in 1921. A 
comparison of the pair in the stereocom- 
parator shows clearly that the whole outer 
nebulosity is expanding. Evidently it was 
ejected during a major outburst of the blue 
companion of R Aquarii, which still shows 
signs of ejection, as indicated by its recent 
P Cygni type of spectrum. 

Sanford has devoted much time to ob- 
servations and measurement of the spectra 
of Nova Cygni (1942) and Nova Puppis 
(1942), and has published some of the re- 
sults of this work. 



EXTRAGALACTIC NEBULAE 



Photometry 

To facilitate strict intercomparisons be- 
tween members of the local group of 
galaxies, Baade has begun to transfer the 
photometric scale of S.A. 68 to both the 
Andromeda nebula and Messier 33. The 
intercomparisons of S.A. 68 with the 
Andromeda nebula are almost completed, 
and those with Messier 33 should be fin- 
ished during the coming season. As a 
check on the magnitude scale in NGC 
6822, intercomparisons with S.A. 136 are 
under way. The scale in this Area will be 
tested and extended by the platinum half- 
filter method. 

Continued search for variables in some 
of the near-by dwarf galaxies has resulted 
in the discovery of two faint Cepheids in 
the Sextans system. They will be very 
important in fixing the upper limit of 
luminosity (brightest stars) in systems of 
low stellar content. 

These last investigations, which require 
long exposures on the fastest available 



plates, would probably have been impos- 
sible under normal conditions on Mount 
Wilson. Since the dimout of the Los 
Angeles valley, however, the Observatory 
enjoys again a perfectly dark sky except 
for a trace of illumination close to the 
southwestern horizon. As a result, direct 
exposures with the reflectors on the fast 
Eastman i03a-O plates, formerly limited to 
about 45 minutes, can now be extended to 
90 or 120 minutes. The corresponding 
gain in limiting magnitude is best illus- 
trated by some plates of the Andromeda 
nebula which for the first time show the 
hitherto unresolved inner part of the 
nebula sprinkled with a multitude of faint 
stars just below the twenty-first magnitude. 

Spectroscopy 

Spectra of 36 nebulae have been photo- 
graphed by Humason during the year. 
Most of these were taken on a small scale 
(500 A/mm), but 8 are with a dispersion 
of 220 A/mm and 2 of 65 A/mm. 



i8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



The number of extragalactic nebulae 
whose spectra have been photographed at 
Mount Wilson now totals 406. Included 
are practically all the brighter objects 
within reach at Mount Wilson, and many 
objects of types E and Sa which require 
less exposure time than late-type nebulae. 
It is planned to continue the Mount Wil- 



son observations until 500 velocities have 
been obtained. Additional observations 
will necessarily be of fainter and later-type 
nebulae, and these should make the collec- 
tion as a whole a more homogeneous 
group with respect to nebular type and 
apparent brightness. 



PHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Rare-Earth Spectra 

The spectrum of dysprosium from A2970 
to A8280, given by the arc, spark, and elec- 
tric furnace at various temperatures, has 
been photographed by A. S. King. From 
a study of these spectrograms 527 of the 
stronger lines of Dy 11 have been identi- 
fied. Since most of these lines appear at 
the moderate excitation of the electric fur- 
nace, they are presumably from low atomic 
levels, and the list should include lines to 
be expected in solar and stellar spectra. 
Ninety-five lines having the most decided 
low-level characteristics were compared by 
Mrs. Sitterly with her revised solar data, 
and 57 were identified in the solar spec- 
trum. A temperature classification of the 
rich spectrum of Dy 1 is now in progress. 

Much progress has been made by Dr. 
Russell in the term analysis of the spectra 
of neutral and ionized gadolinium, an 
element which is of considerable astro- 
physical interest. Several hundreds of lines 
have been classified according to energy 
level. 

Lines of two previously unrecognized 
elements in the sun, ionized thorium and 
neutral gold, were identified through co- 
operative work of Mrs. Sitterly and A. S 
King. For thorium, the necessary data in- 
volved the photographing of arc and spark 
spectra from A2750 to A7600 for the segre- 
gation of Dy 1 and Dy 11 lines, and of the 
furnace spectrum within the same range 



for the selection of the more sensitive lines. 
The observation by Babcock and Mrs. 
Coffeen that the gold line A3123 is 
strengthened in sunspot spectra supplied 
confirmatory evidence that this element is 
present in the sun. 

Band Systems of CN 

The violet and red band systems of CN, 
the latter very prominent in N-type stars, 
are being examined by A. S. King under a 
wide variety of conditions in the electric 
furnace. In emission, the red bands, as 
compared with the violet system, show 
relatively high intensity at low tempera- 
ture. The conditions for their appearance 
in absorption require further study. 

Ruling Machines 

The ruling machines have been adapted 
by Babcock and Prall to the construction 
of special kinds of gratings and to rela- 
tively coarse spacing. Some of the work 
has been for military purposes, but has 
immediate application to the manufacture 
of bright gratings. In particular, the micro- 
scopic study of ruled surfaces has led to 
better control of the intensity distribution 
in the different orders, more especially the 
first and second orders, which are used in 
stellar spectrographs. 

The data (see table) concerning the 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



19 



brightness attained in some of the best 
gratings are of interest. The results are for 
the green region of the spectrum. Com- 
parison with data collected by Baly shows 
that the spectra from these gratings are as 
bright as spectra of the same dispersion 
formed by prisms. 



Approximate 
grating space 


Order 


Percentage of 

incident light 

in spectrum 


Equivalent 

number of 

prisms* 


1/600 mm 
1/300 to 1/400 


1 or 2 
1 


30 to 60 
70 


4 

2 



*Number of dense glass prisms with 60° refracting angle 
having same mean dispersion as grating. 



MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION 



About 5 per cent of the time of the in- 
strument shop and 3 per cent of the time of 
the optical shop have been devoted to the 
normal work of the Observatory. The 
remainder has been given to the construc- 
tion of optical instruments and optics for 
the Office of Scientific Research and Devel- 
opment, and for the Army. Most of the 
instruments have been designed by Edgar 
C. Nichols with the assistance of Harold S. 
Kinney. Albert H. Mclntire has remained 
in charge of the instrument shop, and on 
the retirement of John S. Dalton the direc- 
tion of the optical shop was assigned to 
Donald O. Hendrix. 

Very little new apparatus has been con- 
structed during the year. An optical de- 
vice for rotating the image at the Casse- 
grain focus of the 100-inch telescope has 
been designed and completed. It has 
proved valuable in observations of several 
nebulae, including the elliptical nebula 



around Nova Herculis. For spectroscopic 
observations the effect amounts to a rota- 
tion of the slit. 

Buildings and Grounds 

Apart from essential repairs, painting, 
and general maintenance, little construc- 
tion has been done in Pasadena or on 
Mount Wilson. The temporary closing of 
the Observatory buildings to the general 
public has reduced greatly the demands 
upon the operating force on the mountain. 
As a result, A. N. Beebe, superintendent of 
construction, Sidney A. Jones and Kenneth 
de HufT, engineers, and E. W. Hartong, 
truck driver, have all been able to take part 
in the production of military equipment in 
the instrument shop in Pasadena. 

A refrigerator for photographic plates 
has been purchased and placed on the 
ground floor of the dome of the 100-inch 
telescope. 



< THE LIBRARY 

During the year, 198 volumes were foreign observatories and research institu- 

added to the library, 91 by purchase, 41 by tions, and even those from America are 

gift, and 66 by binding, making a total of materially reduced in number. Periodicals 

15,055 volumes. Because of the war, only a received currently number 98, of which 30 

few publications have come through from are gifts or exchanges. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Adams, Walter S. The structure of interstellar 
H and K lines in fifty stars. Astrophys. Jour., 
vol. 97, pp. 105-111 (1943); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 673. 

Survey of the year's work at Mount 



Wilson. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 223-229 
(1942). 

— Interstellar lines in the brighter stars of 
the Pleiades. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 106- 
108 (1943). 



20 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Adams, Walter S. Research at Mount Wilson 
Observatory. Jour. R. A. S. Canada, vol. 36, 

PP- 393-396 (1942). 

See Merrill, Paul W. 

Baade, Walter. The Crab nebula. Astrophys. 
Jour., vol. 96, pp. 188-198 (1942); Mt. W. 
Contr., No. 665. 

Nova Ophiuchi of 1604 as a supernova. 

Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, pp. 1 19-127 (1943) ; 
Mt. W. Contr., No. 675. 

The expanding shell around Nova Her- 

culis. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 244-249 
(1942). 

Periodic comet Wolf I. Pubs. A. S. P., 

vol. 54, pp. 259-260 (1942). 

Photographic observations of (944) Hi- 
dalgo at the Mount Wilson Observatory. 
Astron. Jour., vol. 50, p. 141 (1943). 

Photographic observations of comet Wolf 



— The spectrum of UZ Tauri in 1942. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 38-39 (1943). 

A century's progress in determining 



I made with the 100-inch reflector at the 
Mount Wilson Observatory. Astron. Jour., 
vol. 50, p. 142 (1943). 
Babcock, Harold D. Visibility of a hot body. 
Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 149-150 (1943). 

and Mary F. Coffeen. Gold in the sun. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, p. in (1943). 

Christie, W. H. (Review) The practical essen- 
tials of pre-training navigation, by William 
T. Skilling and Robert S. Richardson. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 271-272 (1942). 

Coffeen, Mary F. See Babcock, Harold D. 

Connor, Elizabeth. Abraham Sharp, 1653-1742. 
Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 237-243 (1942). 

Davis, Dorothy N. A search for thorium in 
late-type stars. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 
41-42 (1943). 

Hubble, Edwin. The direction of rotation in 
spiral nebulae. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, 
pp. 112-118 (1943); Mt. W. Contr., No. 674. 

The problem of the expanding universe. 

Science in progress, 3d ser., pp. 22-44. Yale 
Univ. Press (1942). 

The problem of the expanding universe. 



Sci. Monthly, vol. 56, pp. 15-30 (1943). 
Humason, M. L. Spectrographic observations of 

the nebula surrounding Nova Herculis 1934. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 74-78 (1943). 
and Roscoe F. Sanford. Nova Puppis 

1942. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 256-257 

(1942). 
Joy, Alfred H. A survey of the spectra and 

radial velocities of the less regular M-type 

variable stars. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 96, pp. 

344-370 (1942); Mt. W. Contr., No. 668. 



stellar distances. A. S. P. Leaflet, No. 173. 

8 pp. (1943). 
Karr, Earl. See Sanford, Roscoe F. 
King, Arthur S. Temperature classification of 

gadolinium lines. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, 

pp. 323-380 (1943) ; Mt. W. Contr., No. 678. 

Note concerning lines of neutral dyspro- 
sium. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 201-202 
(1942). 

The laboratory's part in astronomy. A. S. 

P. Leaflet, No. 162. 8 pp. (1942). 

and Charlotte E. Moore. The stronger 

lines of singly ionized dysprosium and 
identifications in the solar spectrum. As- 
trophys. Jour., vol. 98, pp. 33-42 (1943); 
Mt. W. Contr., No. 681. 

See Moore, Charlotte E. 



Merrill, Paul W. A star with a rapidly ex- 
panding hydrogen atmosphere. Pubs. A. S. 
P., vol. 55, pp. 40-41 (1943). 

Stars with expanding atmospheres. 

A. S. P. Leaflet, No. 170. 8 pp. (1943). 

and Walter S. Adams. Measurements 



of the spectrum of t Scorpii. Astrophys. 
Jour., vol. 97, pp. 98-104 (1943); Mt. W. 
Contr., No. 672. 
Minkowski, R. The Crab nebula. Astrophys. 
Jour., vol. 96, pp. 199-213 (1942); Mt. W. 
Contr., No. 666. 

The spectrum of the nebulosity near 

Kepler's nova of 1604. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 
97, pp. 128-129 (1943); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 676. 

The origin of cometary nebulae. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 190-194 (1942). 

(Review) Principles of stellar dynamics, 

by S. Chandrasekhar. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, 
pp. 209-210 (1942). 

The spectrum of comet Whipple 2 

(19421). Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 87-91 

(i943)- 

Nova T Coronae Borealis. Pubs. A. S. P., 



vol. 55, pp. 101-103 (1943)- 

Moore, Charlotte E., and Arthur S. King. 

Thorium in the sun. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, 

PP- 36-37 (i943)- 
The presence of gold in the sun. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 109-110 (1943). 
Thorium in the sun. Proc. Amer. 



Philos. Soc, vol. 86, pp. 339-341 (1943). 
— See King, Arthur S. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



21 



Mulders, Elizabeth Sternberg. Sunspot activity 
during 1942. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 

21-23 (i943)- 

See Nicholson, Seth B. 

Nicholson, Seth B. The ninth satellite of 

Jupiter. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, p. 258 (1942). 

Alexander F. Morrison lecture: The sun 

in action. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 5-13 

(i943)- 
and Elizabeth Sternberg Mulders. Solar 

and magnetic data, April, 1942, to March, 

1943. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 268-269, 334- 

335 (1942); vol. 48, pp. 17-18, 115-116 

(i943)- 

and Myrtle L. Richmond. The position 



of Nova Puppis 1942. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, 

PP- 37-38 (1943)- 
Nova Cygni 1942. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, p. 206 

(1942). 
Pettit, Edison. The properties of solar promi- 
nences as related to type. Astrophys. Jour., 
vol. 98, pp. 6-19 (1943); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 679. 

The eruptive prominence of October 3, 

1942. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 253-255 
(1942). 

Visual magnitudes of Nova Puppis 1942. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, p. 259 (1942) ; vol. 55, 
pp. 14-20, 108-109 (1943)- 

Light-curve of Nova Puppis 1942. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 152-156 (1943)- 

The development of solar prominences. 

Sci. Monthly, vol. 56, pp. 293-294 (1943). 

(Review) Annals of the Astrophysical 



Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution, 
vol. 6. Pop. Astron., vol. 50, pp. 403-405 
(1942). 
Richardson, Robert S. (Review) Great astro- 
nomical treatises of the past, by Edgar W. 
Woolard. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 210-21 1 
(1942). 

Aspect of the heavens for March and 

April, 1943. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 24- 

25 (i943)- 

Captain Thomas Hubbard Sumner, 1807- 

1876. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 136-144 

(i943)- 

(Review) Egyptian planetary texts, by 

O. Neugebauer. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, 
pp. 167-168 (1943)- 

Celestial target practise. A. S. P. Leaflet, 



Richmond, Myrtle L. Ephemeris of Jupiter's 
ninth satellite. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, p. 205 
(1942). 

See Nicholson, Seth B. 

Russell, Henry Norris. Physical characteristics 
of stellar companions of small mass. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 79-86 (1943). 

The orbit of 70 Ophiuchi. Pubs. A. S. P., 

vol. 55, pp. 104-106 (1943). 

Sanford, Roscoe F. The spectrum of Nova 
Cygni 1942. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, pp. 
130-134 (1943); Mt. W. Contr., No. 677. 

The spectrum of Nova Cygni 1942. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 255-256 (1942). 

Interstellar sodium lines in stars of classes 

R and N. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 257- 
258 (1942). 

The spectrum of Nova Puppis 1942. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 55, pp. 103-104 (1943). 

and Earl Karr. The spectroscopic bina- 
ries Z1669A and Z1669B. Astrophys. Jour., 
vol. 96, pp. 214-217 (1942); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 667. 

See Humason, M. L. 



No. 168. 8 pp. (1943). 
— See Skilling, William T. 



Seyfert, Carl K. Nuclear emission in spiral 
nebulae. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, pp. 28-40 
(1943); Mt. W. Contr., No. 671. 

The distribution of luminosity in the 

planetary nebula NGC 6572. Pubs. A. S. P., 
vol. 55, pp. 32-34 (1943). 

Sitterly, Charlotte M. See Moore, Char- 
lotte E. 

Skilling, William T., and Robert S. Richard- 
son. The practical essentials of pre-training 
navigation. 113 pp. New York, Holt (1942). 

Stebbins, Joel, and A. E. Whitford. Six-color 
photometry of stars. I. The law of space- 
reddening from the colors of O and B stars. 
Astrophys. Jour., vol. 98, pp. 20-32 (1943); 
Mt. W. Contr., No. 680. 

See Whitford, A. E. 

Stromberg, Gustaf. (Review) From Copernicus 
to Einstein, by Hans Reichenbach. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 54, p. 212 (1942). 

Coherence in the physical world. 

Philosophy of Science, vol. 9, pp. 323-334 
(1942). 

Summary of Mount Wilson magnetic observa- 
tions of sunspots for June, 1942, to April, 
1943. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 54, pp. 207-208, 
266-268 (1942); vol. 55, pp. 42-44, 112-113, 

I57-J59 (i943)- 



22 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

van Maanen, Adriaan. Investigations on proper Whitford, A. E., and Joel Stebbins. The law 

motion. XXII. The proper motion of the G f interstellar absorption. Pubs. A. A. S., 

open cluster Messier 67. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 10, p. 263 (1942). 
vol. 96, pp. 382-394 (1942); Mt. W. Contr., 

No. 670. See Stebbins > J° el - 

Stellar parallaxes from photographs taken Wilson, Ralph E. Mean absolute magnitudes 

with the 60- and 100-inch reflectors of the and space motions of the irregular variable 

Mount Wilson Observatory. Astron. Jour., stars. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 96, pp. 371-381 

vol. 50, pp. 41-42 (1942). (1942); Mt. W. Contr., No. 669. 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: ASTRONOMY 

Dirk Brouwer, Yale University Observatory, New Haven, Connecticut. Program for 
the determination of systematic corrections to fundamental catalogues from observa- 
tions of minor planets. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 40 and 41.) 

The number of plates obtained for this gram of integration was so far advanced 

program during the year was 613, of which before the Computing Bureau was changed 

236 were secured at the Yale Southern over to wartime operation. Otherwise the 

Station in Johannesburg, 192 at New task of keeping up the integrations for 

Haven, and 185 at the Allegheny Ob- the preparation of current ephemerides 

servatory of the University of Pittsburgh, might have been too heavy for the Ob- 

The number of plates measured during servatory. 

the year was 222, of which 78 were meas- Dr. Land has nearly completed a dis- 

ured by Miss Ruth Huff and 144 by Dr. cussion of the observations of (57) Mne- 

Gustav Land. mosyne. 

The number of measured plates is con- The asteroid program is intimately con- 
siderably lower than last year. This de- nected with the zone catalogue program of 
crease is entirely due to the impossibility Yale Observatory, since the star positions 
of making regular shipments of plates from obtained in the zone catalogue program are 
South Africa, and to the depletion of the used in the reduction of the photographic 
star? of assistants at the Yale Observatory positions of the asteroids. Volumes 13 and 
because of their employment elsewhere. 14 of the Transactions of the Astronomical 

The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Observatory in Yale University were pub- 
Computing Bureau has 'been occupied to lished in June 1943. They contain the posi- 
full capacity on war projects, and therefore tions and proper motions of 28,857 stars 
could not undertake any of the compu- between declinations 20 ° and 30 ° south, 
tations that they would have performed Approximately 60 per cent of the total 
for this program in normal circumstances, number of stars in the zone catalogue 
This necessitated the computation at Yale program between declinations 30 ° north 
Observatory of numerical integrations of and 30 ° south have now appeared in 
three planets. It is fortunate that the pro- printed catalogues. 

S. A. Mitchell, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Astronomical studies 
at the Leander McCormic\ Observatory. (For previous reports see Year Books 
Nos. 38 to 41.) 

It is a most curious fact that in the pared with the outer part. In our own 

present state of astronomical investigation galaxy we are confused by the presence 

we know more concerning the general of multitudes of faint near-by stars, and 

structure of certain external galaxies than by clouds of interstellar dust which blot 

we know about our own Milky Way out many parts of the Milky Way, includ- 

system. In an external galaxy well situated ing much of the most interesting region of 

and not too distant, we can see at a glance all, the nucleus. 

where the condensations lie and just how Two contributions toward the eventual 

large and bright is the nucleus when com- clarification of our own galactic structure 

2 3 



2 , CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

have been made at this observatory dur- has hitherto been supposed. Also it seems 

ing the year. A study of the motions of 82 that the relatively rare red giants constitute 

dwarf M stars, discovered by the charac- a separate system of their own. This is in 

teristic appearance of their spectra on plates line with current astrophysical conjectures 

taken with the 10-inch Cooke prismatic as to the different origin of giants and 

camera, reveals that their average velocity main-sequence stars. 

in space is considerably smaller than pre- Continuing his search for invisible com- 

viously had been supposed. It now appears panions of dwarf M emission stars, Dr. 

that the mean kinetic energy of the dwarf Dirk Reuyl has made a careful discussion 

M stars is about equal to that of the A-type of the McCormick photographs of Cin- 

stars. This fact suggests that equipartition cinnati 1244, first reported on briefly two 

of energy may obtain among all main- years ago. From 109 plates spread over 

sequence stars. the years from 1915 to 1942, he found a 

An interesting confirmation of this hy- faint companion with a mass of only three- 
pothesis has been found in the spectral hundredths of that of the sun. The period, 
statistics of the second McCormick general tentatively fixed at 26.5 years, will be re- 
proper motion program, now nearing com- vised by the help of future observations, 
pletion. Thus it seems certain that the ap- In last year's report (Year Book No. 41) 
parent distribution of stars of the main Drs. Reuyl and Holmberg described a third 
sequence perpendicular to the galactic body in the system of 70 Ophiuchi with the 
plane is just about what might be ex- very diminutive mass of one-hundredth that 
pected on the assumption that the stars of the sun. These two tiny stars found at 
behave like molecules in an isothermal the McCormick Observatory are of smaller 
atmosphere. The relatively massive A stars mass than the third object in the system 
are highly concentrated toward the galactic of 61 Cygni, which has a mass one-sixtieth 
plane, while the somewhat less massive F of that of the sun, and was announced by 
stars at the same distance are less concen- Strand of Swarthmore as "planetary" on 
trated, and the degree of concentration account of the similarity to the mass of 
closely approximates that predicted from Jupiter. Apart from the bodies in our own 
the kinetic theory. Further confirmation solar system, these three celestial objects 
of the same sort was found in the Berge- are the only ones yet known that have 
dorf spectral statistics, which extend to masses less than one-tenth of the solar mass, 
fainter stars than can be investigated from Henry Norris Russell has investigated 
the McCormick spectra. It appears that the the probable physical characteristics of such 
thirteenth-magnitude G stars, the great ma- a small celestial body in orbital motion 
jority of which belong to the main se- around a more massive primary. He con- 
quence, concentrate rather less than the F eludes that in internal constitution the ob- 
stars at the same distance, in fact, just ject of small mass is probably more similar 
about as would be expected as a resultant to a star than to any of the planets in the 
of their smaller average mass. solar system. However, he argues, since at 

Stars of the giant branch, on the other most it is only feebly self-luminous and 

hand, have much larger kinetic energies must shine mainly by reflected light, it is 

and correspondingly smaller galactic con- within the bounds of accepted usage to 

centration. It seems to follow that the call these small objects "planets." 

galactic star clouds must be composed of Visitors to the observatory during the 

a much higher percentage of dwarfs than year included Miss Edith M. Janssen, of 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: ASTRONOMY 



25 



Vassar College, and Dr. P. C. Keenan, 
both of whom made investigations with 
the spectra obtained by the Cooke pris- 
matic camera. In the summer of 1943, Dr. 
Mitchell was given the use of the 60-inch 
reflector at Mount Wilson Observatory in 
order to obtain radial velocities from 
spectra of tenth-magnitude A and K stars 
included in the second McCormick proper 
motion program. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Holmberg, Erik. A determination of the mass 
ratios and parallaxes of Castor and 70 
Ophiuchi. Astron. Jour., vol. 50, p. 100 
(i943). 



Reuyl, Dirk. Trigonometric parallaxes of fifty 
stars. Astron. Jour., vol. 50, p. 117 (1943). 

The variable proper motion of Cincinnati 

1244. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, p. 186 (1943). 

and Erik Holmberg. On the existence of 



a third component in the system of 70 
Ophiuchi. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, p. 41 

(i943)- 

Vyssotsky, A. N. Dwarf M stars found spectro- 
photometrically. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 97, 

P- 381 (i943)- 
and Emma T. R. Williams. McCormick 

spectral statistics. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 98, 

p. 185 (1943). 
Galactic structure and kinetic 

theory. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 98, p. 187 

(i943)- 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Washington, District of Columbia 
L. H. ADAMS, Director 



As was stated in the previous annual 
report, the customary activities of the 
Laboratory have been discontinued, and all 
space and facilities have been applied to a 
variety of investigations aimed at the de- 
velopment of improved devices of warfare 
and including both fundamental research 
and the application of basic principles. 
This work is being carried out under the 
auspices of the National Defense Research 
Committee of the Office of Scientific Re- 
search and Development, under contracts 
between the Institution and the OSRD. 
The investigations utilize the full-time 
services of all the regular personnel of 
the Laboratory, except five staff members 
who have taken important assignments 
in other government activities directly 
related to the war effort. The Laboratory 
building also houses a governmental office, 
namely that of NDRC's Division One, 
which has supervision over an extensive 



and closely coordinated series of investiga- 
tions, of which those under one of the 
Laboratory's contracts are a part. 

The situation continues as reported last 
year, the principal difference being an ex- 
pansion of the program. About 50 addi- 
tional employees, including scientific in- 
vestigators, technicians, and office workers, 
have been engaged at the Laboratory, on 
a temporary basis, for the purpose of carry- 
ing forward the investigations with all 
possible speed. The particular items of re- 
search and development have been under- 
taken for the most part at the direct request 
of the Army and Navy and in close 
cooperation with these agencies. 

During the past year it was found prac- 
ticable to put in final form for publica- 
tion a few articles dealing with the pre- 
vious work of the Laboratory. Abstracts 
of these papers follow. 



SUMMARY OF PUBLISHED WORK 



(1072) A review of "X-ray crystallography, an 
introduction to the investigation of crys- 
tals by their diffraction of monochro- 
matic X-radiation," by M. J. Buerger. 
George Tunell. Amer. Mineralogist, vol. 
27, pp. 780-781 (1942). 

Professor Buerger's book is devoted to the 
geometry of the space patterns in crystals; it 
thus deals with the crystal class, the space 
lattice (its type and dimensions), and the 
space group, and will be very useful to all 
those having to investigate crystals with 
X-rays. 

The moving-film methods, which permit 
the straightforward determination of the geo- 
metric properties mentioned above, occupy the 
largest part of the book. They include the 



Weissenberg method, the Sauter method, 
the Schiebold method, and the Dejong and 
Bouman method. The earlier rotation and os- 
cillation methods are also discussed in detail. 
The equi-inclination Weissenberg method 
receives the largest amount of space devoted 
to any one method; the reviewer considers 
this to be in keeping with its comparative 
utility. In a section entitled "Advantages of 
taking Weissenberg photographs by the 
equi-inclination method," Professor Buerger 
writes: "It is uniquely possible for the equi- 
inclination method to record central lattice 
rows as straight lines, and thus permit easy 
reconstruction of the reciprocal lattice, and 
also, more generally, to record the lattice rows 
of all layers as curves of similar shape, and 



27 



28 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



consequently permit indexing directly on the 
film." These important advantages of the 
equi-inclination method he discovered several 
years ago. Additional advantages of the equi- 
inclination Weissenberg method over the 
methods involving perpendicular incidence 
might well have been mentioned explicitly at 
this point; for example, with the equi-inclina- 
tion method there is no blind area around the 
rotation axis in any reciprocal lattice layer, 
so that no planes of low indices fail to register 
on the diffraction photographs. (Analysis of 
intensities is left outside the scope of the book, 
but since some mention is made of intensity 
factors it may be noted in passing that it has 
been shown by the reviewer that the equi- 
inclination method has equally important ad- 
vantages in respect to the intensities of the 
diffraction spots.) Besides the chapters deal- 
ing with experimental methods, others are 
devoted to the following topics: Some geo- 
metrical aspects of lattices; the diffraction of 
X-rays by crystals; space-group extinctions; 
the reciprocal lattice; geometrical interpreta- 
tion of Bragg's Law — application of the re- 
ciprocal lattice* to the solution of X-ray dif- 
fraction problems; the geometry of oblique 
cells and their reciprocals; the experimental 
determination of the lattice constants belong- 
ing to the oblique systems; the theory of 
attaining precision in the determination of 
lattice constants; the precision determination 
of the linear and angular lattice constants of 
single crystals; the theory and interpretation 
of reciprocal lattice projections. 

(1073) A graph for determining angle and direc- 
tion of pitch of lineations in the field. 
Earl Ingerson and O. F. Tuttle. Amer. 
Mineralogist, vol. 28, pp. 209-210 (1943). 

When no lineation compass is available, 
the direction and angle of pitch can be 
determined from the dip and strike of the 
i'-plane containing the lineation, and the angle 
that it makes with the strike of the j"-plane, 
measured in that plane. Use of a prepared 
graph, such as is described here, requires 
less equipment than making a constructional 
solution for each determination with a stereo- 



graphic or a gnomonic projection, or by de- 
scriptive geometry. Furthermore, it is faster 
and just as accurate. 

(1074) Solubility of solids in water vapor. 
George W. Morey. Proc. Amer. Soc. 
Testing Materials, vol. 42, pp. 980—988 
(1942). 

A discussion of the theory underlying the 
solubility of solids in steam under high pres- 
sure, with special reference to those systems 
of interest in the control of deposits in high- 
pressure boilers and turbines. 

(1075) Iridescent garnet from the Adelaide Min- 
ing District, Nevada. Earl Ingerson and 
Julian D. Barksdale. Amer. Mineralogist, 
vol. 28, pp. 303-312 (1943). 

Garnets from a lime-rich layer in the con- 
tact zone of a granodiorite stock near Gol- 
conda, Nevada, show brilliant iridescence 
both on striated crystal faces and in thin 
section. They have a birefringence a little 
more than a third of that shown by ortho- 
clase (0.0025 ±)j and show, superposed on 
the triangular segments that are common in 
lime-contact garnets, lamellae that look like 
polysynthetic twinning. Universal-stage meas- 
urements show that the lamellae are parallel 
to (no) and (in). It appears that the 
iridescence is due to the very fine (in) lamel- 
lae and that it is more intense where the 
individual lamellae are finer. Sections of 
the garnets heated in a furnace show a de- 
crease in birefringence beginning at about 
1060 C and continuing practically to the 
melting point, just below 1250 C. In thin 
sections that have been heated almost to the 
melting point (1225 C) the birefringence 
is very low, but the twinning lamellae and 
iridescence are still visible. 

(1076) Preparation and properties of some com- 
pounds in the system H 2 — Na 2 — P 2 5 . 
Earl Ingerson and George W. Morey. 
Amer. Mineralogist, vol. 28, pp. 448-455 

(i943)- 

Optical properties of all known compounds 
of Na 2 and P 2 5 , both hydrous and anhy- 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



2 9 



drous, are given. For eight of these the data 
are taken entirely from the literature; eight 
have been restudied; five are here described 
optically for the first time. Crystallographic 
and density data are given for some of them. 
The methods of preparing twelve of these 
compounds are given; and for the others, 
methods can be obtained from the literature 
cited. The nomenclature of these phosphates 
is discussed. Refractive indices are given for 
eleven glasses in the system NaP0 3 — 
Na 4 P 2 7 . 

(1077) The compound merwinite (3CaO . MgO . 
2Si0 2 ) and its stability relations within 



the system CaO — MgO — SiOo. (Prelimi- 
nary report.) E. F. Osborn. Jour. Amer. 
Ceram. Soc, vol. 26, pp. 321-332 (1943). 

Preliminary investigations on composi- 
tions between Ca 2 Si0 4 and akermanite 
(Ca 2 MgSi 2 7 ), between merwinite (Ca : ,Mg- 
(Si0 4 ) 2 ) and akermanite, and between mer- 
winite and monticellite (CaMgSi0 4 ) show 
that a field of merwinite appears on the 
liquidus surface of the system CaO — MgO — 
Si0 2 and that merwinite melts incongruently 
at 1575 ° C to Ca 2 Si0 4 , MgO, and liquid. 

(1078) Annual Report for 1942-1943. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Barksdale, ]. D. See Ingerson, E. 

Ingerson, E., and J. D. Barksdale. Iridescent 
garnet from the Adelaide Mining District, 
Nevada. Amer. Mineralogist, vol. 28, pp. 
303-312 (1943). 

and G. W. Morey. Preparation and 

properties of some compounds in the sys- 
tem H 2 — Na 2 — P 2 5 . Amer. Mineralo- 
gist, vol. 28, pp. 44M55 (i943)- 

and O. F. Tuttle. A graph for deter- 



mining angle and direction of pitch of 
lineations in the field. Amer. Mineralogist, 
vol. 28, pp. 209-210 (1943). 
Morey, G. W. Solubility of solids in water vapor. 



Proc. Amer. Soc. Testing Materials, vol. 42, 
pp. 980-988 (1942). 
— See Ingerson, E. 



Osborn, E. F. The compound merwinite 
(3CaO . MgO . 2Si0 2 ) and its stability rela- 
tions within the system CaO — MgO — Si0 2 . 
(Preliminary report.) Jour. Amer. Ceram. 
Soc, vol. 26, pp. 321-332 (1943). 

Tunell, G. A review of "X-ray crystallography, 
an introduction to the investigation of crys- 
tals by their diffraction of monochromatic 
X-radiation," by M. J. Buerger. Amer. Min- 
eralogist, vol. 27, pp. 780-781 (1942). 

Tuttle, O. F. See Ingerson, E. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

Washington, District of Columbia 
JOHN A. FLEMING, Director 

SUMMARY 



The retarding effect of the war on the 
progress of geophysical research, indicated 
in last year's report, has continued to influ- 
ence progress in geomagnetism and geo- 
electricity during this report-year, July i, 
1942 to June 30, 1943. Difficulties of com- 
munication between countries have in- 
creased, and scientific investigations have 
been largely turned toward developments 
more nearly connected with the require- 
ments of modern warfare. Fortunately, 
many established organizations and observ- 
atories have found it possible to main- 
tain at least part, if not all, of their pro- 
grams, so that the loss of continuity in 
accumulating data is not too serious. Un- 
fortunately, the war does prevent cruising 
of the British Admiralty magnetic-survey 
vessel Research, and the resulting inability 
to obtain additional data over the oceans, 
to determine the important changes with 
the years in the geomagnetic elements, is 
most serious— the more so because of the 
need for these data in maintaining iso- 
magnetic charts, so vital for purposes of 
navigation, defense, and offense. 

It is gratifying that use in the emergency 
is constantly growing for work done since 
the initiation of the Department in 1904. 
The past year has emphasized particularly 
the increasing importance of the observa- 
tories. At least 95 per cent of the services 
of personnel and all the laboratory, shop, 
observatory, and building facilities of the 
Department were devoted to investigations 
and solutions of war problems. Though 
this apparently has hampered the continua- 
tion of the regular program, many of the 



results obtained in connection with special 
war problems are of great peacetime value. 
As in previous years during the war, and 
in conformity with the action of the Trus- 
tees, the services of the regular scientific 
and administrative personnel and the use 
of facilities have been contributed without 
charge to the government. These services 
during the report-year totaled over 34,400 
hours for the scientific staff and over 4800 
for the administrative staff; the corre- 
sponding totals for the whole period of the 
emergency since August 1940 were 91,000 
and 16,600 respectively. In addition, the 
personnel of the Watheroo, Huancayo, 
and College observatories were engaged in 
work proving of great use in the war effort. 
Twelve of the regular and temporary scien- 
tific personnel were on leave of absence in 
war activities on June 30, 1943. The De- 
partment was engaged on ten nonprofit 
contracts with the Army, Navy, and Office 
of Scientific Research and Development, on 
urgent projects. To assist in the develop- 
ment of these projects, additional pro- 
fessional, computing, and clerical assistants 
were engaged. The maximum number of 
the staff during the year was 247. Thanks 
must again be extended for the generous 
action of universities and industrial or- 
ganizations in granting leaves of absence 
and extending technical advice, as well as 
to many Selective Service boards for grant- 
ing deferments of professionally trained 
men. 

Review of Year's Progress 

Cosmic relations. Cosmic data were as- 
sembled and analyzed (1) to increase the 



3i 



32 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



understanding of solar, geomagnetic, and 
ionospheric relationships, and (2) to im- 
prove the technique of short-term fore- 
casting of ionospheric disturbances. Elec- 
tron-density in the ionospheric regions has 
continued to diminish as the minimum of 
the 11-year cycle of activity approaches. 
Some magnetic and ionospheric disturb- 
ances occurred, and the isolation of solar 
regions responsible for terrestrial disturb- 
ances was simplified by the reduced solar 
activity. Solar corona of high intensity 
and observed activity in flocculi on the 
disk were found apparently the most prom- 
ising criteria for anticipation of magnetic 
disturbances. The beginning of the new 
sunspot-cycle indicates an early increase of 
solar, magnetic, and ionospheric activity. 
Ionospheric absorption, sporadic E-region 
ionization, aurora, and magnetic bays and 
character-figures were found to be related 
in fairly definite ways, in most cases ap- 
proximating direct proportionality. Meth- 
ods of obtaining accurate visual records of 
magnetic phenomena were developed, and 
one visually recording instrument was con- 
structed. Useful operational material re- 
garding ionospheric disturbances affecting 
radio circuits was supplied to the Army 
and Navy. 

Geomagnetic investigations. Tables of 
the changes in annual mean value of the 
geomagnetic field with sunspot-cycle, the 
average annual variations, daily post-per- 
turbations, and average solar daily varia- 
tion for the 38-year period from 1905 to 
1942 were nearly completed. A world-chart 
of magnetic vertical intensity was con- 
structed. Instruments for the measure- 
ment of short-period magnetic fluctuations 
were designed, constructed, and placed in 
operation. 

A visually recording magnetograph was 
developed. The development of a portable 
magnetograph well suited for field-use was 
begun. A magnetic variometer of universal 



pattern was designed and constructed, in- 
corporating a valuable improvement in the 
detecting element for vertical intensity, and 
suited to the making of measurements on 
a moving platform such as is available 
aboard ship. 

It was found from theory that for geo- 
magnetic fluctuations of periods of order 
50 seconds, only slight magnetic shielding 
is furnished by the first few hundred 
meters of sea-water. A practical formula 
for prediction of geophysical time-series 
was evolved. 

Terrestrial electricity. Improvements 
were made in methods and instruments for 
measuring the rate of ionization. The 
technique of preparing quartz suspension- 
systems for sensitive instruments was 
improved. 

Further analyses of data obtained at the 
observatories, particularly Watheroo, led 
to more satisfactory interpretations of sev- 
eral characteristic aspects of atmospheric 
electricity at specific stations. Study of 
observed variation with wind-velocity of 
the atmospheric-electric elements at Wath- 
eroo has improved understanding of effects 
of smoke distributed in the atmosphere. 
Evidence was obtained from discussions 
of atmospheric-electric data at Watheroo 
confirming the hypothesis that radioactive 
matter accumulates in the lower air dur- 
ing times of calm and is mixed with the 
higher layers of air during times of higher 
wind-velocity. 

The theory and limitations of the use 
of the columnar resistance of the atmos- 
phere were examined and methods of anal- 
ysis improved; interpretations previously 
made of some atmospheric-electric phe- 
nomena in terms of columnar resistance 
of the atmosphere were placed on a better 
foundation, and in some cases modified or 
extended. 

It was estimated from experimental in- 
vestigations that the particles in exhaled 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM ^ 

breath — presumably the chief factor in re- Alaska, in July 1941 was maintained in 
during the electrical conductivity of the full operation. Special studies relating to 
air in occupied rooms — are much larger ionospheric problems were made by the 
than the ordinary nuclei of condensation, Observatory's staff, and charts showing 
being 3X10 4 times the size of the large graphically the systematic diurnal and 
ion of the atmosphere; this fact may ac- seasonal changes occurring in the trans- 
count for the failure of some investigators mission-characteristics of the ionosphere 
to detect these particles. were prepared. 

Ionosphere. The value of the ionospheric The extensive geophysical programs at 
program undertaken by the Department Huancayo and Watheroo magnetic ob- 
some eight years ago was emphasized by servatories were continued, and all result- 
urgent need of particulars regarding the ing data were promptly communicated 
relations of ionospheric variations and dis- and made available for emergency use. 
turbances. Many confidential studies for Because of commercial requirements, it 
operational application were made, and was necessary to end early in 1943 the 
the results from the Watheroo, Huancayo, long series of earth-current records ob- 
and College observatories were advan- tained at the Tucson Magnetic Observa- 
tageously used in these. The Department tory, a series made possible by cooperation 
was asked to establish additional stations, with the American Telephone and Tele- 
and arrangements were made for these to graph Company, the Mountain States Tele- 
begin operation within a few months — a phone and Telegraph Company, and the 
considerable task as regards equipment, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
obtaining and training of observers, and Cooperation with the Survey in the at- 
housing. mospheric-electric program was continued. 

Nuclear physics. The demands of the Maintenance of international magnetic 

emergency for personnel restricted theo- standards at the Cheltenham Magnetic 

retical work in nuclear physics. The need Observatory of the United States Coast 

for an operating cyclotron in the region and Geodetic Survey was effected through 

of Washington to meet certain war re- the Division of Geomagnetism and Seis- 

quirements became more pressing, and mology of the Survey, 

all efforts of the few members of staff Though no field-work other than at the 

available in laboratory and shop were observatories could be undertaken, it was 

concentrated on completing the equipment possible to assist various governments, 

for actual use. Excellent progress was through loans of magnetic instruments, in 

made, and preliminary tests indicated satis- undertaking new magnetic surveys and 

factory operation within the year. The obtaining repeat-observations at established 

continued cooperation of the National stations. 

Cancer Institute, in continuing the assign- Miscellaneous. The Department was for- 

ment of Physicist D. B. Cowie of its staff, tunate in having on active duty three of 

and of the Naval Research Center must its retired staff — }. W. Green, A. Smith, 

be credited with a large measure of the and W. F. Wallis — whose services were of 

progress made. great value in the emergency. 

Observatory- and field-wor\. The com- Philip E. Brooke, who so faithfully 

plete magnetic, auroral, and ionospheric served as caretaker and night watchman 

observatory established in collaboration for 25 years, retired from active duty on 

with the University of Alaska at College, March 31, 1943. 
6 



34 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



INVESTIGATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Those of the regular staff engaged at 
Washington on investigations and experi- 
ments in geomagnetism were Fleming, 
J. W. Green, Johnston, Miss Lange, 
McNish, Scott, Torreson, Vestine, Wal- 
lis, and Wells; Shapley, of the tempor- 
ary staff, made substantial contributions. 
McNish gave all his time to supervision 
of temporary employees engaged on war 
research for the National Defense Re- 
search Committee. Torreson was on leave 
with the Office of Scientific Research and 
Development; the others named averaged 
at least 95 per cent of their time on mat- 
ters directly or indirectly related to the 
war effort. Many of these matters had to 
do with instrumental techniques and theo- 
retical investigations of first importance 
to geomagnetism. A certain amount of 
other research was accomplished and is 
reported below. 

Permanent Field 

The study of methods of analyzing and 
interpreting the geomagnetic field was con- 
tinued. Data on magnetic anomalies in 
various parts of the world were compiled 
for determining their relation to geological 
formations. An isodynamic world-chart of 
vertical intensity for epoch 1940 was pre- 
pared. Isoporic charts of recent epoch 
were found regionally to show great 
changes in form from those prepared by 
the Department for epoch 1922. A simple 
method for prediction and extrapolation 
of certain types of geophysical time-series 
was evolved. 

The average monthly values for all 
available stations of the solar daily mag- 
netic variation on quiet days, S q , were 
derived for the mean of the 12 years from 
1922 to 1933. Detailed examination was 
made of the daily variability of the cur- 



rent-system for S q with reference to the 
effect of this variability on the reduction of 
field-observations to , mean of day. An 
anomalous condition in S q similar to that at 
Huancayo in the Western Hemisphere, 
though less marked, was found to exist at 
Manila in the Eastern Hemisphere. The 
phase of S q was determined to be prac- 
tically independent of the amplitude of S q , 
apart from seasonal influences. 

Daily, weekly, monthly, and annual 
ranges in the geomagnetic elements in any 
latitude were derived, and the probabilities 
of ranges of various magnitudes deduced. 
An extensive study was made of recorded 
frequencies and magnitudes of geomag- 
netic fluctuations with durations of ten 
seconds to several hours. It was found 
that equipment heretofore generally used 
at observatories is adequate for detecting 
fluctuations of durations greater than ten 
seconds. 

The reductions and discussions of the 
magnetic data obtained by the United 
States Antarctic Expedition of 1939— 1941 
were completed, and the manuscript was 
prepared at the Department by Fitzsim- 
mons, magnetic observer of the Expedition, 
and forwarded for publication to the 
United States Department of the Interior. 

Magnetic Disturbances and Cosmic 
Relations 

The latitude-distribution in amplitude 
and phase of the yearly changes in the 
annual means of geomagnetic elements 
with sunspot-cycle was determined and 
estimated for each year from 1905 to 1940. 
A similar derivation was made for all 
latitudes for the annual variation and post- 
perturbation. Estimates were made of the 
induced currents flowing in the oceans due 
to short-period geomagnetic fluctuations. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM ^ 

A group of professional associate work- ridian of date, (6) average intensity, C, of 

ers, under the supervision of Vestine and the green coronal line referred to the 

Miss Lange with the assistance of others central meridian, and (7) transmission- 

of the regular staff, especially Johnston disturbance figures, TD. The solar data 

and Scott, compiled data on the frequen- are not homogeneous because of differences 

cies of geomagnetic fluctuations of various in observing conditions; the resulting 

amplitudes and durations and on the re- graphs are similar at many times but differ 

duction of geomagnetic data to epoch. conspicuously in detail. Many instances of 

Magnetic activity during the report-year nearly simultaneous features are evident, 
showed recurrence-tendencies of disturbed the best being at about November 2, 1942; 
and quiet periods. The tendency for mag- others are August 23, September 18, No- 
netic disturbances to recur at intervals of vember 29, December 26, 1942, and March 
about 27 days was very pronounced with 23, April 6, April 21, and May 17, 1943. 
the smaller storms during this period of There are, however, as many more cases 
minimum solar activity. One storm-se- where magnetic disturbances had no ob- 
quence started on July 14-16, 1942, and vious solar cause, and cases where solar 
reached its maximum on October 28—31 activity had no magnetic counterpart, 
with the severest storm of the report-year. Magnetic activity and properties of the 
It later divided into two disturbances ionosphere parallel roughly the 11 -year 
spaced several days apart, and was traced solar-activity cycle. The last minimum in 
into March 1943. The disturbed period that cycle occurred in 1933 and another 
August 16—27 recurred in .September and minimum is due between 1943 and 1945. 
again in October. Another disturbed pe- It is of considerable practical value to the 
riod, centered about April 3, repeated field of communications to foretell the 
itself in the succeeding three cycles. Dur- minimum and hence the time when an 
ing the year there was a high percentage increase in solar and geomagnetic activity 
of disturbed days, but no really large may be expected. Progress of the activity- 
storms. The previous 12-month period had cycle was compared with the magnetic 
three storms of greater intensity than the index u (smoothed), and with average 
one of October 29, 1942, but there were maximum critical frequency of the F 2 - 
14 per cent more days appreciably dis- layer (o9 h , 75 ° west meridian time) at 
turbed in 1942-1943 than in 1941-1942. Huancayo. The parallelism of critical fre- 
Thus, rather than by severe magnetic quency, which is proportional to the square 
storms with their spectacular effects, the root of electron-density, with sunspot-num- 
past year was characterized by mild dis- ber was much closer than that of either 
turbances during a relatively high per- factor with the magnetic-index curve, and 
centage of the time. suggests the preferability of ionospheric 

General comparison and discussion were measurements as direct indicators of ter- 
made of the following geomagnetic and restrial effects of sunspot-activity. 
solar phenomena during July 1, 1942 to Radio "blackouts" in polar regions are 
June 30, 1943: (1) American magnetic found to occur during magnetic bays — 
character-figure, Ca, (2) relative sunspot- typical magnetic disturbances of short dura- 
number, R, (3) area, S, of sunspots in the tion which are preceded and followed by 
central zone, (4) area, F, of flocculi in the generally undisturbed magnetic conditions, 
central zone, (5) average total area, P, These bays are very pronounced near the 
of prominences referred to central me- auroral zone, although their magnetic ef- 



3 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



fects extend to equatorial regions. The from the tip of the pointer to the metallic 

similarity of these blackouts to the well plate makes a record on a sheet continu- 

known daylight fade-outs is marked. Both ously moving through the spark-gap. Thus 

effects appear to be caused by absorption a succession of points burned in the paper 

due to intense ionization of the lower makes immediately apparent variation of 

ionosphere. The polar blackouts, so preva- the Earth's field with time, 

lent during all magnetic disturbances, must In a second method, a photoelectric cell 

result from particle bombardment (or is made to follow the light-beam reflected 

equivalent) from the Sun. from a mirror rigidly fastened to the sus- 
pended magnet of a variometer. A pen 

Instrumental Developments attached to, or synchronized with the 

photocell gives a record in ink of the 

The close relations between magnetic deflections of the variometer. Any un- 
and ionospheric disturbances have indi- balance of light falling on a twin photocell 
cated the need for a visually recording results in a movement of the photocell to 
magnetic variometer of simple construe- a new position, seeking a balance. When 
tion. An instrument of this type would equal amounts of light fall on both sec- 
permit immediate assessment of degree of tions of the photocell, the moving pen 
disturbance and application of the observed stops until a change in magnetic field 
correspondence between ionospheric and again causes an unbalance. This instru- 
magnetic phenomena, especially when ment has attractive remote-recording pos- 
operated in high latitudes. The onset of sibilities. The soundness of the principle 
a magnetic disturbance is usually recog- was demonstrated by an experimental 
nizable from standard magnetic records model, and further development is con- 
before the storm has reached its major templated. 

phase. Magnetic recordings, however, are Another type of visual recorder utilizes 
made on photographic paper, and the special photographic paper which shows 
daily traces are not available for inspection a trace, immediately visible through a red 
until the paper has been processed. This filter, of deflections of the light-beam from 
is generally too late for immediate appli- a standard variometer. A standard hy- 
cation of established relations. A visual drographic recorder was adapted for use 
recording variometer would overcome this with this equipment. One instrument was 
difficulty and make possible short-term completed, tested, and assigned for field- 
evaluation of expected local ionospheric tests shortly after the end of the report-year, 
disturbances. Practical use of the 24-hour Variometers were designed for measur- 
recurrence-tendency of magnetic bays in ing short-period geomagnetic fluctuations 
polar regions is one such possible appli- by Vestine, Sherman, and Johnston in col- 
cation, laboration with Messrs. Gebhardt and 

One type of visual recorder incorporat- McComb, of the United States Coast and 

ing a sparking device to plot changes in Geodetic Survey. Of major interest was 

the Earth's field was devised. A long the successful construction of the element 

platinum-tipped pointer attached to the for measuring magnetic vertical intensity, 

magnet-system of the variometer moves along lines formerly less successfully fol- 

over a metallic plate as the suspended lowed by Watson. New detecting ele- 

magnet deflects in the Earth's field. At ments for horizontal intensity and declina- 

intervals of about one minute a spark tion permit the accurate measurement of 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



37 



geomagnetic fluctuations of periods as short 
as one-half second. Sudden changes in field 
such as might give rise to micropulsations 
not recorded by variometers with slower re- 
sponse can be detected and measured with 
these instruments. 

A new variometer of universal pattern 
for horizontal intensity, vertical intensity, 
and declination was designed and con- 
structed with the assistance of Steiner; 
this involves quartz-fiber detecting ele- 
ments and quartz supports developed by 
Sherman. A visually recording magneto- 
graph incorporating this type of universal 
variometer for horizontal intensity and la 
Cour variometer for declination was de- 



veloped by Vestine, Sherman, and others, 
along general lines suggested by Fleming 
and Wells. This design involves a new 
type of quartz-suspension, with T-shaped 
ends, permitting highly stable mounting 
of a magnet-system designed by Sherman. 
Some features have been used in a new 
type of portable magnetograph, already in 
construction, for use in the field as well 
as at observatories. This kind of magneto- 
graph is much needed for continuous, re- 
liable magnetic records over short periods 
(one or two weeks) for control and re- 
duction of field-observations, for which 
records as obtained at widely spaced ob- 
servatories have proved insufficient. 



TERRESTRIAL ELECTRICITY 

The time and personnel devoted to re- toward, improvement of this instrument, 

search in terrestrial electricity were further A clarification of some factors which affect 

restricted this year by the demands of the the counting of nuclei of condensation and 

war. The full time of Rooney and Tor- large ions was effected. The technique of 

reson was devoted to problems concerned making sensitive quartz-fiber systems was 

with war research, and Gish, Sherman, considerably improved (Sherman), 

and Wait, in addition to maintaining the The research in atmospheric electricity 

necessary routine and urgent research of consisted chiefly in studies by analysis and 

the Section, worked Or acted as consultants correlation of observed data and in the in- 



on several war problems. 

Atmospheric Electricity 

Development of instruments, methods, 
and techniques, A report was written on 
the constants, calibrations, and method of 
operation of a set of precision ionization- 
meters, designed for various investigations. 
These meters are now being used by Pro- 
fessor Victor F. Hess, Fordham University, 
New York, in a study of the radioactivity 
of earth-materials. Several improvements 
in the circuits and in the technique of using 
these meters were developed during the 
year (Gish, Sherman). Further experi- 
mental study (Sherman) of the behavior 
of a thin-walled ionization-chamber indi- 



terpretation of the results of such studies, 
as outlined in the following paragraphs. 

Electrode-effect in the atmosphere. A 
study (Sherman) of manifestations of the 
electrode-efrect in the air-conductivity reg- 
istered at the Institution's observatories at 
times when intense electric fields devel- 
oped, led to inferences about a parameter — 
designated the coefficient of combination 
between small ions and large ions — which 
appears in the equations for ionic equilib- 
rium. The values of this coefficient here- 
tofore determined by other methods differ 
so greatly that this approach seemed worth 
while. The value estimated (5.4 X io~ 6 ) is 
within the range of the previously deter- 
mined values. More important, however, 



cates the need of, and points the way is the indication that the value is prac- 



3« 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



tically the same for the three observatories The changes in columnar resistance are 

at Watheroo (Western Australia), Tucson attributed chiefly to changes of either the 

(Arizona), and Huancayo (Peru), which concentration or the vertical distribution, 

differ considerably in altitude (244, 770, or both, of the nuclei of condensation in 

and 3353 meters, respectively), as well as in the lower atmosphere, on the assumption 

certain other aspects of their environment, heretofore made of arbitrary forms of dis- 

Columnar resistance of the atmosphere, tribution. In one phase of the present in- 
The term columnar resistance is used in vestigation, forms of distribution were 
some discussions of atmospheric-electric sought consistent with the observed data 
phenomena to denote the effective electrical and conforming to the meteorological or 
resistance from end to end of a vertical other circumstances probably prevailing at 
column of air of unit cross-sectional area, the time and place of observation. 
Usually this column is conceived to extend The principal results of further analyses 
from the Earth's surface to an indefinite and interpretations of atmospheric-electric 
height, unless a definite height is specified, data, chiefly for Watheroo (Wait), follow: 
This simple concept facilitates the discus- Variation of conductivity and air-earth 
sion and interpretation of some aspects of current with wind-velocity at Watheroo. 
atmospheric electricity, but it is valid only The investigation, reported last year, of 
when certain circumstances obtain in the the correlation between potential-gradient 
atmosphere. Additional assumptions are and wind-velocity at Watheroo was ex- 
involved in some methods which have been tended this year to include the conduc- 
used to estimate columnar resistance, and tivity and air-earth current. It was found 
in some interpretations. A study of these that on smoky days the conductivity is 
was made (Gish) to determine their independent of wind for velocities less 
validity in specific cases. than about 42 miles per hour, but for 

The relative columnar resistance for a greater velocities it increases with an in- 
given station is the ratio of the columnar crease in wind-velocity. This is approxi- 
resistance there to that for some other mately the inverse of the relation found 
station; under certain assumptions it is for potential-gradient, hence the air-earth 
equal to the inverse ratio of the values current undergoes no marked variation 
of the vertical electric conduction-current with wind-velocity. These results suggest 
at the respective stations. Evidence of a lati- that the smoke from near-by bush-fires is 
tude-effect has been previously presented, dispersed in a vertical direction at the 
but this has not generally been taken into higher wind-velocities, with the result that 
account in studies of the relative columnar the concentration in the lower layers is 
resistance (generally the resistance for a diminished, and that in the higher layers 
land station relative to that for the oceans) ; of the air is, more or less correspondingly, 
it was shown that this may lead to anoma- increased. 

lous results. In one case the value was only On non-smoky days, the air-earth cur- 
80 per cent of the corrected value, and with- rent increased slowly with increase in wind- 
out the correction it could not be satis- velocity, particularly for the lower veloci- 
factorily interpreted. Convenient empirical ties, whereas the conductivity decreased 
expressions which accurately describe typi- slowly until at velocities greater than about 
cal data for the resistance of a column 5 miles per hour it became more or less 
extending from the Earth to a height Z, constant. This suggests that on non-smoky 
as a function of Z, were found. days there was some smoke in the atmos- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM ^ 

phere which had come from more distant dition of calm is approached in the 
bush-fires, but that it had been dispersed evening. When the wind remains high 
horizontally by the wind, the total amount throughout the night, and also during the 
in a vertical column decreasing as the wind- daylight hours, the concentration of radio- 
velocity increased. At higher velocities active matter does not vary and the normal 
the concentration of smoke apparently ap- diurnal variation in ionization does not 
proached a limit and the conductivity no develop, 
longer depended upon wind-velocity. Diurnal variation of air-conductivity at 

The ratio of positive to negative con- Watheroo. Air-conductivity depends on 
ductivity generally decreased with increas- the rate of ionization and the number of 
ing wind-velocity except for velocities less condensation-nuclei present. The data 
than 3 miles per hour on non-smoky days, from Watheroo indicate that its normal 
This result may be due to the fact that fair-weather diurnal variation depends pri- 
near the ground the concentration of nega- marily on the rate of ionization; on smoky 
tive ions is reduced by the action of the days, however, the variation in the num- 
electric field, but the mixing produced by ber of condensation-nuclei may be the con- 
wind tends to counteract this electrode- trolling factor. 

effect, to establish a more uniform vertical Diurnal variation of potential-gradient 

distribution of the negative small ions, and in winter at Watheroo. The average di- 

to cause the number of positive and nega- urnal variation of potential-gradient at 

tive ions at any given height to approach Watheroo during the winter is of a type 

the same concentration. Near the ground, quite unlike and during the summer quite 

however, this condition is not realized at like that found over the oceans. This 

the highest velocities investigated, since disparity may be explained as follows: 

the ratio is still greater than unity. During the fair-weather days at Watheroo, 

Diurnal variation of ionization in the the wind generally diminishes to low ve- 

atmosphere. The observed rate of ioniza- locities toward evening and remains so 

tion of the atmosphere at the site of the until early forenoon of the following day. 

Department, obtained by use of a thin- when the velocity increases considerably, 

walled ionization-chamber, often reached During 1927 to 1928, there were 17 fair- 

a maximum in the early morning, then weather days on which the wind remained 

diminished to a minimum in the evening, high during both the night and the day- 

During periods of high wind at night or light hours. Comparison of atmospheric- 

during the day, this type of diurnal varia- electric data for these and for days of 

tion did not develop. This observation normal type indicates that : (a) The maxi- 

tends to confirm the theory previously sug- mum in the normal winter diurnal varia- 

gested, that the usual diurnal variation of tion of potential-gradient at Watheroo oc- 

this element depends on the concentration curs at about 07 11 GMT (i5 h 120 east 

of radioactive matter in the atmosphere meridian time) and over the oceans at 

near the ground. This concentration is about 17 11 GMT. The diurnal variation 

greatest in early morning following a calm for the 17 selected days, however, is very 

night. As the wind-velocity increases dur- similar to that found over the oceans, 

ing the forenoon, the radioactive matter is (b) Between io h and 20 11 , 120 east me- 

scattered and mixed with higher layers of ridian time, the variation of gradient for 

air, and its concentration in the lower normal days in winter at Watheroo is es- 

layers of air is thus reduced until a con- sentially like that for the 17 selected days, 



4 o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



but during the remainder of the day it is 
quite unlike it, since the potential-gradient 
values for the normal days fall considerably 
below those for the selected days, (c) 
Though the conductivity of the lower at- 
mosphere is also about the same for both 
classes of days from io h to 20 h , that for 
the normal day is the greater for the re- 
mainder of the day. (d) The diurnal 
variation of air-earth current for the two 
types of day is similar throughout the 
entire 24 hours. 

These results indicate that the lack of 
similarity in winter between the diurnal 
variation of potential-gradient at Watheroo 
and that over, the oceans is due chiefly to 
the large increase in conductivity at Wath- 
eroo during times of low wind-velocity. 
This increase is to be attributed to a greater 
rate of ionization caused by an accumula- 
tion of radioactive matter in the air near 
the ground. When the wind remains high 
throughout the day, its stirring action pre- 
vents the accumulation of radioactive mat- 
ter; hence the variation of potential-gradi- 
ent on such days is like that over the oceans. 

Diurnal variation of potential-gradient 
in summer at Watheroo. The diurnal 
variation of potential-gradient in summer 
is nearly in phase with that over the oceans. 
This seems to contradict the above ex- 
planation for the winter type. During 
the summer, however, condensation-nuclei 
from smoke tend to counteract the effect of 
the increase of radioactive matter in the air, 
because the smoke is most plentiful dur- 
ing the period when the accumulation of 
radioactive matter is greatest. The ac- 
cumulation of smoke near the ground tends 
to decrease the air-conductivity and to in- 
crease the potential-gradient. Comparison 
of the potential-gradient for smoky days 
in summer at Watheroo with that observed 
simultaneously over the oceans shows that 
the former, particularly during the early 
morning, exhibits a large relative increase. 



The presence of smoke in the lower air 
during the early morning apparently more 
than neutralizes the effect of accumulated 
radioactive matter there. Comparison for 
non-smoky days at Watheroo, however, 
shows that the potential-gradient is rela- 
tively diminished during early morning, 
the concentration of condensation-nuclei in 
the lower air not being great enough to 
counteract completely the effect of the ac- 
cumulated radioactive matter, provided its 
distribution with height is not involved. 

Electrical mobility and size of particles 
from the human breath. The observed 
decrease of the electrical conductivity of 
the air in a room occupied by people has 
been attributed (Wait) to particles, or 
nuclei, introduced into the room with ex- 
haled air. Some investigators, using the 
Aitken nuclei-counter, have not detected 
such particles in samples from the breath, 
because those particles are too large to be 
counted with the types of counter used. 
The average diameter of the particles, esti- 
mated from an experimentally determined 
value of their mobility, is about 2 microns, 
or 30 times that of condensation-nuclei or 
Langevin ions. The mobility derived from 
the results of specially designed experi- 
ments is 3 X io -6 cm 2 volt -1 sec -1 . 

Geoelectricity 

Early in 1943 it was found necessary to 
discontinue the recording of earth-currents 
at Tucson because of increased commercial 
demands for the long-distance telephone 
lines made available by the Bell Telephone 
System. Attention was given (Gish) to 
ways and means for restoring these regis- 
trations. It is desirable that registration of 
earth-currents be continued indefinitely at 
a few well chosen stations, one of which 
should be Tucson. Although the accumu- 
lated data at Tucson are probably adequate 
for the study of the more regular phe- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



41 



nomena (diurnal variation and annual tromagnetic storms. Some such permanent 

variation) of earth-currents, additional data stations are also needed as controls in other 

are required for investigating the more geoelectric investigations likely to be made 

intense irregular aspects, for example elec- in the future. 



INVESTIGATIONS OF THE IONOSPHERE AND ITS RELATION TO 

PROBLEMS OF GEOMAGNETISM 



The fundamentals of the program of 
ionospheric research by the Department 
are outlined in the report for last year 
(Year Book No. 41, pp. 54-58). The 
Earth's magnetic field and long-distance 
radio communication are mutually influ- 
enced by the behavior of the highly ionized 
regions of the Earth's atmosphere extend- 
ing from 50 to 500 miles (or more) into 
space. 

The CIW multifrequency equipments at 
Watheroo, Huancayo, and College con- 
tinued operation (see pp. 46—52). The re- 
ceipt of basic data from scalings and tabu- 
lations maintained at the three observa- 
tories was greatly expedited; thus it was 
possible to make the results of analyses 
and discussions more promptly available 
to military agencies. Arrangements were 
made to establish four additional stations 
and to employ and train necessary per- 
sonnel. The Department's laboratory at 
Kensington, Maryland, was enlarged to 
accommodate this work. The transition 
from peacetime research to wartime proj- 
ects without radical changes in duties has 
been a source of satisfaction to all the 
ionospheric group. When the wealth of 
material now being assembled for the 
armed forces becomes available for public 
discussion and use, knowledge of the 
ionosphere with its effect on radio wave 
propagation and the Earth's magnetism 
will be greatly enhanced. 

The unique position maintained by the 
Department through operation of iono- 
spheric equipment at several field-stations 
resulted in numerous requests for iono- 



spheric data from local agencies and allied 
governments. 

Publications, Conferences, and Post- 
war Plans 

A paper was published by Wells on "Ef- 
fects of solar activity on the ionosphere and 
radio communications" {Proceedings of 
the Institute of Radio Engineers, vol. 31, 
pp. 147-157, 1943), originally presented in 
July 1942 at Cleveland, Ohio. A similar 
paper was presented at the meeting in 
February 1943 of the Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia. 

Certain plans for post-war activities were 
discussed at various conferences with mem- 
bers and representatives of allied govern- 
ments. It is probable that post-war develop- 
ments will see continued close cooperation 
between the research laboratories and the 
organizations capable of utilizing available 
information to immediate advantage. 

Other post-war activities in this field 
probably will be directed toward a better 
understanding of the fundamental relations 
between the Earth's magnetic field, the 
ionosphere, and the Sun — the ionosphere 
being the medium most responsive to solar 
activity which in turn affects the Earth's 
magnetic properties. The study, already 
under way, of correlations between radio 
fade-outs, auroras, sporadic E-region ioni- 
zation, and other unusual phenomena will 
add detail to the composite picture of these 
relations. 

The electronic nature of the ionosphere 
also affords an opportunity for direct meas- 



4 2 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



urement of intensity of the Earth's mag- 
netic field in the ionosphere. Preliminary 
work done on this problem shows that 
such measurements are feasible using 
ionospheric apparatus specially developed 
to measure the separation in frequency be- 
tween the doubly refracted components 
of the exploring radio wave. Such investi- 
gations would undoubtedly pave the way 
to much better understanding of the cur- 



rent-systems and other factors affecting 
geomagnetism. 

Wells was in charge of the ionospheric 
group and was assisted by Peavey and by 
associates from the temporary staff. Mem- 
bers of the staff in the field are noted in 
the reports for the observatories. Berkner 
was on leave of absence during the entire 
report-year and commissioned as Com- 
mander in the United States Navy. 



MAGNETISM AND ATOMIC PHYSICS 

Tuve, Hafstad, Heydenburg, Meyer (re- in the generator, magnet, or control. The 
signed April 15, 1943), Roberts, Abelson, main vacuum-system and its water-cooling 
and L. Schmidt (resigned March 6, 1943) arrangements were completed and tested, 
of the nuclear-physics group were assigned The control-system and wiring, with the 
or engaged full time during the entire exception of the radio-frequency circuits 
report-year on war-research activities; G. K. (see below), were finished and are ready 
Green continued active duty in the Signal for operation. All power-supplies are in- 
Corps of the United States Army. Cowie stalled, but high humidity during the sum- 
assigned from the National Cancer Insti- mer prevented exhaustive tests; the pre- 
tute) had charge of work on the cyclotron, liminary tests, however, show no reason 
in which he was assisted by Ksanda, P. A. to expect trouble providing suitable con- 
Johnson, Buynitzky, F. R. Nichols, and trol of humidity for the entire equipment 
Caherty (to September 30, 1942), all of is installed. The radio-frequency system 
whom gave full time to constructional as- was well under way on June 30, 1943, and 
sembling and wiring matters. Despite this the exciter-component had been installed 
serious depletion of personnel, good prog- and tested. Completion of the system has 
ress was made on the cyclotron. Lack of been delayed because of slow delivery of 
personnel made it necessary to discontinue the Lenoxite insulators for the 30-kilowatt 
for the time being further improvements power-amplifier tubes, 
in the static generator of the Atomic- 



Physics Observatory and most of the 
planned program of research in nuclear 
physics. 

Cyclotron 

The Cyclotron Laboratory and its equip- 
ment are described in Year Books Nos. 
40 (pp. 89-91) and 41 (pp. 61-63). The available in completing the cyclotron pro- 
magnet-system is ready for continued hibited preparation of any manuscripts on 
operation, as tests showed no difficulties work already done. 



Miscellaneous 

It was necessary to forego the proposed 
Annual Conference on Theoretical Physics 
of 1943, which would have been the ninth 
in the series at Washington, because of 
limitations of time and travel. 

Full-time occupation of the few men 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



43 



FIELD-WORK AND REDUCTIONS 
LAND MAGNETIC SURVEY 



Some final revisions and additions of 
new material were made by Wallis and 
Green for the next volume in the series 
of Researches of the Department of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism, on "Land magnetic 
survey, observations, 1927-1940," before 
preparation of the master-copy for offset 
printing. The revisions particularly con- 
cerned the best possible corrections on 
standard for instruments, using more 
complete results of intercomparisons only 
recently made available. Because of the 
urgent requests for the data from many 
organizations actively engaged in the prose- 
cution of the war, both preliminary and 
final values of geographical positions, mag- 
netic elements, and maps were supplied 
various public and private institutions. 

The compilations for construction of new 
isoporic charts of the Earth for all com- 
ponents for epochs 1912.5, 1932.5, and 
1942.5 were continued. Present grave un- 
certainties in geomagnetic charts for var- 
ious regions arise largely from the lack of 
adequate estimates of secular change. The 
new isoporic charts, supplemented by those 
of Fisk for 1922.5, will give a firmer foun- 
dation on which more accurate charts of 
the future can be based. 

The study of the adjustment of geo- 
magnetic charts to mutual consistency in 
all components was continued, including 
improved methods for practical interpola- 
tion in their construction. 

A magnetic chart of vertical intensity for 
epoch 1940 was prepared and was adopted 
for use by the United States Hydrographic 
Office and the British Admiralty. 

Tables to correct field-observations for 
geomagnetic variation in annual mean val- 
ues with sunspot-cycle, annual variation, 
post-perturbation, and solar daily variation 
were compiled for all days during 1905 



through 1942. Corresponding tables for 
the storm-time variation and disturbance 
daily variation are in preparation. 

The development of new and simple 
instruments for observations in the field 
was continued. 

Instruments were loaned to six observa- 
tories for cooperative programs of measure- 
ment. Instruments were also loaned for 
magnetic surveys in South America, South 
Australia, Northern Australia, New Zea- 
land, British East Africa, and the United 
States, and to various war agencies. Inter- 
national standards and corrections to field- 
instruments were maintained in coopera- 
tion with the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, using CIW sine-gal- 
vanometer 1 and CIW Schulze earth- 
inductor 48 at the Survey's Cheltenham 
Magnetic Observatory. 

Field-Operations and Cooperative 
Surveys 

Africa. CIW magnetometer and inductor 
13 remained on loan to Dr. A. Walter, Direc- 
tor of the British East African Meteorological 
Service. Observations included monthly de- 
terminations of the magnetic elements at 
Kabete and reoccupations of established sta- 
tions. 

Dr. A. Ogg, of the Magnetic Branch of the 
Trigonometrical Survey of the Union of 
South Africa, continued active cooperative 
measurements using CIW magnetometer-in- 
ductor 17. 

G. Heinrichs, of Elisabethville Magnetic 
Observatory, Belgian Congo, communicated 
magnetic charts and results of observations in 
the field. 

Australia. The Department of Supply and 
Development at Canberra, through its Aerial, 
Geological and Geophysical Survey of North- 
ern Australia, continued work using CIW 
magnetometer-inductor 18. Chief Geologist 



44 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



J. M. Rayner completed new isogonic and 
isoporic charts of Australasia, based on the 
results of new measurements and others for 
earlier years by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism. Observer-in-Charge W. C. Park- 
inson at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory co- 
operated with the Australian authorities in 
preparing similar charts of recent epoch for 
Australia. 

Astronomer G. F. Dodwell, of the Adelaide 
Observatory, continued to use CIW mag- 
netometer 6 and CIW dip-circle 226, for 
which new dip-needles were supplied by the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

New Zealand. CIW magnetometer-induc- 
tor 27 remained on loan to the New Zealand 
Magnetic Survey of the New Zealand Depart- 



ment of Scientific and Industrial Research. 
Director H. F. Baird reported on October 1, 
1942 that 90 stations had been occupied (48 
in North Island and 42 in South Island) and 
that 18 more were planned (6 in North Island 
and 12 in South Island). 

North, Central, and South America. Mag- 
netometer-inductors 26 and 28 were loaned 
to the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey for use in South America, through ar- 
rangement with the Department of State, in 
continuance of previous surveys in the West- 
ern Hemisphere. 

Loan of equipment to war organizations 
for field-surveys was also made, and included 
standardization of instruments and training 
of observers. 



OBSERVATORY-WORK 

Johnston continued in charge of the Sec- augmented by weekly summaries of mag- 

tion of Observatory-Work. The magnetic netic and ionospheric data, predicted val- 

reductions and compilations for Watheroo, ues of maximum usable frequencies for 

Huancayo, and College magnetic observa- various distances, and current forecasts of 

tories were maintained current with the ionospheric conditions likely to affect radio 

assistance of Scott and Miss Balsam, communication. 

McNish and Torreson were engaged The final reductions of the magnetic 
wholly on war research throughout the observations at Watheroo and Huancayo 
year. Wait continued discussions of the were completed for 1941 and 1942. The 
atmospheric-electric data. The members of hourly values at Huancayo were used to 
staff in residence at the observatories are reduce to epoch the results for many mag- 
mentioned in their respective reports. netic stations obtained in South America 

Continuous records were obtained at by the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Watheroo and Huancayo of the magnetic Survey. The preliminary values of the 
elements, of atmospheric potential-gradient, magnetic elements for all days of these 
and of heights of the ionosphere (by both years are shown in table 1. 
multifrequency and fixed-frequency trans- The cooperative program of reporting 
missions) ; daily meteorological observa- the international geomagnetic three-hour- 
tions and spectrohelioscopic observations range index, K, was continued. The De- 
were made (for periods assigned by the partment also functioned as the receiving, 
International Astronomical Union, but compiling, and distributing agency for this 
only partially at Watheroo because of other measure of magnetic activity, based on re- 
work) . The three-component seismograph ports so far received from 27, 23, and 21 
and precision cosmic-ray meter were con- observatories for 1940, 1941, and 1942, re- 



tinued in operation at Huancayo. The 
magnetic, auroral, and ionospheric pro- 
grams were maintained at College. 
The usual analyses of the data were 



spectively. 

Weekly reports of indices from the 
seven American-operated observatories 
were maintained. Four additional sta- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



45 



tions are currently reporting: College, 
Alaska, through the assistance of the Sig- 
nal Corps of the United States Army; 
Toolangi, Victoria, Australia, by the Aus- 
tralian Radio Research Board, through 
the Royal Australian Air Force; Godhavn 
and Ivigtut, Greenland, by permission of 
the Danish Minister, under the direction 
of the Governor of Greenland, through the 
Department of State of the United States 



at the Department by utilizing all available 
data on geomagnetic activity, namely, in- 
ternational character-figure, C; daily index, 
B, based on the ^-indices from 7 Ameri- 
can-operated observatories (normalized to 
represent world-wide conditions with al- 
lowance for the nonlinearity of the K- 
scales) ; and averages of the eight daily 
indices, Km, for all available observatories. 
The selection permits current reduction of 



TABLE 1 

Annual values of the magnetic elements at the Watheroo and Huancayo magnetic 
observatories as based on magnetograms for all days, i94i and i942 



Year 



Decli- 
nation, 
D 



Incli- 
nation, 





Intensity-components 




Hori- 




North- 


East- 




zontal, 


Total, 


south, 


west, 


Vertical, 


H 


F 


X 


Y 


Z 


Ct) 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 



Local 
mag- 
netic 

CON- 
STANT, 

G 



Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 



1941 

1942......,....;: 


3° 12:3 W 
3 08.2 W 


64° 25:2 S 
64 24.8 S 


24704 
24731 


57216 
57263 


24666 
24694 


-1381 
-1354 


-51608 
-51647 


35723 
35756 



Huancayo Magnetic Observatory 



1941 

1942 


6 50.3 E 
6 45.3 E 


2 13.6 N 
2 12.5 N 


29471 
29438 


29494 
29460 


29262 
29234 


3509 
3462 


1146 
1135 


29477 
29444 



Government and the communication facili- 
ties of the United States Army. Fifty-three 
issues of "Report of geomagnetic activity" 
(DTMCIW nos. 284 to 336) were pre- 
pared and supplied to organizations or in- 
dividuals whose legitimate needs are com- 
patible with the war emergency. 

The selection of the five international 
quiet and disturbed days for each month 
had been made through 1941 under the 
auspices of the International Meteorological 
Organization and derived from the inter- 
national magnetic character-figure, C. Be- 
cause of disturbed world-affairs, the num- 
ber of contributing observatories had de- 
creased from 59 in 1939 to 33 in 194 1. The 
selection of these days for 1942 was made 



magnetic observations from all observa- 
tories for quiet and disturbed days. 

An examination of the mutual consist- 
encies of successive monthly means in 
declination at Huancayo during 1922 to 
1942 was completed by Scott. Additional 
information was made available on the 
effect of the sunspot-cycle on annual 
changes, an effect for which allowance 
must be made in the reduction to epoch 
for magnetic observations in the field. 

The compilation of the annual values 
for the world's magnetic observatories of 
the elements D, H, Z, I, X, Y, and F for 
all days was continued by Fleming and 
Scott. The first installment of the "List 
of magnetic observatories and thesaurus 



4 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



of values" in order of geographic latitude 
from Baie Tichaja (8o?3 north) to Nie- 
megk (52? i north) was published in June 

J 943- 
Cooperative work in geomagnetism and 

geoelectricity was continued with various 
observatories. Our international magnetic 
standards were maintained at the Chelten- 
ham Magnetic Observatory, and the pro- 
grams in atmospheric electricity and earth- 
currents (until early 1943) were continued 
at Tucson Magnetic Observatory; these 
observatories are operated by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The 
magnetic observatory at Ivigtut (Green- 
land), established in 1941, began operation 
in 1943, and special equipment designed 
and constructed by the Department to 
record short-period fluctuations of the 
Earth's field was delivered and is now 
operating. 

Operations at Observatories 

Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, Wath- 
eroo, Western Australia. The Watheroo Mag- 
netic Observatory is situated in latitude 30 ° 
19^1 south and longitude 115 52^6 east of 
Greenwich, 244 meters (800 feet) above sea- 
level. 

The Eschenhagen and la Cour magneto- 
graphs were in continuous operation. Weekly 
determinations of the values of the base-lines 
for the three elements were made. Monthly 
determinations of the scale-value of the hori- 
zontal-intensity and vertical-intensity variome- 
ters were made by magnetic and electric 
methods. Scale-values of the Eschenhagen 
vertical-intensity variometer were also deter- 
mined daily by the electrical method. The 
monthly scale-values for 1942 for both mag- 
netographs are shown in table 2. 

The preliminary values for the annual 
changes in the magnetic elements from 194 1.5 
to 1942.5 deduced from the magnetograms 
for all days, referring the elements to the 
north-seeking end of the needle and reckon- 
ing east declination and north inclination as 



positive, are: declination, + 4'i; horizontal 
intensity, 4-27 gammas; vertical intensity, 
— 39 gammas; inclination, -f 0^4 (see table 1). 
Three-hourly /^-indices of magnetic char- 
acter were assigned and transmitted weekly 

TABLE 2 

Scale-values of magnetographs, Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory, 1942 





Scale- values in 7 /mm 


Month 


Eschenhagen 


LA COUR 


H 
(reduced 
to base- 
line) 


z 

(means 
of daily 
values) 


H 


z 


January . . . 
February . . 
March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September . 
October. . . . 
November . 
December. . 


2.39 
2.40 
2.39 
2.40 
2.40 
2.42 
2.41 
2.41 
2.39 
2.42 
2.40 
2.42 


3.20 
3.28 
3.27 
3.23 
3.28 
3.10 
3.21 
3.11 
3.04 
3.07 
3.17 
3.26 


4.85 
4.54 
4.47 
4.38 
4.34 
4.54 
4.72 
4.71 
4.57 
4.57 
4.59 
4.59 


3.38 
2.87 
3.00 
3.12 
3.43 
3.90 
4.26 
4.08 
3.75 
3.57 
3.66 
3.21 



TABLE 3 

Details of magnetic disturbances recorded 
at the Watheroo Magnetic Observa- 
tory during 1942 





Ranges 


Date 


H 

(7) 


D 

(') 


z 

(7) 


March 1-2 

October 28-31 


212 

112 


31 

18 


257 
115 



to Washington. Descriptions of the principal 
magnetic disturbances during 1942 were pre- 
pared; table 3 gives the essential details of 
these disturbances. 

Magnetic data, especially values of mag- 
netic declination and secular variation, were 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



47 



supplied on request to Australian and United 
States military units. 

The recording of earth-potentials over the 
system of electrodes, described in previous 
reports, was continued and compilation of 
data maintained practically current. Elec- 
trode-resistance and line-insulation tests and 
current plotting of the reduced values indi- 
cate satisfactory performance. Calibrations of 
the recorder were made weekly through 1942 
and monthly thereafter. 



turbances were supplied until October 1942 
to the Department of Air, and thereafter, in 
accordance with a conference of ionospheric 
workers in Sydney (at which W. D. Parkin- 
son represented the Observatory) daily re- 
ports were sent to Mount Stromlo through 
the Department of Air. Warnings of ap- 
proaching ionospheric disturbances were sent 
to the Department of Air as heretofore. The 
computation of predicted monthly curves was 
taken over in October 1942 by the Radio Re- 



TABLE 4 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, Watheroo Magnetic 

Observatory, 1942 



Month 



Potential-gradient 



No. 

selected 

days 



Reduction- 
factor 



Value 
(v/m) 



AlR-CONDUCTIVITY, UNIT 10 -4 ESU 



No. 

selected 

days 



X+ 



x_ 



CX++X-) 



(X+/X-) 



January 

February. ...... ... 

March 

April. ....... . . . . . 

May 

June .,'"'. 

July ,,.• 

August 

September. ........ 

October 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



23 
12 
18 
21 
21 
14 
19 
12 
17 
14 
19 
10 



1.10 



09 



87.4 
77.6 
76.1 
70.2 
66.2 
70.6 
74.4 
88.3 
82.5 
89.0 
85.5 
100.5 



26 
17 
20 
23 
25 
10 
26 
20 
18 
18 
15 
13 



1.64 
1.80 
1.70 
2.08 
2.38 
2.23 
2.28 
2.11 
1.93 
1.73 
1.54 
1.48 



1.62 
1.65 
1.42 
1.89 
1.88 
1.66 
1.80 
1.68 
1.50 
1.37 
1.39 
1.37 



200 



1.10 



80.7 



231 



1.91 



1.60 



3.26 
3.45 
3.12 
3.97 
4.26 
3.89 
4.08 
3.79 
3.43 
3.10 
2.93 
2.85 



3.51 



1.01 
1.09 
1.20 
1.10 
1.27 
1.34 
1.27 
1.26 
1.29 
1.26 
1.11 
1.08 



1.19 



Air-potentials were continuously measured 
by the potential-gradient automatic recorder. 
The mean of two reduction-factor observa- 
tions, 1. 10, agreed with the factor adopted 
last year. Weekly calibrations of the elec- 
trometer were made. Positive and negative 
air-conductivities were continuously recorded 
and weekly calibrations made. Preliminary 
mean values of the atmospheric-electric ele- 
ments are shown in table 4. 

Scalings and reductions . of the automatic 
multifrequency ionospheric records, except 
during brief interruptions, were maintained 
current. Weekly reports of ionospheric dis- 



search Board. Complete summaries and 
copies of tabulations were supplied monthly 
to the Radio Propagation Committee of Aus 
tralia. On and after October 1, 1942, the 
"upper" heights of the F x - and F 2 -layers were 
scaled at hourly intervals, at the request of 
the Radio Propagation Committee, and on 
and after February 1, 1943, hourly scalings 
were made of the "maximum usable fre- 
quency" for a path of 3500 km. 

Regular watches were kept with the Hale 
spectrohelioscope for solar disturbances, in 
accordance with the international scheme, 
until August 1942, when they were discon- 



4» 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



firmed, because of shortage of personnel, 
except for occasional scannings of the Sun's 
disk. 

Regular observations of meteorological 
phenomena were continued throughout the 
year and the automatic recording instru- 
ments were maintained in operation. The 
thrice-daily coded reports on weather, as here- 
tofore, were sent to the forecasting stations at 
Perth and Geraldton. Only essential control- 
observations and reductions were made, and 
most of the scalings had to be deferred. 

TABLE 5 

Rainfall at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 
during 1942 



Month 


Monthly 
total 
(in.) 


No. days 


Average 

for 25 years 

(in.) 


January 

February 

March 

April 


0.46 
0.00 
1.83 
0.80 
3.12 
2.74 
2.08 
2.06 
1.34 
0.51 
0.03 
0.61 


4 



7 

6 

11 

18 

10 

21 

13 

9 

1 

3 


0.34 
0.53 
1.04 
0.92 


May 


2.21 


June 

Tuly 


3.38 
2.92 


August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


2.20 
1.27 
0.83 
0.32 
0.39 


Totals 


15.58 


103 


16.35 



Table 5 shows the monthly rainfall at the 
Observatory during 1942. The data obtained 
with the Friez anemograph were not good 
because of faults which have developed in 
the float chamber; replacement has not yet 
been received to put the recorder in first- 
class condition. 

W. C. Parkinson has continued as Observer- 
in-Charge. Observer Norman left the Observ- 
atory on October 1, 1942. W. D. Parkinson 
continued as part-time Junior Observer, the 
remainder of his time being occupied with 
work for the Department of Air. Because 
of the greatly reduced staff and the increase 



in work essential for defense purposes, the 
Royal Australian Air Board detailed observers 
and other assistants to the Observatory. A 
mechanic and assistant mechanic were regu- 
larly employed. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made of the 
valuable assistance rendered to the Observa- 
tory during the past year by the following 
departments of the Australian government 
and individuals: the Department of Trade 
and Customs for continued favorable action 
in regard to imported equipment and sup- 
plies; the Directorate of Signals of the De- 
partment of Air for transmission of magnetic 
and other data through their radio channels, 
for facilities for the safe delivery of records 
from the Observatory to Washington, and 
for cooperation in personnel matters; to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel West, CSO of the Line of 
Communications, Western Australia Area 
Signals, and Sir David Rivett, Executive Offi- 
cer of the Council for Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research, for assistance in personnel 
problems. 

The necessary reduction in staff arising 
from the dearth of manpower has imposed 
added demands on the personnel to main- 
tain instrumental equipment in first-class 
order and to keep essential work current. All 
have cheerfully and efficiently cooperated in 
every way to insure the success of the year's 
operations. 

Huancayo Magnetic Observatory. The 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory is in lati- 
tude 12 02^7 south and longitude 75 ° 20^4 
west. It is about S l / 2 miles nearly due west 
of the town of Huancayo in the central valley 
of the Peruvian Cordillera, and 3350 meters 
(11,000 feet) above sea-level. 

The data collected at the Observatory are 
obtained, for the most part, from photo- 
graphic continuously recording automatic ap- 
paratus. Time-control marks are registered 
on the records by electrically operated me- 
chanical or optical devices actuated by a mas- 
ter-clock which is checked and adjusted 
through radio time-signals. 

Two complete three-element Eschenhagen 
and rapid-run la Cour magnetographs are 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



49 



operated. A low-sensitivity la Cour horizon- 
tal-intensity variometer also records continu- 
ously on the Eschenhagen magnetogram. 
Weekly base-lines were determined for the 
magnetograms by absolute magnetic observa- 
tions with magnetometer and earth-inductor. 
Scale-value determinations were regularly 
made by the Helmholtz-coil method. Mean 
monthly scale-values for the magnetic re- 
corders are given in table 6. Orientation- 
tests and adjustments for the Eschenhagen 
magnetograph were made in April and May 



the instruments were made weekly and the 
reduction-factor for the potential-gradient 
was determined quarterly by comparisons 
with potentials measured on the standardiza- 
tion-plot near by. The preliminary monthly 
mean values of the atmospheric-electric re- 
sults for the year 1942 are given in table 7. 
Condensation-nuclei counts were made daily 
at o8 h , 75 west meridian time. 

Earth-current potentials were recorded con- 
tinuously by a Leeds and Northrup record- 
ing potentiometer for two separate systems 



TABLE 6 

ScALE-VALUES OF MAGNETOGRAPHS, HUANCAYO MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, 1 942 



Month 



Eschenhagen 



D 

(7mm) 



H 

(reduced 
to base- 
line) 
(7/mm) 



Z 

(means 
of daily 
values) 
(7/mm) 



LA COUR 



H 

(7/mm) 



Z 

(7/mm) 



January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 



0.992 
0.990 
0.990 
0.988 
0.992 
0.986 
0.992 
0.986 
0.989 
0.995 
0.986 
0.994 



2.00 
2.00 
1.97 
1.98 
1.97 
1.98 
2.00 
1.99 
2.02 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 



4.60 
4.48 
4.44 
4.51 
4.51 
4.35 
4.41 
4.39 
4.38 
4.35 
4.25 
4.09 



6.24 
6.19 
5.96 
6.19 
6.34 
6.23 
6.10 
6.76 
6.24 
6.35 
6.17 
6.02 



4.67 
4.65 
4.66 
4.67 
4.70 
4.69 
4.70 
8.04 
7.03 
7.11 
7.52 
7.35 



1943. Monthly reports of all important mag- 
netic storms and disturbances were made. 

The preliminary values for the annual 
changes in the magnetic elements from 194 1.5 
to 1942.5 deduced from the magnetograms 
for all days, referring the elements to the 
north-seeking end of the needle and reckon- 
ing east declination and north inclination as 
positive, are: declination, — 5'o; horizontal 
intensity, — 33 gammas; vertical intensity, 
— 11 gammas; inclination, — i'i (see table 1). 

The conductivity of the air (positive and 
negative) and air-potentials were recorded 
continuously. Scale-value determinations for 



of north-south and east-west pairs of ground- 
electrodes. 

Reflections from the ionosphere were con- 
tinuously recorded both on fixed frequency 
of 4800 kc/sec and by the multifrequency 
ionospheric recorder. Daily control-observa- 
tions and monthly calibrations were made. 

As heretofore, meteorological observations 
were made daily at o8 h , 75 ° west meridian 
time, and continuous automatic records were 
made of barometric pressure, air-temperature, 
humidity, velocity and direction of wind, and 
hours of sunshine. The rainfall was meas- 
ured daily; the total for the year from July 



50 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



i, 1942 to June 30, 1943 was 28.39 inches, 
slightly lower than the 21 -year average of 
28.88 inches. Temperatures during the year 
were: maximum, 24?o C; minimum, — 6?o 
C; highest monthly mean maximum, 2i?02 
C in November; lowest monthly mean mini- 
mum, — o?49 C in July 1942. 

The cosmic-ray meter, CIW model C no. 2, 
recorded continuously; weekly controls were 
made by checking high-potential balance and 
electrometer-zeros. 



and monthly meteorological tabulations were 
forwarded regularly to the Instituto Nacional 
de Meteorologia e Hidrologia (recently 
changed to Direccion General de Comunica- 
ciones y Meteorologia Aeronautica) and to 
the Centro Geografico Departamental de 
Junin. 

Paul G. Ledig, Observer-in-Charge, and 
Observers Mark W. Jones, Albert A. Giesecke, 
Jr., and Edwin J. Chernosky continued at the 
Observatory. The three Peruvian clerical as- 



TABLE 7 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, Huancayo Magnetic 

Observatory, 1942 



Month 



No. 

SELECTED 
DAYS 



Potential-gradient 



Reduction- 
factor 



Value 
(v/m) 



Air-conductivity, unit 10 -4 ESU 



X+ 



x_ 



(X++X-) 



(Wx_) 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



2 

1 

1 

8 

15 

14 

15 

6 

7 

4 

4 

3 



80 



17 



19 



17 



1.18 



54.8 
54.7 
57.9 
47.6 
51.4 
49.4 
51.4 
47.2 
49.8 
45.4 
42.0 
47.4 



3.84 
3.22 
3.45 
3.48 
3.54 
4.37 
3.78 
4.30 
3.82 
4.20 
4.28 
4.55 



3.80 
3.00 
3.50 
3.50 
3.72 
4.68 
4.0.2 
4.50 
3.98 
4.26 
4.23 
4.60 



49.9 



3.90 



3.98 



7.64 
6.22 
6.95 
6.98 
7.26 
9.05 
7.80 
8.80 
7.80 
8.46 
8.51 
9.15 



7.; 



1.01 
1.07 
0.99 
0.99 
0.95 
0.93 
0.94 
0.96 
0.96 
0.99 
1.01 
0.99 



0.98 



The two Wenner horizontal-component 
and the Beniofi vertical-component seismom- 
eters operated satisfactorily. Analyses were 
made of all important seismic disturbances, 
and a total of 46 were reported in the inter- 
national seismic code with the weekly broad- 
cast of magnetic activity. 

Daily observations to detect solar activity 
were made with the Hale spectrohelioscope 
whenever weather permitted, and monthly 
reports were prepared. 

Magnetic and meteorological data were sup- 
plied to interested persons and institutions, 



sistants, T. Astete, A. Macha, and V. Murga, 
assisted in preparation of data and various 
items of instrumental maintenance. The loyal 
cooperation and enthusiasm of these mem- 
bers of the staff have made possible the suc- 
cessful completion of another year of our 
extended program of geophysical research. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made for the 
generous assistance of the American Embassy 
in obtaining free entry for shipments of sup- 
plies for the Observatory, and to the Peruvian 
government for granting this privilege. Our 
Peruvian friends, including those in official 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



51 



positions, continued active interest in the work 
and gave valuable help. 

College Observatory, Alaska. The College 
Observatory is located at the University of 
Alaska in the zone of maximum auroral ac- 
tivity, about 5 miles by road west of Fair- 
banks, in latitude 64 ° 51^4 north, longitude 
147 49/3 west, at about 381 meters (1250 
feet) above sea-level. 

Ionospheric records with the multifre- 
quency equipment, similar to that at Wath- 
eroo and Huancayo, were continued. The 
resulting compilations of data are especially 
valuable as regards unique ionospheric con- 
ditions prevalent in high latitudes. Weekly 
summaries were transmitted through the 
United States Army Signal Corps. 

Special studies and reports relating to iono- 
spheric problems were made by the staff of 
the Observatory in cooperation with the 
United States Army, the Civil Aeronautics 
Administration, and the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission station at Fairbanks. 
Among these were: communications predic- 
tions for the Alaskan Area; direction-finder 
errors; comparison of actual with theoretical 
values of maximum usable frequencies; rela- 
tion between doubly refracted magneto-ionic 
components in high latitudes; comparison of 
methods for deduction of maximum usable 
frequencies from vertical-incidence iono- 
spheric measurements; analytical examination 
of relative sporadic F-layer ionization to both 
magnetic and auroral activity; theoretical ex- 
amination of lateral deviations of radio waves 
caused by systematic tilting of the ionosphere; 
ionospheric measurements during the partial 
solar eclipse of February 4, 1943; and study 
of high-frequency communications circuits in 
Alaska. 

Charts were prepared showing the systemat- 
ic diurnal and seasonal changes in transmis- 
sion characteristics of the ionosphere. In gen- 
eral terms these characteristics may be de- 
scribed as follows: In summer the F-region 
ionization attains a broad maximum near 
noon and decreases at night to a not greatly 
lower minimum. In winter the F-region 
ionization attains a high maximum, sharply 



peaked at midday, and remains quite low 
during the night. Sporadic F-region blanket- 
ing is the rule at night, and the high inci- 
dence and variability of intense F-region ioni- 
zation during the night hours are the out- 
standing observed phenomena of importance 
to propagation of radio waves in high lati- 
tudes. Radio "blackouts" characterized by 
the cessation of all echoes on frequencies up 
to 16 Mc/sec continued to be of great fre- 
quency and long duration. A comparison of 
current F-region critical frequencies with 
those observed during corresponding months 
of the previous year indicated a current secu- 
lar decrease in ionization of about 30 per 
cent per year. The parallel decrease in sun- 
spot-numbers was about 40 per cent. 

The ionospheric data as compiled are not 
entirely homogeneous bcause of several fac- 
tors, as follows: (1) Separation of the F-layer 
does not occur in midwinter, so that Fi-data 
cannot be ascertained for a high percentage 
of the time; (2) during a number of hours 
in midday in summer the maximum height 
of the F 2 -region cannot be ascertained be- 
cause of the proximity of the F t - and F 2 -criti- 
cal frequencies; (3) sporadic F-region blanket- 
ing at night and fade-outs during the day 
often prevent the determination of the quan- 
tities. For the sake of uniformity, considera- 
tion is given only to those monthly means 
of hourly values obtained when the data are 
recorded about 50 per cent or more of the 
time. 

The insensitive la Cour magnetograph was 
continued in operation during the year July 
1, 1942 to June 30, 1943. Scale-values were 
maintained at i8.2y/mm for horizontal in- 
tensity, 26.5y/mm for vertical intensity, and 
5f2/mm for declination. Base-line and scale- 
value determinations were made at weekly 
intervals. The preliminary mean values for 
all days of the year 1942 are: declination, 
+ 29 52^0; horizontal intensity, 12582-/; ver- 
tical intensity, +55342-/. 

A disturbance daily variation with well de- 
fined peak at about n h 3o m GMT (shortly be- 
fore local magnetic midnight) is indicated by 
the monthly mean ratings of hourly disturb- 






52 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ance, or, more roughly, by the three-hour- 
range indices, K. As a measure of the "usa- 
bility" of the ionosphere, the daily sums of 
the i^-indices provided figures which are per- 
haps in better accord with observed radio- 
communication conditions than are indices of 
disturbance based on the ionospheric records. 
The daily magnetic indices are closely related 
to daily sums of hourly minimum frequencies 
derived from the ionospheric data, this quan- 
tity constituting a measure of absorption of 
energy in the ionosphere. Particularly during 
night hours, however, intense and variable 
sporadic E-region blanketing is a factor affect- 
ing the usability of the ionosphere, and this 
is not necessarily reflected by an increase in 
the minimum frequencies. The close corre- 
lation between the two indices may be attrib- 
uted to that between the occurrence of high 
sporadic E-layer ionization at night and fade- 
out conditions, with increased absorption of 
the lower frequencies, during adjacent day- 
light hours. Association of magnetic and 
ionospheric disturbances gives added utility 
to current magnetic records in regions near 
the auroral zone. 

Both photographic and visual auroral ob- 
servations were continued during the 1942- 
1943 season. Exposures of the night sky near 
the zenith at 2.5-minute intervals were made 
with the automatic camera. Visual observa- 
tions included hourly estimates of auroral ac- 
tivity, extent, and intensity throughout hours 
of darkness according to auroral indices from 
o to 9. 

Bramhall was Physicist-in-Charge to May 
1, 1943, when he transferred the Observatory 
to Seaton and returned for duty at Washing- 
ton. Seaton was assisted by observers and 
others of the temporary staff. The results ob- 
tained evidence the efficiency and diligence 
of the personnel. 

Grateful acknowledgment is due President 
Bunnell and the Regents of the University of 
Alaska for the large and generous part taken 
in providing facilities for the Observatory and 
its operation. Cordial liaison with civil and 
military authorities, interested in problems of 



communication in Alaska, was also a most 
important factor and stimulus. 

Cooperation with Other Observatories 

Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory, United 
States. The cooperative program with the 
Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey was 
continued, using CIW instruments for abso- 
lute standards in horizontal intensity and in- 
clination. Automatic daily records of cosmic- 
ray intensity were maintained with the CIW 
precision cosmic-ray meter, with the assistance 
of Observer-in-Charge J. Hershberger. Facili- 
ties for the standardization of our magnetom- 
eters and inductors were furnished. 

Apia Observatory, Western Samoa. The 
Department continued cooperation with the 
Apia Observatory through its Acting Direc- 
tor, H. B. Sapsford. In the geomagnetic pro- 
gram, CIW magnetometer 9 and CIW 
Schulze earth-inductor 2 were used for abso- 
lute observations. The annual magnetic re- 
ports for the years 1 94 1 and 1942 are almost 
complete. 

Tucson Magnetic Observatory, United 
States. In cooperation with the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, complete and 
continuous registrations of atmospheric po- 
tential-gradient, and of positive and negative 
air-conductivities, were obtained with the as- 
sistance of Observer-in-Charge J. H. Nelson, 
using equipment supplied by the Depart- 
ment. The earth-current program, made pos- 
sible through the cooperation of the Bell Tele- 
phone System, was discontinued early in 1943 
(see p. 40). Table 8 summarizes the monthly 
and annual values of the atmospheric-electric 
elements as computed by Mrs. G. Dewey and 
assembled by Sherman. There were no ob- 
servations of reduction-factor during the year. 

Hermanns Magnetic Observatory, South 
Africa. CIW magnetometer-inductor 17 con- 
tinued in use. Dr. A. Ogg sent /^-indices 
promptly and reported that the magnetic re- 
ductions had been kept current. 

Godhavn Observatory, Greenland. Because 
of the war, cooperation was continued in pro- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



53 



viding supplies and instrumental replace- 
ments for the magnetic program. K. Thiesen, 
of the Observatory, continued his collabora- 
tion with the Cosmic-Ray Committee of the 
Institution by operating the CIW precision 
cosmic-ray meter. AMndices were communi- 
cated weekly from February 1943 through 



of Greenland, and with authorization of the 
Danish Minister at Washington, D. C, Mr. 
Thiesen spent a short time at Ivigtut to ini- 
tiate the continuous recording. He installed 
the CIW specially designed elements in the 
variometers of the second magnetograph. K- 
indices have been reported weekly since May 



TABLE 8 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, Tucson Magnetic 

Observatory, 1942 



Month 



January ........... 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October ........... 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



Potential-gradient 



No. 

selected 

days 



28 
21 
21 
20 
24 
23 
11 
19 
22 
20 
24 
26 



259 



Value 
(v/m) 



69.2 
55.0 
57.8 
47.6 
53.0 
52.8 
49.4 
56.3 
46.6 
49.7 
54.0 
72.0 



55.3 



Air-conductivity, unit 10~ 4 ESU 



All 

complete 

days 



31 

28 
29 
28 
30 
28 
28 
25 
27 
29 
30 
30 



343 



1.91 
2.15 
2.04 
2.48 
2.55 
2.69 
2.29 
2.56 
2.61 
2.53 
2.55 
2.18 



2.38 



1.75 
2.10 
2.03 
2.33 
2.42 
2.61 
2.08 
2.31 
2.40 
2.35 
2.35 
1.97 



2.22 



(X++X-) 



3.66 
4.25 
4.07 
4.81 
4.97 
5.30 
4.37 
4.87 
5.01 
4.88 
4.90 
4.15 



4.60 



(X+A-) 



1.09 
1.02 
1.01 
1.06 
1.05 
1.03 
1.10 
1.11 
1.09 
1.08 
1.09 
1.11 



1.07 



the United States Department of State. Cur- 
rent tabulations of hourly values for all mag- 
netic elements were supplied. 

Ivigtut Magnetic Observatory, Greenland. 
During the summer of 1942 a magnetograph 
was installed by K. Thiesen. It was operated 
intermittently during the summer while a 
magnetic survey of the area was in progress. 
Arrangements were made by the Department 
early in May 1943 with S. O. Corp, Manager 
of the Ivigtut Cryolite Mines, who generously 
offered to operate the Observatory continu- 
ously. At the direction of Governor E. Brun 



29, 1943 through the cooperation of the 
United States Army Communication Services. 

Christchurch Observatory, New Zealand. 
Director H. F. Baird continued operation of 
the CIW precision cosmic-ray meter. K- 
indices were regularly supplied. 

Royal Alfred Observatory, Mauritius. CIW 
marine-inductor 4 was used for the control 
of the vertical-intensity records. 

Teoloyucan Observatory, Mexico. Dr. J. 
Gallo, Director of the National Astronomi- 
cal Observatory of Mexico, continued opera- 
tion of the CIW precision cosmic-ray meter. 



54 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLICATIONS ON THE "CARNEGIE" DATA 

Six quarto volumes of the series under suits in physical oceanography were half 
the general title "Scientific Results of completed by June 30, 1943. This volume 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928- is being prepared in two parts: "Ocea- 
1929, under command of Captain J. P. nography— I-A" (150 pages), by J. A. Flem- 
Ault" were published by the Institution, ing, H. U. Sverdrup, and F. M. Soule; 
These were: "Biology — I: The copepods and "Oceanography — I-B" (300 pages), by 
of the plankton gathered during the last J. A. Fleming, C. C. Ennis, S. L. Stuart, 
cruise of the Carnegie" (237 pages), by and W. C. Hendrix. The first part relates 
Charles B. Wilson; "Biology — II: The to outline of cruise, descriptions of equip- 
oceanic Tintinnoina of the plankton gath- ment, and discussions of results in physical 
ered during the last cruise of the Carnegie" oceanography. The second part includes 
(163 pages), by Arthur Shackleton Camp- the extended tables and some 254 graphs 
bell; "Biology — III: Studies in the mor- of observed and reduced data, 
phology, taxonomy, and ecology of the The master-copy for "Physical Ocea- 
Peridiniales" (129 pages), by Herbert W. nography — II: Marine bottom samples col- 
Graham; "Biology — IV: Biological results lected in the Pacific Ocean on the last cruise 
of the last cruise of the Carnegie" (92 of the Carnegie" (190 pages), by Roger 
pages), a series of short reports by Herbert Randall Revelle, has been completed. This 
W. Graham, William Albert Setchell, volume includes also "Radium-content of 
Aaron L. Tread well, W, M. Tattersall, ocean-bottom sediments," by Charles Snow- 
James O. Maloney, Harry G. Barber, Alex- den Piggot. 

ander Wetmore, M. W. de Laubenfels, Other volumes in the series awaiting 

Austin H. Clark, E. A. Chapin, Hoyt S. publication are "Biology — V," by Herbert 

Hopkins, and Doris M. Cochran; "Meteor- W. Graham, and "Chemistry — I," by Her- 

ology — I : Meteorological results of cruise bert W. Graham, E. G. Moberg, and J. P. 

VII of the Carnegie, 1928— 1929" (168 Ault. 

pages), by Woodrow C. Jacobs and Kath- The laborious task of preparing final 

erine B. Clarke; and "Meteorology — II: master-copies for offset production from 

Upper-wind observations and results ob- the manuscripts is being performed by 

tained on cruise VII of the Carnegie" (94 Miss Todd, with the assistance of Hendrix 

pages), by Andrew Thomson. in connection with final arrangement of 

The master-copy and diagrams of re- graphs and other illustrations. 



INSTRUMENT-SHOP 

The numerous obligations for the design his direction. The application and over- 

and construction of special models and ap- time given by all have been most important 

paratus for war problems, under nine in the success attained, 
contracts with the Army, Navy, and Office In addition to the war work, which took 

of Scientific Research and Development, 70 per cent of the time available, excellent 

were effectively met in the Instrument- progress was made in the cyclotron in- 

Shop by Foreman Steiner and the men stallation, now nearing mechanical comple- 

of the regular and temporary staffs under tion. The urgent necessary maintenance of 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



55 



buildings, laboratory facilities, equipment grounds, as well as provision for the in- 
for and shipment to the observatories, and creased personnel, was maintained. 



MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 



Members of the staff took part in 
scientific meetings and organizations as 
officers and members and in special com- 
mittees. Contacts were maintained with 
geophysicists in the United States and 
abroad — so far as was possible under exist- 
ing conditions — through cooperation with 
the American Geophysical Union, which 
also represents the National Research 
Council in the International Union of 
Geodesy and Geophysics. The participa- 
tion of the scientific personnel in matters 
relating to the war effort, through the 
bureaus of the United States Army and 
Navy and the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development, have also required con- 
ferences with cooperating observatories 
and organizations in various parts of the 
United States and Canada. 

Library. There was continued rapid de- 
crease in the flow of publications from 
European countries, other than Great 
Britain, and in the number of papers 
on researches of interest to the Depart- 
ment. As a result of this and the absorp- 
tion of American men of science into 
war-research work, which further lessened 
the publication of geophysical results in 
America, there were only 394 accessions 
during the report-year as against 456 last 
year, bringing the total number of acces- 
sioned books and pamphlets to 27,053. All 
articles in current periodicals, reprints, and 
other pamphlets received which related 
to researches of interest to the Department 
were catalogued. 

The voluminous Wilkes collection of un- 
published manuscripts of the United States 
Exploring Expedition oi 1 838-1 842 at the 
Library of Congress was examined, and a 



compilation of the values of the observed 
declination was prepared. This examina- 
tion was facilitated by Dr. St. George 
Sioussat, Chief of the Division of Manu- 
scripts of the Library of Congress, and his 
assistants. The magnetic data on file at the 
United States Hydrographic Office were 
also examined. The greater part of the 
many observations of declination which 
are known to have been obtained, and 
which were to have been published in the 
Expedition's volume on "Physics," has 
not yet been found. 

The modern student of geomagnetism is 
rightly concerned with practical and theo- 
retical studies and has little time to in- 
vestigate the historical development of the 
science. Still, such study is well worth 
while, for it adds much interest to the 
subject and reveals the long and tedious 
progress through many centuries. To the 
regular worker, an exhaustive study of the 
subject is practically impossible because 
of the inaccessibility of the sources and the 
diversity and difficulties of the languages 
in which the early contributions to the 
science were written. In order that these 
important documents might be available 
to investigators, Librarian Harradon un- 
dertook the task of translating some of 
them and of adding information regard- 
ing their authors and background. Three 
of these translations with notes were pub- 
lished in the Journal of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism and Atmospheric Electricity (see 
bibliography) . A paper on this matter was 
presented before, the Section of Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Electricity of the Ameri- 
can Geophysical Union on April 23, 1943. 

The Librarian continued as coeditor of 



56 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the Journal of Terrestrial Magnetism and rector and in charge of the general corre- 

Atmo spheric Electricity, giving attention spondence files of the Department and 

particularly to foreign contributions, prepa- the storage and distribution of reprints, 

ration of notes, reviews of books and re- He also typed a large number of reports 

ports, and annotated bibliographies of and manuscripts. 

recent publications on geomagnetism, geo- Office administration. Most of the regu- 
electricity, and cosmic relations. His list lar time and much overtime was required 
of published papers by members of the in correspondence, placing of orders, prior- 
Department up to December 31, 1942 ity procedure for materials and travel, ac- 
showed a total of 2217. Reprints of these counting, and matters concerned with 
papers were distributed to interested per- personnel, in connection with the war 
sons and institutions. Because of the war, work for the government under contracts 
distribution of reprints to foreign addresses with the Office of Scientific Research and 
was somewhat interrupted. Harradon re- Development, the Navy Department, and 
vised the manuscripts by R. G. Fitzsim- the Signal Corps. 

mons and M. Wiener on the magnetic The responsibilities of the greatly in- 

and auroral results obtained by the United creased demands of office and personnel 

States Antarctic Expedition of 1939-1941, were effectively met by M. B. Smith, ad- 

which are being published by the United ministrative assistant, with the cooperation 

States Department of the Interior. of Moats, Miss Gottshall, Miss Dermody, 

The facilities of the library, as in pre- and Dove of the regular staff, and the 

vious years, were made available to re- many temporary members assigned to the 

search workers and students from educa- Section of Administration and Account- 

tional institutions and government bureaus ing. 

and, in particular, to specialists engaged Capello, secretary and property-clerk, had 
on war problems. The practice of inter- charge of shipments and inventory, main- 
library loans was continued, and reciprocal tained detailed monthly statements of time 
and cordial relations were maintained, par- and costs of work in the shop, and pre- 
ticularly with the Library of Congress, pared manuscripts. The drawings, charts, 
With the latter, the Department cooper- and illustrations for publications and re- 
ated in various ways, particularly in fur- ports were prepared by Hendrix. He and 
nishing its list of holdings of Axis-con- J. W. Green also handled the photographic 
trolled scientific journals since 1939 to aid work. The records received from the ob- 
in the compilation of the catalogue of such servatories and field were arranged and 
journals available in libraries throughout filed by Miss Balsam, who with Capello 
the United States. kept current the cataloguing of photo- 
Dove continued as Secretary to the Di- graphic films and index-albums of prints. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Adams, W. S., J. A. Fleming, and F. E. Wright. Bartels, J. Erdmagnetisch ruhige und gestorte 

Progress-report of Committee on Coordina- Tage, Januar bis September 194 1. Terr, 

tion of Cosmic-Ray Investigations for the Mag., vol. 47, p. 267 (1942). 

period July 1941 to June 1942. Carnegie Berkner, L. V. Radio-transmission conditions in 

Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 41, pp. 87-90 equatorial regions from observations in the 

(1942). Americas. Proc. 8th Amer. Sci. Cong. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



57 



(Washington, D. C, 1940), vol. 7, pp. 279- 
289 (1942). 

Chapman, S. Notes on the lunar magnetic tide. 
I. Its mathematical and graphical representa- 
tions and their significance. Terr. Mag., 
vol. 47, pp. 279-294 (1942). 

Archaeologica geomagnetica. Terr. Mag., 

vol. 48, pp. 1-2 (1943). 

Archaeologica geomagnetica. II. Terr. 



Mag., vol. 48, pp. 77-78 (1943). 

Cowie, D. B. See Dowdy, A. H.; Lorimier, 
A. A. de; White, T. N. 

Dowdy, A. H., B. DuBillier, and D. B. Cowie. 
A new type of radium loading protective 
device. Amer. Jour. Roentgenol, and Ra- 
dium Therapy, vol. 49, pp. 803-810 (1943). 

DuBillier, B. See Dowdy, A. H. 

Farrell, M. W. The Carnegie's bronze hook. 
The Rudder, vol. 59, pp. 9-1 1 (1943). 

Fleming, J. A. William John Peters. Science, 
vol. 96, pp. 127-128 (1942). 

Summary of the year's work to June 30, 

1942, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Terr. 
Mag., vol. 47, pp. 301-308 (1942). 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, 
pp. 309-314 (1942). 

Researches in terrestrial magnetism and 

electricity at Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
for the year April 1941 to March 1942. 
Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans. 1942, pt. II, 
pp. 312-315 (1942). 

Geomagnetism in Latin America. Proc. 

8th Amer. Sci. Cong. (Washington, D. C, 
1940), vol. 7, pp. 47-56 (1942). 

Terrestrial magnetism and electricity. 

Amer. Year Book for 1942, pp. 730-735 

(i943)- 

The American Geophysical Union. Sci- 
ence, vol. 97, pp. 565-568 (1943). 

(ed.). American Geophysical Union, 

Transactions of 1942. Reports and papers, 
joint regional meetings, Section of Hy- 
drology (A) Dallas, Texas, (B) Pasadena, 
California. Twenty-third annual meeting, 
April 3 and 4, 1942, Washington, D. C. 
2 pts., .740 pp. Washington, National Re- 
search Council (1942). 

and W. E. Scott. List of geomagnetic 

observatories and thesaurus of values. Terr. 
Mag., vol. 48, pp. 97-108 (1943). 



See Adams, W. S. 

Forbush, S. E., and I. Lange. See report of 
Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray 
Investigations, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year 
Book No. 42, p. 63 (1943). 

Gish, O. H. Further evidence of a latitude- 
effect in potential-gradient. Terr. Mag., vol. 
47, PP- 3 2 3-3 2 4 (1942). 

Harradon, H. D. William John Peters, 1863- 
1942. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 187-193 
(1942). 

Some early contributions to the history 

of geomagnetism. I. The letter of Peter 
Perigrinus de Maricourt to Sygerus de 
Foucoucourt, soldier, concerning the mag- 
net. Terr. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 3-17 (1943). 

Some early contributions to the history 

of geomagnetism. II. Treatise on the sphere 
and the art of navigation, by Francisco 
Falero. III. Brief compendium on the sphere 
and art of navigating, by Martin Cortes. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 79-91 (1943). 

List of recent publications. Terr. Mag., 



vol. 47, pp. 275-277, 343-346 (1942); vol. 
4 8 , PP- 73-76, 123-125 (i943)- 

Hess, V. F. See report of Committee on Co- 
ordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 42, 
p. 64 (1943). 

Johnson, T. H. See report of Committee on 
Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 42, 
p. 65 (1943). 

Johnston, H. F. American URSI broadcasts of 
cosmic data, giving American magnetic char- 
acter-figure, C A , three-hour-range indices, 
K, and mean X-indices, K A , for April to 
June, 1942; American magnetic character- 
figure, C A , three-hour-range indices, K, and 
mean i£-indices, K A , for July to Septem- 
ber, 1942; American magnetic character- 
figure, C A , three-hour-range indices, K, and 
mean /C-indices, K A , for October to Decem- 
ber, 1942, and summary for year 1942; 
American magnetic character-figure, C A , 
three-hour-range indices, K, and mean K- 
indices, K A , for January to March, 1943. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 257-260, 325-328 
(1942); vol. 48, pp. 19-27, 93-96 (1943). 

Jones, M. W., and P. G. Ledig. On the anoma- 
lous diurnal variation of air-conductivity and 
potential-gradient at the Huancayo Mag- 



58 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



netic Observatory. Amer. Geophys. Union, 
Trans. 1942, pt. II, pp. 301-304 (1942). 

Lange, I. See Forbush, S. E. 

Ledig, P. G. Principal magnetic storms, Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory, April to June, 
1942; July to September, 1942; October to 
December, 1942; January to March, 1943. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 272, 338 (1942); 
vol. 48, pp. 66-67, 119-120 (1943). 

See Jones, M. W. 

Lorimier, A. A. de, D. B. Cowie, and T. N. 
White. Protective features provided with 
the United States Army field roentgeno- 
scopic equipment. Amer. Jour. Roentgenol, 
and Radium Therapy, vol. 49, pp. 653-661 

(i943)- 

See White, T. N. 

McNish, A. G. Fossil magnetism. Sci. Amer., 
vol. 168, pp. 166-167 ( x 943)- 

Millikan, R. A. See report of Committee on 
Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 42, 
p. 68 (1943). 

Nielsen, C. E., and W. M. Powell. See report 
of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations, Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Year Book No. 42, p. 69 (1943). 

Parkinson, W. C. Principal magnetic storms, 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, March 
1942. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, p. 273 (1942). 

Phillips, M. L. Association of large ions and 
fog. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 295-299 
(1942). 

Powell, W. M. See Nielsen, C. E. 

Sapsford, H. B. Principal magnetic storms, 
Apia Observatory, April to September, 1942; 
January to March, 1943. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, 
p. 338 (1942); vol. 48, p. 119 (1943). 

Scott, W. E. The mutual consistency of suc- 
cessive monthly means of declination, Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory. Terr. Mag., vol. 
48, pp. 45-48 (1943). 

See Fleming, J. A. 

Silsbee, H. B., and E. H. Vestine. Geomag- 
netic bays, their frequency and current sys- 
tems. Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 195-208 
(1942); (abstract) Amer. Geophys. Union, 
Trans. 1942, pt. II, pp. 290-291 (1942). 

Vestine, E. H. The annual variation of geomag- 



netism. (Abstract) Amer. Geophys. Union, 
Trans. 1942, pt. II, p. 291 (1942). 
— See Silsbee, H. B. 



Wait, G. R. Electrical resistance of a vertical 
column of air over Watheroo (Western 
Australia) and over Huancayo (Peru). 
Terr. Mag., vol. 47, pp. 243-249 (1942). 

Effect of smoke on the atmospheric- 
electric elements at the Watheroo Magnetic 
Observatory. Terr. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 49- 

63 (i943)- 

Atmospheric-electric results from simul- 



taneous observations over the ocean and at 
Watheroo, Western Australia. Amer. Geo- 
phys. Union, Trans. 1942, pp. 304-308 
(1942). 
Wells, H. W. Earth's magnetic field and ac- 
tual heights in ionosphere. (Abstract) Amer. 
Geophys. Union, Trans. 1942, pt. II, p. 289 
(1942). 

Effects of solar activity on the iono- 
sphere and radio communications. Proc. 
Inst. Radio Eng., vol. 31, pp. 147-157 

(i943)- 
White, T. N., D. B. Cowie, and A. A. de 
Lorimier. Radiation hazards during roent- 
genoscopy. Amer. Jour. Roentgenol, and 
Radium Therapy, vol. 49, pp. 639-652 

(i943)- 

See Lorimier, A. A. de. 

Wright, F. E. See Adams, W. S. 

Reviews 

Harradon, H. D. Oceanography for meteorolo- 
gists, by H. U. Sverdrup. (Rev.) Science, 
vol. 67, pp. 120-121 (1943). 

American Geophysical Union, Transac- 
tions of 1942, edited by J. A. Fleming. 
(Rev.) Terr. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 39-40 (1943). 

Magnetic observations at the secular- 
variation field-stations in the Union of South 
Africa and Southwest Africa, and a com- 
parison with corresponding values at the' 
Magnetic Observatory, Cape Town. (Rev.) 
Terr. Mag., vol. 48, p. 44 (1943). 

Die erdmagnetische Aktivitat in So- 

dankyla in den Jahren 1914-1934, by E. 
Sucksdorff. (Rev.) Terr. Mag., vol. 48, 
pp. 113-114 (i943)- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



59 



Special Publications 

Scientific results of cruise VII of the Carnegie 
during 1928-1929 under command of Cap- 
tain J, P. Ault: 

Biology — /. The copepods of the plankton 
gathered during the last cruise of the Car- 
negie. By C. B. Wilson. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 536. v + 237 pp., 136 figs. (1942). 

Biology— II. The oceanic Tintinnoina of the 
plankton gathered during the last cruise of 
the Carnegie. By A. S. Campbell. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Pub. 537. v + 163 pp., 1 pi., 
128 figs. (1942). 



Biology — ///. Studies in die morphology, tax- 
onomy, and ecology of the Peridiniales. 
By H. W. Graham. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 542. vii+ 129 pp., 1 pi., 67 figs. (1942). 

Meteorology — /. Meteorological results of 
cruise VII of the Carnegie 1928-1929. By 
W. C. Jacobs and K. B. Clarke. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Pub. 544. v + 168 pp., 62 figs. 

(i943)- 
Meteorology — //. Upper-wind observations 
and results obtained on cruise VII of the 
Carnegie. By A. Thomson. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Pub. 547. v+93 pp., 46 figs. (1943). 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations. Progress report for the 
period July 1942 to ]une 1943. (For previous reports 1 see Year Books Nos. 32-41.) 



Activities in cosmic-ray research were 
further reduced during the year ending 
June 30, 1943, because of assignment of 
interested personnel to war-research prob- 
lems. Some progress was made, never- 
theless, as is evidenced by the appended 
reports of investigators with whom the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington co- 
operated. 

There is only a remote possibility that 
research on cosmic rays may find appli- 
cation to wartime problems. It is essential, 
nevertheless, in view of past experience, 
that so far as possible continuity of per- 
manent records with cosmic-ray meters be 
maintained for future theoretical and sta- 
tistical investigation. Under the general 
supervision of the Department of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism the cosmic-ray meters 
at Cheltenham, Huancayo, Teoloyucan, 
Christchurch, and Godhavn were kept in 
operation by the collaborating agencies. 
For stations abroad the necessary arrange- 
ments were effected despite difficulties of 
obtaining materials, supplies, and shipping 
facilities. 

No work was reported by Professor M. S. 
Vallarta at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology or by Professor R. B. Brode 
at the University of California, because of 
their assignment to urgent war problems. 

The investigations of Professor A. H. 
Compton's group at the University of Chi- 
cago were continued on a limited scale. 
Professor Compton could not spare time to 
prepare a formal report. His program 
includes investigations of time- and height- 
variations of cosmic rays, composition and 

1 For statement on formation, purposes, and 
policies of the Committee see Year Book No. 38 
(1938-1939), pp. 335-349- 



intensity of cosmic rays, production of sec- 
ondary radiation, and properties of the 
mesotron. Several brief abstracts on the 
investigations have appeared in Physical 
Review; these relate to evaluation of the 
lifetime of the mesotron, theory of at- 
mospheric cosmic-ray showers, nature of 
primary radiation, slow mesotrons in the 
stratosphere, and reduction of mesotrons 
and measurements of cascade showers 
produced by ionizing and non-ionizing 
radiation. 

S. E. Forbush, on leave of absence dur- 
ing the entire year on a war-research as- 
signment, could give only the time neces- 
sary to consider details of maintenance of 
the cosmic-ray meters. Miss Isabelle Lange, 
despite the necessity of giving the greater 
part of her time to compilations concerned 
with war research, continued the necessary 
control checks of data received. The mag- 
netic-storm effect of March 1, 1942, reported 
on last year, was further confirmed by 
data received since that report from God- 
havn and Christchurch. This was the first 
definite case of a latitude-effect in cosmic- 
ray changes occurring during magnetic 
storms, and was the first recorded case of 
large sudden simultaneous increases in 
cosmic-ray intensity at widely separated 
stations. 

Professor Victor F. Hess and associates 
at Fordham University further confirmed 
results previously reported on the latitude- 
effect, and found also a longitude-effect. 
It was concluded that the magnitude of 
temperature-coefficients of cosmic-ray in- 
tensities depends less on geomagnetic lati- 
tude than on the distribution of air-masses 
in the upper atmosphere. The model-C 
meter used on the Santa Ana was removed 



61 



62 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



in April 1943 at San Francisco and shipped 
to Professor Compton at the University 
of Chicago. 

At the Bartol Research Foundation Dr. 
Thomas H. Johnson and associates com- 
pleted the high-pressure cloud-chamber for 
use under pressures as great as 200 at- 
mospheres. Five hundred photographs at 
a pressure of no atmospheres were taken, 
and a statistical study of these is under 
way. A statistical analysis of some 40,000 
photographs made with the 24-inch cloud- 
chamber was begun. 

At New York University Professor S. A. 
Korfr constructed a large boron trifluoride 
counter, with which the neutron-intensity 
at sea-level was studied; this counter 
showed an improvement in sensitivity by 
a factor of 7 over previous determinations. 
Correlations were established between the 
cosmic rays at sea-level, when corrected 
for sea-level barometric pressure, and the 
fluctuations in the pressure at given levels 
in the upper atmosphere. 

Dr. Robert A. Millikan and his associates 
and students at the California Institute of 
Technology continued, as far as urgent 
war-research demands permitted, the study 
of the origin of cosmic rays on the hypoth- 
esis proposed two years ago; confirmatory 
evidence was found. Improved resolution 
of the cloud-chamber method of measur- 
ing masses of mesotrons and the trans- 
formations of energy resulting in their 
birth and disappearance was obtained. Pre- 
liminary measurements were made of the 
curvature of 135 tracks in a magnetic field 
of 4500 gauss. 

Dr. C. E. Nielsen and Dr. Wilson M. 
Powell at the University of California 
found time to determine the maximum 
values of slow mesotrons through the 
examination of some 7000 photographs 
made on Mount Evans at 14,100 feet and 
1800 photographs made at Summit Lake 



at 12,700 feet (see Year Book No. 41, 
p. 102). 

Grateful acknowledgment is made to 
the directors and members of organiza- 
tions which continued their contributions 
and services to the program; these include 
the Danish Meteorological Institute, the 
National Astronomical Observatory of 
Mexico, the New Zealand Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research, and the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
The Consul-General of Denmark in New 
York and the United States Coast Guard 
were most helpful in connection with the 
forwarding of the necessary supplies for 
operation and maintenance of the observa- 
tory at Godhavn. 

W. S. Adams 

J. A. Fleming, Chairman 

F. E. Wright 

Statistical Investigations of Cosmic-Ray 
Variations 

S. E. FORBUSH AND IsABELLE LaNGE 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
Washington, District of Columbia 

Instruments. Operation of the Carnegie 
Institution's precision cosmic-ray meters 
was continued at the following stations: 
Cheltenham (Maryland, United States) 
Magnetic Observatory of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, meter C-i, 
John Hershberger in charge; Huancayo 
(Peru) Magnetic Observatory of the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism, Car- 
negie Institution of Washington, meter 
C-2, P. G. Ledig in charge; National As- 
tronomical Observatory of Mexico at Teo- 
loyucan (D. F., Mexico), meter C-4, Dr. 
Joaquin Gallo in charge; Amberley Branch 
of the Christchurch (New Zealand) Mag- 
netic Observatory of the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research, metei 
C-5, J. W. Beagley in charge; Godhavn 
(Greenland) Magnetic Observatory of the 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 



63 



Danish Meteorological Institute, meter C-6, 
K. Thiesen and H. P. Barfod in charge. 

Reduction of data. Scalings and tabula- 
tions of hourly values of cosmic-ray ioniza- 
tion, bursts, and barometric pressure could 
not be kept current owing to pressure of 
war work. 

Investigations. The striking example of 
the magnetic-storm effect on cosmic data 
which occurred during the magnetic storm 
beginning at 7.5 11 GMT March 1, 1942, 
and which was mentioned in last year's 
report, has been further confirmed by data 
subsequently received from Godhavn and 
Christchurch. In addition to the world- 
wide decrease which has often been ob- 
served in cosmic-ray intensity during the 
main phase of magnetic storms, the cosmic- 
ray intensity at Godhavn, Cheltenham, and 
Christchurch increased suddenly from 6 
to 8 per cent simultaneously at about io h 
GMT, February 28, and again at about 05 11 
GMT, March 7, 1942. The cosmic-ray in- 
tensity decreased to its previous value in 
about six or eight hours. These two strik- 
ing increases were not observed at Huan- 
cayo. This appears to be the first definite 
case of a latitude-effect in cosmic-ray 
changes occurring during magnetic storms, 
and also the first case of large sudden 
increases in cosmic-ray intensity observed 
simultaneously at several widely separated 
stations. These increases are probably the 
result of the magnetic effect on cosmic- 
ray trajectories due to eastward-flowing 
ring-currents, or their magnetic equivalents 
of the type required to explain the world- 
wide increase in horizontal magnetic in- 
tensity which usually precedes the main 
phase of magnetic storms. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Lange, I., and S. E. Forbush. Further note on 
the effect on cosmic-ray intensity of the 
magnetic storm of March 1, 1942. Terr. 
Mag., vol. 47, pp. 331-334 (1942). 



Report on Cosmic-Ray Work 

Victor F. Hess 
Fordham University, New Yor\, N. Y. 

Studies on cosmic-ray intensities aboard 
the "Santa Ana" between New Yor\ and 
Chile, by Edward B. Berry and V. F. 
Hess. The results of the registrations of 
cosmic-ray intensities with a model-C 
meter between New York and Chile from 
September 1940 to February 1942 were 
evaluated and published in the Journal of 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric 
Electricity (September 1942). The lati- 
tude-effect was 8.3 per cent. A longitude- 
effect of 1.5 per cent between 75 ° west 
and 145 ° west was also found. The curve 
of temperature-coefficients was found to 
be symmetrical about 23 ° north of the 
geomagnetic equator, in contrast with a 
similar curve found by P. S. Gill for the 
Pacific, which is symmetrical about the 
geomagnetic equator. 

It was concluded that the magnitude 
of the temperature-coefficient of cosmic- 
ray intensities depends less on geomag- 
netic latitude than on the distribution of 
air-masses in the upper atmosphere. Varia- 
tions of cosmic-ray intensity during the 
severe magnetic storm of March 1, 1942 
were found, in good agreement with those 
reported by other observers. 

The model-C meter was removed from 
the Santa Ana in April 1943 by Rev. E. B. 
Berry (of Fordham University) in San 
Francisco and shipped to Dr. A. H. Comp- 
ton at the University of Chicago. 

Cosmic-ray studies with dual telescope 
(1943), by F. A. Benedetto. Work during 
the year 1943 has been confined to verifi- 
cation of results previously reported by 
Hess and Benedetto and by Benedetto, 
Altmann, and Hess (1942). The dual 
telescope was taken apart and completely 
overhauled in the fall of 1942 and obser- 
vations were taken from January to August 



6 4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



1943. The results were in substantial agree- 
ment with the earlier registrations obtained 
with the same apparatus. These studies 
indicate that closer correlation is obtained 
by integration of the daily temperature- 
versus-pressure plot from the ground up to 
four-fifths level of the daily atmosphere 
(about 1 010 to 202 mb) than by taking 
smaller intervals. The daily values of tem- 
perature thus obtained are referred to as 
"mass-temperatures." Previous investiga- 
tors have calculated the temperature-coeffi- 
cient of the mesotron-component confining 
themselves principally to either the tem- 
perature at the surface or the temperature 
prevailing at some particular level of the 
atmosphere. 

Results with mass-temperatures, how- 
ever, show that both a higher correlation- 
coefficient (r) and a higher value of the 
temperature-coefficient (a) are obtained by 
using mass-temperatures than by the 
former methods. It is also indicated that 
a determination of the proper lifetime 
value for the mesotron based on the tem- 
perature-coefficient should take into con- 
sideration the production, absorption, and 
energy spectrum of the mesotron through- 
out the atmosphere, and that the simpli- 
fying assumption of the mesotron pro- 
duction at a certain "preferred" level 
instead of continuously throughout the 
atmosphere should be expanded into a 
more general treatment involving these 
distributions. It is hoped that further work 
along these lines can be undertaken after 
the war. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made to 
Dr. W. F. G. Swann for making available 
the facilities of the Bartol Research Foun- 
dation in the repair of a number of Geiger- 
Mueller tubes. 

Results obtained during January to 
August 1943 will appear in an early issue 
of the Physical Review. 

Gish-Hess ionization-meter . This instru- 



ment, to be used with three ionization- 
vessels of different dimensions, was com- 
pleted in the summer of 1942 and was 
studied in its performance by O. H. Gish 
and K. L. Sherman at the Department 
of Terrestrial Magnetism before it was 
taken over by V. F. Hess in August 1942. 
A report on these studies and on the cali- 
brations was given by Gish and Sherman. 

V. F. Hess began experiments in the 
field with this instrument in the spring 
of 1943. Experiments on the variations 
of the total ionization at points in the 
New York area and experiments over 
rocks are in progress. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the 
valuable aid of the Director, Assistant 
Director, and their associates in the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism in 
his work. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berry, Edward B., and Victor F. Hess. Study 
of cosmic rays between New York and Chile. 
Terr. Mag., vol, 47, pp. 251-256 (1942). 

Hess, Victor F. The interior of the Earth, 
viewed in relation to earthquake causes. II. 
What radioactivity tells us about the in- 
terior of the Earth. Jour. Applied Phys., 
vol. 14, pp. 1 16-120 (1943). 

Studies of Cosmic Rays 

Thomas H. Johnson 

Bartol Research Foundation of the Fran\lin 
Institute, Swarthmore , Pennsylvania 

Because of war research and war teach- 
ing, the projected program of cosmic-ray 
research had to be sharply curtailed. Never- 
theless some progress was made. 

The high-pressure cloud-chamber begun 
in 1941 was completed and put into opera- 
tion with results that exceeded expecta- 
tions. This chamber embodied a new 
design which made it possible to exceed 
the pressures previously used in large cloud 
chambers by a very considerable factor, 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 



65 



and it was constructed for the purpose of 
increasing the rate of photographing some 
of the rare cosmic-ray phenomena, such as 
mesotron-stoppages in the gas and their 
disintegrations. The present chamber is 
12 inches in diameter and is designed to 
run at a pressure of 200 atmospheres. 
Under this pressure each track has a 200- 
fold increase in probability of displaying 
some interesting feature as compared with 
tracks taken at normal pressure, and be- 
cause of the low rate of diffusion of ions 
at high pressure and the almost negligible 
turbulence consequential to the low ex- 
pansion-ratio, the period of sensitivity of 
this chamber is increased to such an extent 
that every photograph contains several 
tracks. Thus the rate of photographing 
mesotron-stoppages in the gas has been 
increased from something of the order of 
one track per annum to one track every 
day or two. During about one month of 
operation of the chamber at a pressure 
of no atmospheres, 500 photographs were 
taken. Some of these have already been 
reported, but the statistics of the group 
as a whole is still under study. 

The work of the year has also included 
the analysis of 40,000 photographs taken 
with a 24-inch cloud-chamber operating at 
a pressure of about one atmosphere. A 
report of these statistics is in the course of 
preparation. 

The work has been carried on prin- 
cipally by Ralph P. Shutt, who has been 
engaged on these studies full time for 
part of the year and part time during a 
period of war teaching; and by Dr. Sergio 
de Benedetti, who was engaged for either 
full or part time prior to January 1943. 

-' ■ ■ - t 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

de Benedetti, S., T. H. Johnson, and R. P. 
Shutt. Some results obtained with a new 
high-pressure cloud-chamber. (Abstract) 
Phys. Rev., vol. 63, p. 222 (1943). 



Johnson, T. H., S. de Benedetti, and R. P. 
Shutt. A hydrostatically supported cloud- 
chamber of new design for operation at high 
pressures. Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 14, pp. 265- 

271 (i943)- 

R. P. Shutt, and S. de Benedetti. A 

high-pressure cloud-chamber of new design. 
(Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 63, p. 222 (1943). 

Shutt, R. P., S. de Benedetti, and T. H. John- 
son. Cloud-chamber track of a decaying 
mesotron. Phys. Rev., vol. 62, pp. 552-553 
(1942). 

Cosmic-Ray Investigations 

S. A. Korff 
New Yor\ University, New Yor\ 53, N. Y. 

The study of cosmic rays carried out 
between July 1, 1942 and June 30, 1943, 
with the aid of funds administered by 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
consists of two phases: (1) a determina- 
tion of the intensity of neutrons produced 
by the cosmic radiation at sea-level, and 
(2) the construction of a differential coun- 
ter-telescope for the purpose of analyzing 
the correlation between the fluctuations in 
the cosmic-ray intensity at sea-level and 
the variables of the meteorology of the 
upper atmosphere. 

Study of cosmic-ray neutrons at sea-level. 
Existing measurements of the cosmic-ray- 
neutron intensity at sea-level have been 
unsatisfactory, partly because of the lack of 
sensitivity of the detecting equipment and 
partly also since the measurements were 
not so made as to permit unique rates of 
production of the neutrons to be deter- 
mined. In order to obtain measurements 
satisfactory on these two scores, a large 
boron trifluoride counter was constructed, 
75 cm in effective length and 15 cm in 
diameter. With this counter the neutron- 
intensity at sea-level was studied by sur- 
rounding it completely with paraffin 30 or 
more cm thick and then determining the 
counting-rates of the arrangement with 
and without shields of cadmium and boron. 
The counter was of such efficiency that 



66 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



approximately n neutrons per minute 
were detected — an improvement in sen- 
sitivity by a factor of 7 over previous 
determinations. This arrangement made 
it possible to determine the rate of pro- 
duction of neutrons by cosmic rays per 
gram per second in paraffin at sea-level. 
It is believed that the value obtained in 
this manner is accurate to about 10 per 
cent. This will provide a basis for ascer- 
taining the number of neutrons produced 
at other elevations. The characteristics of 
very large counters were also studied in 
this investigation. 

Investigation of the connection between 
upper-air meteorology and cosmic-ray in- 
tensity at sea4evel. It will be recalled that, 
since the majority of cosmic rays reaching 
sea-level consist of mesotrons, the number 
reaching sea-level is determined not only 
by the loss of energy due to ionization, 
but also by the numbers which disappear 
by decay. The amount of decay which a 
given beam experiences depends on the 
length of path and on the energy of these 
particles. There is a complex relation be- 
tween the ionization-loss and the loss due 
to decay. In order to analyze the situation, 
a twin differential cosmic-ray telescope 
was constructed in which the intensity in 
a vertical beam could be measured with 
the various amounts of lead. By subtract- 
ing the intensity observed with one amount 
of lead from that observed with a smaller 
amount, a definite energy-band in the 
radiation could be isolated and the fluctua- 
tions in this band studied in connection 
with the meteorological variables obtained 
from the radiosonde flights. This analysis 
determines a ratio of mass to lifetime, tak- 
ing account of the variation in energy along 
the beam. Correlations were established 
between the cosmic-ray intensity at sea- 
level, when corrected for sea-level baro- 
metric pressure, and the fluctuations in 
the pressure at given levels in the upper 
atmosphere. 



Papers entitled "The intensity of neu- 
trons produced by cosmic radiation at 
sea-level" and "An analysis of mesotron 
lifetime-to-mass ratio by a differential tele- 
scope" and a "Report on cosmic-ray obser- 
vations on the U. S. Antarctic Expedition" 
are in preparation for publication. 

Personnel. Data obtained with the Mil- 
likan-Neher cosmic-ray meters were re- 
duced by Ernest K. Smith. Those obtained 
with the cosmic-ray telescope and the cor- 
relations with the meteorological variables 
were worked out by John White. Messrs. 
K. and M. Kupferberg and T. Swearingen 
constructed the twin differential telescope 
and K. Kupferberg worked out much of 
the analysis of the results. M. Kupferberg 
made the measurements of neutron-inten- 
sity at sea-level. 

Studies of Cosmic Rays 

Robert A. Millikan and Carl D. Anderson 

California Institute of Technology, 
Pasadena, California 

On account of the practically complete 
absorption in war activities of all the 
members of the cosmic-ray group of work- 
ers at the California Institute of Tech- 
nology, no general report on experimental 
accomplishment in this field from July 1, 
1942 to July 1, 1943 can be made. Some 
time has been found, however, for analyz- 
ing the results of experiments made late 
in 1941 and through April 1942, and for 
getting the results into proper channels of 
publication. The summary of the present 
status of the two large cosmic-ray under- 
takings is as follows : 

Origin of cosmic rays, by Robert A. 
Millikan, H. Victor Neher, and William 
H. Pickering. The hypothesis proposed as 
to the origin of cosmic rays is that whereas 
the evolution of energy by the stars is 
maintained, as Bethe has recently shown, 
by the partial transformation within the 
stars of the rest-mass energy of hydrogen 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 67 

into radiant energy through the building United States, which were described briefly 

of helium, carbon, and other atoms out in Year Book No. 41 and reported in full 

of hydrogen and the release through this in the Physical Review, vol. 63, pp. 234- 

process of the so-called "packing-fraction" 245 (1943). The experimental findings 

energy, the energy of cosmic rays, on the were in accord with the predictions that, 

other hand, is maintained by the occasional since the hypothetical silicon-annihilation 

complete transformation in interstellar rays should have enough energy (13.2 

space of the rest-mass energy of the atoms be-v) to get vertically through the Earth's 

of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and magnetic field at the equator in Peru, 

silicon (and presumably in small amounts though not in India, there should be 

of heavier aggregates) into cosmic rays; found, both at sea-level and at all altitudes 

each such event presumably creating an i n the Americas, when vertically incoming 

electron pair, though an occasional photon rays a l on e are under test, a very long 

pair, or even heavier-particle pair, need not plateau of uniform cosmic-ray intensities 

necessarily be excluded. extending north from Mollendo, Peru to 

The foregoing hypothesis requires that about the latitude of Victoria, Mexico 

the cosmic rays of measurable energy re- (magnetic latitude 32? 8 north); that there 

veal a spectral distribution of five distinct, tne strong band due to oxygen-annihilation 

definitely measurable bands, as follows: rays ^ be „ v ) should first appear, to be 

(1) a band of rays each having an energy f ollo wed, when the magnetic latitude of 

of 1.9 billion electron-volts (be-v), pro- 40 o north had been reacned? by the full 

duced by the annihilation, or complete entnmce of ^ nitrogen _annihilation band 

transformation, in interstellar space of the / C r 1 \ .1 „ ■ • r t>j 

' riii- / ("•" be-v); that in going from Pasadena 

rest-mass energy or the helium atom; (2) / . 1 . 1 .1 \ c «. 

. &/ M ., . , , ' v / (magnetic latitude 40.7 north) to St. 

a carbon-atom-anmhilation band, or energy ^ TTt , , /0 ., N 

r , /J . i 1 r Oeorge, Utah, but 4.1 (200 miles) nearer 
=5.0 be-v; (2) a nitrogen-atom band, or , , . , , , 
J , r \ 1 / a , 1 to the north magnetic pole, the carbon- 
energy 6.6 be-v; (4) an oxygen-atom band, .1 -i • 1 1 / /-1 \ 1 11 

r 1 1 //;•■■ .i- annihilation band (s.6 be-v) should appear, 

or energy 7.5 be-v; and (5) a silicon-atom , r „ . , J . / . rr 

1 1 £ i_ to be rollowed by a plateau clear up to 

band, or energy 13.2 be-v. . 1 « i- 

^, , , • r 1 1 magnetic latitude S4 north, when hehum- 

ihe hypothesis requires, turther, that .... . / «o 1 \ 1 11 

, 1 11 1 • t i- r -ii annihilation rays (1.00 be-v) should appear, 

there should be in India, tor vertically , v y 1 

incoming rays, between the magnetic equa- The P lateau between St ' Geor S e and 
tor and magnetic latitude about 20° north, Pocatell ° (magnetic latitude 51 ° north), 
a plateau of cosmic-ray intensity not chang- corresponding to the absence of abundant 
ing with latitude. This plateau the experi- atoms o£ atomic wei S ht between that of 
ments in India in 1939-1940 brought to carbon and that of helium, and the definite 
light; also, the appearance between Agra appearance of a new band between Omaha 
(magnetic latitude i7?3 north) and Pesha- (magnetic latitude 51 ?3 north) and Bis- 
war (magnetic latitude 25 north) of a marck (magnetic latitude 56 north), 
new cosmic-ray band which was identified brought to light in electroscope flights at 
with the silicon band of energy 13.2 be-v. Omaha and Bismarck, constitute new and 
These results were reported in Year Book strong evidence that the incoming charged 
No. 40, and more fully in the Physical particles are electrons, rather than protons 
Review, vol. 61, pp. 397-407 (1942). or other heavy particles; for in the case 
In spite of absorption in war work, it of helium there is not enough mass avail- 
was possible in December 1941 and March able to permit any heavier particle (proton 
1942 to make tests in Mexico and in the or mesotron) to acquire the energy of 1.88 



68 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



be-v that is needed to get to Earth at about 
latitude 54 . 

Improvement in the resolution of the 
cloud-chamber method of measuring the 
masses of mesotrons and the energy -trans- 
formations resulting in both their birth 
and disappearance, by C. D. Anderson, 
Seth Neddermeyer, and Leon Katz. About 
2000 test stereoscopic photographs have been 
made with the 24-inch cloud-chamber for 
the purpose of (1) determining the special 
properties of the expansion-chamber itself, 
(2) developing a light-source, (3) provid- 
ing a suitable Geiger-counter control-cir- 
cuit, (4) studying the effects of changes in 
temperature on the distortion of the tracks, 
and (5) studying various other details. 

The chamber produces clear and sharp 
tracks throughout its whole area. A light- 
source has been developed which consists 
of two argon-filled quartz tubes, through 
each of which a condenser of 48 micro- 
farads capacity and charged to 5000 volts 
is discharged. This source operates with 
complete reliability for several thousand 
flashes and provides sufficient illumination 
to register tracks with a lens opening of 
F/8, which is required to bring the whole 
depth of the chamber into focus. 

As with previous cloud-chamber work, 
the limit of resolution of the measure- 
ments is determined by the distortions of 
the tracks caused by motions of the gas 
in the chamber. These motions have been 
reduced by various means, but further 
work on this point is required in order to 
obtain the maximum precision in the meas- 
urements made with this equipment. 
When work is again taken up, it is planned, 
as a first step, to provide a careful control 
of temperature of the whole chamber. 

Preliminary measurements of curvature 
of 135 tracks in a magnetic field of 4500 
gauss have given the results shown in the 
accompanying table. More measurements 
are needed to determine with certainty 



whether or not the maxima and minima 
in the energy-distribution curve repre- 
sented by these data are real. On the basis 
of the present data it seems unlikely that 
they are due simply to statistical fluc- 
tuations. 



Energy interval 
in units of 10 9 


NO. OF TRACKS 








ELECTRON-VOLTS 


Negative 


. Positive 


Total 


0.00-0.45 


11 


17 


28 


0.46-0.95 


18 


17 


35 


0.96-1.45 


7 


6 


13 


1.46-1.95 


6 


11 


17 


1.96-2.45 


6 


2 


8 


2.46-2.95 


8 


4 


12 


2.96-3.45 ....... 


3 





3 


3.46-3.95 


1 


1 


2 


3.96-4.95 





1 


1 


4.96-6.95 


0.5 


0.75 


1.25 


6.96-9.45 


0.3 


0.3 


0.6 


Above 9.45 


3 


6 


9 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 





Katz, L., R. V. Adams, Jr., and W. E. Deeds. 
Preliminary energy distribution curve of 
cosmic rays. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 63, 
p. 140 (1943). 

Millikan, Robert A., H. Victor Neher, and 
William H. Pickering. The origin of cos- 
mic rays. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 63, 
p. 140 (1943)- 

Further tests of the atom- 
annihilation hypothesis as to the origin of 
the cosmic rays. Phys. Rev., vol. 63, pp. 234- 

245 (i943)- 

Origin of cosmic rays. 



Nature, vol. 151, pp. 663-664 (1943). 

Pickering, William H. An improved cosmic- 
ray radio sonde. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 
63, p. 140 (1943)- 

An improved cosmic-ray radio sonde. 

Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 14, pp. 171-173 (1943). 

Mass of the Mesotron 

Carl E. Nielsen and Wilson M. Powell 
University of California, Berkeley, California 

An expedition to Mount Evans (see 
Year Book No. 41, p. 102) was made for 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 



6 9 



the primary purpose of obtaining observa- 
tions on the mass of the mesotron. The 
ionization and momentum of cosmic rays 
were observed simultaneously in a Wilson 
cloud-chamber by photographing tracks 
curved by a magnetic field of 2500 oersted, 
and diffused sufficiently to permit photo- 
graphic resolution of single droplets. A 
delay of ^0.15 second between reduction 
of the clearing field from ~2o v/cm to 
~2 v/cm and expansion of the chamber 
was provided. Most of the photographs 
were of random expansions, and this time 
of reduced clearing field corresponds to 
the interval before expansion during which 
a track remains to be observed. 

Determination of mass from ionization 
and curvature depends upon a knowledge 
of the relation between ionization and 
speed. 

Approximately 7000 photographs were 
taken on Mount Evans, at an elevation of 
14,100 feet, and 1800 were taken at Summit 
Lake, at an elevation of 12,700 feet. The 
photographs show numerous heavily ioniz- 
ing tracks with negligible curvature pro- 
duced by particles — presumably protons — 
much heavier than mesotrons. These heavy 
tracks were present in about 8 per cent of 
the pictures at 14,100 feet and in about 4 
per cent of those at 12,700 feet. Each 
picture records events in an interval ^0.3 
sec, and in a volume ^1500 cc. Only six 
heavily ionizing mesotrons have yet been 
identified. Since they are quite conspicu- 
ous, it is probable that not many more will 
be found by additional study of the pic- 
tures. Most of the heavy tracks thus do 
not represent slow mesotrons; in fact, the 
fraction of slow mesotrons may not greatly 
exceed the figure 0.001 found by E. J. 
Williams at sea-level. 

Four of these slow mesotrons yield mass 
values determined as 145 to 210 (probable 
errors ±15 to ±30) using the formula of 
Corson and Brode {Physical Review, vol. 



53, p. 773, 1938), and as 155 to 230 (prob- 
able errors ± 15 to ±30) using the formula 
of Williams {Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, vol. A 172, p. 194, 1939). The 
probable errors are estimated to include 
chamber distortion of curvature, and statis- 
tical uncertainty deriving from the finite 
number of droplets counted. Curvature 
was measured by plotting micrometer 
readings of coordinates along the track 
and fitting a curve to the points by the 
method of least squares. The curvature 
of one track, for example, was determined 
from 13 points, with a probable error in 
fitting of 3.5 per cent; the ionization of 
this track was determined by a count of 
335 droplets, hence the statistical error is 
~5 per cent (or more, since each ion is 
not the result of a single independent 
event). 

We are grateful to all who have as- 
sisted with this experiment, and to the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, the 
Fund for Astrophysical Research, and the 
Rumford Fund of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences for generous financial 



support. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Nielsen, C. E. Efficiency of positive and nega- 
tive ions as condensation-nuclei in the Wil- 
son cloud chamber. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., 
vol. 61, p. 202 (1942). 

and Wilson M. Powell. Mesotron mass 

and heavy tracks on Mt. Evans. Phys. Rev., 
vol. 63, pp. 384-385 (1943); (abstract) Phys. 
Rev., vol. 63, p. 140 (1943). 

Powell, W. M. Electrons and heavier particles 
at 14,125 feet. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 61, 
p. 202 (1942). 

Production of mesotrons, "stars," cascade 

showers produced by penetrating rays, slow 
protons, evidence for the disintegration elec- 
tron. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 61, p. 206 
(1942). 

Stars and slow protons at 14,125 feet. 

Phys. Rev., vol. 61, pp. 670-671 (1942). 

Application of the Edgerton lamp to drop- 
let counting. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 62, 
p. 305 (1942). 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 

Central Laboratory located at Stanford University, California 
H. A. SPOEHR, Chairman 

In complete accord with the pattern of vast and growing majority, who have not 

activities of the Institution during this experienced the want of food, take this 

period of emergency, the dominant ques- commodity for granted, without any re- 

tion in this Division has been, What con- gard for the tremendous complexities in- 

tribution can plant biology make to the volved in its production and distribution, 

war effort ? The more immediate aspects The relatively very mild restrictions which 

of the present conflict have been charac- it has been necessary to impose upon the 

terized by extraordinarily complex tech- population of this country during the 

nical developments. The branches of sci- present emergency have clearly revealed 

ence basic to these developments have widespread misconceptions regarding the 

found ready application for their knowl- fundamentals of food production for an 

edge and skills. By contrast, the bio- industrial population, 

logical phases of the conflict have been The only standard of living which is at 

slower in making themselves apparent, all basic is the three to five thousand 

and as a consequence the biological sci- calories, in the form of a diet adequate 

ences, aside from medicine, have as yet to maintain human life. Man, from the 

made relatively little direct contribution, very biological nature of his being, can 

In its more immediate application to the never free himself from dependence on 
material aspects of human life and the this supply of nourishment, and this rests 
struggle for existence, plant biology con- entirely upon the functioning of the green 
tributes essentially to the problem of plant. Man stands high in the pyramid of 
nutrition. Beyond that, it contributes life. It requires innumerable plants to 
to the whole matter of the produc- produce a farm animal, and many farm 
tion of carbonaceous material, which, animals to maintain a human life. And 
either in the form of highly complex this dependence applies to the entire 
carbon compounds, or as raw material for human species, of whatever race or color, 
further elaboration, constitutes the basis In this pyramid of life it is the proportions 
of a large part of modern industry. In of the base which determines the survival 
the great urge for attaining immediate of some two thousand million souls, each 
results of industrial value, the fact has of whom demands his three thousand 
been too readily overlooked that, whether calories of food. In all the confusion of 
for the feeding of a nation or for the syn- ideas which this war has produced, this 
thesis of rubber and plastics, the ultimate idea stands constantly more clearly re- 
source of all the materials is the plant, vealed. If it is not realized and acted upon 
Sooner or later, our economic planning by those responsible for the future, the four 
will be obliged to take this fact into freedoms will be but empty shibboleths, 
consideration. In so vast and complicated a situation 

The question of the food supply pre- as is presented by the general problem 

sents the simpler case. The relations be- of the relation of plants to man's well- 

tween plant, farm, and food are in a being, a small group of scientific workers 

very general way familiar to all. Yet a can at best hope for little more than 

7 1 



72 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



progress in some particular aspects of the 
larger problem. This is not the type of 
problem that will be "solved" by a stroke 
of scientific genius or through some for- 
tunate chance discovery. Its ramifications 
are as broad and involved as life itself. 
It is rather through the accretion of knowl- 
edge in many correlated fields, through 
applying the findings of one branch of 
science to those of another, and thus 
"cross-fertilizing" different approaches to 
the central problem, that sound advance 
can be expected. 

During the past year several projects 
have been undertaken in this Division 
with a view to applying to wider useful- 
ness the results and techniques which have 
been developed in specialized fields. In 
the field of photosynthetic investigations, 
a study has been made of the materials 
produced by diatoms and other algae. In 
experimental taxonomy, some purely sci- 
entific results obtained in the program of 
evolutionary studies are being applied to 
the breeding of new forage grasses of 
importance for food production. 

It is rather difficult to realize that in 
the production of carbonaceous material 
on the earth, marine diatoms and other 
algae play a role which is probably quite 
as important as that of land plants. Dia- 
toms are the principal photosynthetic or- 
ganisms over about two-thirds of the earth's 
surface, and they constitute the primary 
source of food for life in the sea. The 
investigations which have been carried out 
during the past year have demonstrated 
that diatoms and associated organisms 
possess a photosynthetic apparatus which, 
in respect to the nature of the pigments, 
shows some remarkable differences from 
that of land plants. It remains to be de- 
termined whether these differences in the 
photosynthetic apparatus are reflected in 
the nature of the products formed and 



in the mechanism of the photosynthetic 
process. 

The investigations on diatoms and other 
algae have also been directed to the de- 
termination of the nature of the organic 
material which is produced by these or- 
ganisms. In this connection an extensive 
series of experiments has been carried out 
to establish to what extent the composition 
of these organisms can be influenced by 
different environmental conditions. For. 
example, can conditions be found under 
which they produce materially larger 
quantities of fats or hydrocarbons than 
normally ? As a matter of experience these 
lower organisms have been found to show 
a high degree of flexibility in regard to 
the conditions under which they can live, 
and similarly to show very considerable 
variation in their composition under these 
different conditions. It is now possible, 
therefore, to select a set of culture con- 
ditions (certain mineral nutrients, carbon 
dioxide concentration, and light intensity, 
for example) and obtain, with a high 
degree of reproducibility, a culture of the 
organism having a certain composition, 
and under another set of conditions to 
obtain a culture of quite another com- 
position. 

Mention may be made of one direction 
in which the results obtained from these 
experiments may be of use. It has been 
assumed for a long time that some of 
our petroleum deposits owe their origin 
to the activity of diatoms during past 
geological eras. This assumption consti- 
tutes an important part of geological 
theory, and on it considerable reliance is 
placed for exploration of new oil fields. 
Yet virtually nothing is known concern- 
ing the materials produced by the living 
diatoms. These geological theories are 
largely a matter of inference, yet they 
constitute important tools for decidedly 
practical ends. One essential feature of 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



73 



these theories, namely the functioning of 
the diatoms, remains beyond the practical 
test of the geologist. That test is primarily 
a biochemical task. An experimental con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the mode 
of functioning of diatoms and the nature 
of the substances produced by them, with 
some regard to the geological implica- 
tions, may give added support to the 
current geological theories or indicate 
how they should be modified. 

During the past year the program in 
experimental taxonomy has advanced to 
an analysis of relationship between natural 
plant units of higher order, up through 
the genus. It is now clear that in the plant 
kingdom the tempo of evolution may 
vary greatly, depending on the stage of 
development that a group has attained. At 
one extreme there is the very slow accumu- 
lation of hereditary differences through 
mutation, gene exchange through hybridi- 
zation, and natural selection, which ulti- 
mately may result in the development of 
new species. At the other extreme, new 
species may arise suddenly through the 
addition of all the chromosomes of distinct 
species following hybridization, a process 
called amphiploidy. Before new species 
can arise by this method, however, their 
parents must pass through an age-long 
process of differentiation, during which 
their entire sets of chromosomes, instead 
of the genes, become the evolutionary 
building units. 

An inquiry into the requirements for 
successful amphiploidy was prompted by 
the origination of three new Madiinae in 
this laboratory by this method. The re- 
sulting survey, including other cases on 
record, clarified the relations between re- 
motely connected species complexes, and 
thereby rounded out the study on the 
principles that govern the various degrees 
of relationship that can be experimentally 
determined. 



Amphiploidy has been a highly im- 
portant mechanism in plant evolution, 
enabling many groups to pyramid their 
chromosome sets in progressively higher 
series, thereby combining the inheritances 
of their members. Also, amphiploids com- 
bine the new vigor of hybridity with the 
stability of independent species. Conse- 
quently, they are frequently superior in 
performance to their parents and more 
adaptable, especially when they have 
brought together the inheritances of species 
suited to ecologically different environ- 
ments. 

Many of our most important crop plants 
appear to have evolved by this process, 
and they belong to genera that have 
reached the stage of evolutionary maturity 
where amphiploidy is successful. Plant 
breeding by the addition of unbroken sets 
of chromosomes of remotely related species 
from such genera offers promise of better 
plants for the horticulturist, the agrono- 
mist, and the soil conservationist. This 
method also makes it possible to combine 
the inheritances of forms from extreme 
climates and habitats to produce new ones 
well adapted for intermediate environ- 
ments, thereby utilizing for breeding pur- 
poses previously untapped supplies of 
genes. 

A program of breeding range grasses 
has been initiated this year, in which these 
principles are applied. The experiments 
are being conducted in cooperation with 
the Soil Conservation Service of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, which is sup- 
plying much of the breeding stock. The 
grasses used are mostly native races from 
the Pacific Northwest that have been 
tested in regional nurseries and found to 
be superior. In addition, strains from the 
Institution's transplant station transect are 
being used. The plan is for the Institution 
staff to make the crossings and to test the 
constancy of the products. These are then 



74 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



to be turned over to the Soil Conservation 
Service for propagation, testing, and dis- 
semination. In the few crossings that have 
been attempted this year, races of blue- 
grass, the genus Poa, were employed. 
These crossings are to be extended next 
year, and the wheat grasses (Agropyron) 
are to be included, for members of this 
genus, like Poa, are economically of great 
importance and supposedly suitable for 
improvement through controlled amphi- 
ploidy. 

The work of completing the program 
on desert investigations has been con- 
siderably hampered by the difficulty of 
automobile travel for field investigation. 
A large amount of material has been pre- 
pared for publication covering the exten- 
sive studies of the distributional, taxo- 
nomic, and geographical features of the 
Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts. The 
vegetation of deserts and semideserts is 
particularly noted for the variety of plant 
types it displays. One of the most im- 
portant and yet most difficult problems of 
the desert is the attempt to find the geo- 
graphic source of its various plant types 
and to learn something of the stages by 
which their special modifications have 
come about. Therefore, considerable time 
has been given to assembling the facts 
which bear on this problem. The questions 
of origin, movement, and modification 
are being considered in close connection 
with what is known of the desert environ- 
ment and of the ecological behavior of 
desert plants. 

The field studies in paleobotany have 
also suffered because of the inability to 
travel by automobile and because much 
of Dr. Chaney's time has been taken up 
with work connected with the war. The 
discovery of the remains of a plant closely 
resembling the prickly pear, Opuntia, in 
sediments which date back to the Middle 
Eocene is very remarkable. Usually only 



plants with definitely woody stems, or 
with hard leaves and fruits, are likely to 
be preserved in the rocks. These struc- 
tures must be buried in sediments or thev 
will soon be destroyed by decay. Trees 
which live near lakes or streams more 
readily become a part of the fossil record 
than those which live on the uplands 
or in deserts. Even if they have resistant 
structures, plants growing far from sites 
of sedimentary deposition seldom leave the 
imprint of their existence in the rocks. 
It is not surprising that members of the 
cactus family are rarely reported as fossils. 
Their fleshy stems are poorly suited to 
preservation, and they commonly live in 
exposed or hilly situations where erosion 
rather than deposition is going on. 

The Cactaceae have highly specialized 
vegetative structures, and might be ex- 
pected to have evolved in comparatively 
late geologic time, coincidentally with the 
development of widespread aridity in the 
Pliocene epoch. If, as botanists have sup- 
posed, the fleshy, almost leafless stems of 
the cactus are a response to aridity, it 
seems clear that there have been deserts 
and desert specialization far back into the 
early days of angiosperm development. Of 
the fossil material collected by Mr. Earl 
Douglass in the twenties, and recently 
studied by Dr. Chaney, one specimen shows 
five attached joints, two of which are 
interpreted as representing reproductive 
structures. No evidence of spines has been 
noted, though areoles like those to which 
spines are attached in living cacti may be 
noted on the fossil stems. Several minor 
differences between these ancient plants 
and the modern prickly pear seem to 
justify their reference to a new genus, 
Eopuntia — the dawn cactus. 

Such rare discoveries, representing the 
plants which lived beyond the limits of 
the humid forests, suggest the nature of 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



75 



past vegetation in environments which plication of climatic and topographic di- 

are almost completely unknown. This versity in the Eocene, it provides addi- 

ancient cactus material also projects back tional background for our understanding 

to an early epoch the date of high speciali- of the evolution of varied races of mam- 

zation in flowering plants. With its im- mals in the early days of our era. 

BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

H. A. Spoehr, J. H. C. Smith, H. H. Strain, W. M. Manning, H. W. Milner, and G. J. Hardin 



Biochemistry of Algae 

It has long been recognized that diatoms 
and other algae play a very important 
role in the carbon economy of the earth. 
Over the major part of the earth's surface 
these plants are the principal photosyn- 
thetic organisms. They constitute the pri- 
mary food for life in the sea and in the 
lakes, and are presumed to have had an 
important part in the formation of pe- 
troleum. Yet very little is known regard- 
ing the biochemistry of these organisms, 
of what materials they are composed, what 
substances are formed in the course of 
their photosynthetic activity, and in what 
respects they differ chemically from land 
plants. The latter, probably because they 
constitute man's first and chief source of 
materials for food and the arts, have been 
subjected to extensive investigation. Land 
plants also exhibit tremendous diversity 
in form and structure, and in a measure 
this diversity is reflected in a great variety 
of chemical compounds which are formed 
in the bodies of the plants and for which 
they have become significant to man. In 
at least one respect, however, land plants, 
of even the most diverse character, show 
a remarkable uniformity, namely in the 
composition of their photosynthetic ap- 
paratus, more particularly their chloroplast 
pigments. On the other hand, marine 
plants, which show much less diversifica- 
tion in their vegetative features than do 
land plants, have now been found to have 
photosynthetic pigments which differ from 
those of land plants and which vary be- 



tween one species of marine organism and 
another. 

The significance of these differences in 
photosynthetic apparatus between land and 
aquatic plants is as yet not clear. There 
may be clues here to aid in unraveling 
the evolutionary development of plants 
from past geological eras and in establish- 
ing the phylogenetic relationships of the 
marine organisms themselves. It may be 
that associated with these differences in 
the photosynthetic apparatus will be found 
variations in the photosynthetic process 
itself and in the substances which are 
produced. The elucidation of these prob- 
lems is primarily dependent upon careful 
experimentation. 

For experimental purposes algae offer 
some striking advantages over land plants. 
Although the isolation of most algae in 
pure culture is often associated with many 
difficulties and the discovery of the most 
favorable conditions for growth entails an 
enormous amount of patient research, 
when these obstacles have been overcome 
there can be made available an almost 
limitless supply of material which is very 
favorable for biochemical and physiological 
investigation. Most algae under favorable 
conditions show a rapid growth, so that a 
"crop" can be obtained in short time. 
Some of these organisms can also be sub- 
jected to a wide range of experimental 
conditions, such as temperature, light in- 
tensity, and salinity of the culture solu- 
tions, without injury. Since the organisms 
are contained in liquid media, controlled 



7 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



conditions can be maintained more easily 
than with land plants. 

Selection and Isolation of Algae 

The task of selecting and isolating or- 
ganisms which are favorable for biochem- 
ical and physiological experimentation has 
been assigned to Dr. Hardin. Some twenty 
species have been investigated. 

It is necessary, or at least highly de- 
sirable, to have pure cultures of algae, 
that is, single-species cultures free of all 
other organisms including bacteria. Such 
cultures are, of course, more difficult to 
obtain than are cultures which are species- 
pure only, since one always starts with a 
culture in which the algae are outnum- 
bered by bacteria, however conspicuous 
the algae may be. Growing the culture 
in an inorganic medium reduces the dis- 
parity of numbers, but does not eliminate 
it, for the medium is never strictly in- 
organic. Even if contaminating organic 
substances are not introduced with the 
salts and with the distilled water used 
in making the medium, some organic 
matter will later appear as a result of the 
growth of the algae. Whether this or- 
ganic matter represents a portion of the 
photosynthate directly liberated into the 
medium, or whether, as is more likely, it 
has its source in the autolysis of some of the 
cells, does not matter in this connection. 
In either case, by the time an algal popu- 
lation has grown to a considerable size 
the dissolved organic matter present is 
enough to support an even larger popula- 
tion of bacteria. 

With such a mixed culture, Lister's dilu- 
tion method (with which the first pure 
cultures of bacteria were obtained) is 
impracticable. Theoretically it could work 
no matter how low the proportion of 
desired organisms, but only at the expense 
of an excessive amount of time and ma- 
terials. 



The agar streak method is likewise, in 
general, not very satisfactory for the isola- 
tion of algae. Although it has been pos- 
sible thus to isolate a species of Chlamy- 
domonas, the method generally fails on 
account of the overgrowth of the algal 
colonies by the spreading bacterial colo- 
nies. The method can be improved in sev- 
eral ways: (i) The growth of the colonies 
can be followed microscopically, and a 
micro-colony of algae can be transferred 
to other media before bacteria have over- 
grown it. By this means, a pure culture 
of another unidentified species of Chlamy- 
domonas has been obtained. (2) The bac- 
terial predominance in the original liquid 
culture can be reduced by several gentle 
centrifugations of the algae. A pure cul- 
ture of Selenastrum gracile has been ob- 
tained in this way. (3) Substances may be 
introduced into the medium which are 
more toxic for bacteria than for algae. Po- 
tentially this is a most useful method, but 
practically it involves the problem of em- 
pirically testing a world of substances, with 
no assurance of success, especially since in 
general bacteria are believed to be more re- 
sistant to poisons than are algae. It has 
been found, however, that a few fresh- 
water algae are more resistant to sudden 
change to a sea-water medium than are 
most bacteria, so that by using agar plates 
made with sea water it has been possible 
to free two fresh-water algae, Stichococcus 
bacillaris and Microthamnion Kuetzingi- 
anum, of bacteria. 

The spreading of bacteria which is so 
objectionable with surface colonies can 
be largely prevented by using the pour- 
plate method. A small sample of the 
crude culture is mixed with liquid agar 
which has been cooled nearly to the gel 
point, and the mixture immediately poured 
into a Petri dish to cool and solidify. By 
this means one obtains deep rather than 
surface colonies, and such deep colonies of 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY yy 

bacteria generally remain spherical or len- can be freed of bacteria merely by wash- 
ticular masses of not more than a few ing. One might expect that the jelly, being 
millimeters diameter with little tendency extracellular, would be infested by bacteria, 
to spread; consequently any algal colonies as are the gelatinous sheaths of many blue- 
present have a reasonable chance of re- green algae. Pandorina must have some 
maining pure. A number of the Chloro- means of preventing the adherence or 
phyceae have been purified by this method, growth of bacteria. 

but it has proved less useful for diatoms, With diatoms, the washing technique 

because of the diatoms' greater sensitivity has yielded few good results. Pennate dia- 

to heat. The agar, in order to remain toms tend to stick to the substrate. This 

liquid, must be at a temperature of more causes difficulty in removing them from 

than 40 ° C. at the time of introduction of the bottom of a dish with a micropipette, 

the algal sample. Even brief exposure to and still more in blowing them out of the 

such temperatures is fatal to many diatoms, pipette into the next dish. Most of the 

though not so to Nitzschia Palea, N. small forms attach themselves so firmly 

fonticola, and N. Kuetzingiana, which to the walls of the micropipette that it 

three species have been purified by this is impossible to dislodge them alive. Only 

means. In the case of N. Palea the actual with one large form, Hantzschia am- 

process of purification was aided by the phioxys var. elongata, has this method 

activities of the diatom cells themselves, succeeded. Apparently the adhesive power 

which, starting from a deep colony con- of this form is small relative to its bulk, 

taminated with bacteria, migrated out- With centric diatoms the washing method 

ward through the agar leaving the bac- has been completely unsuccessful. The 

teria behind. This ability of some pennate marine planktonic forms which were used 

diatoms to scrape themselves free of bac- showed no tendency to stick to the sub- 

teria by migrating through 1.5 per cent strate, but the cells or filaments either 

agar has been previously noted by Mein- could not be freed of bacteria, or, when so 

hold (191 1). The spreading of surface freed, would not grow in the media used, 

colonies of diatoms does not accomplish Centric diatoms, as a group, seem to be 

the same end; at least, no success has more difficult to grow in any sort of 

followed attempts thus to purify Nitzschia laboratory culture than are the pennate 

Palea and Hantzschia amphioxys var. forms. So far, it has been possible to grow 

pusilla. only two species in large enough quanti- 

If a microbe can be easily seen with the ties for other studies, these species being 

relatively low power of a dissecting micro- Thalassiosira gravida and Stephanopyxis 

scope, and especially if it is motile, it turns. An impure culture of the latter 

may often be purified by a washing proc- has been found to grow quite well, with a 

ess, that is, by transferring one or several maximum fission rate of 0.5 fission per day, 

cells from one dish of sterile fluid to an- in sea water enriched with nitrate, phos- 

other, until all the bacteria have been left phate, and silicate, provided a small amount 

behind. This method has yielded pure cul- of "soil extract" is also present. The char- 

tures of Chlamydomonas sp., as well as acter of the sea water itself is evidently 

of the colonial green algae Pandorina important, for samples collected at diflfer- 

morum and Gonium pectorale. It is some- ent times are not equally suitable, some 

what surprising that an alga such as being quite toxic. Whether the toxicity 

Pandorina, surrounded by a copious jelly, is due to some sort of littoral contamina- 



7 8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



tion, or to other factors, will not be investi- 
gated, for it has been found possible to 
replace the natural sea water by an artifi- 
cial medium based on Dittmar's old analy- 
sis of sea water. 

Algae of some other classes are even 
more intractable than centric diatoms. The 
greater part of the physiological studies 
made to date have been carried out with 
easily culturable members of the class 
Chlorophyceae, and of these most have 
been members of the single order Chloro- 
coccales, to which Chlorella and Scene- 
desmus belong. Consequently it is sus- 
pected a priori that generalizations about 
the physiology of algae rest on none too 
secure a foundation. Furthermore, if dif- 
ferences in storage products indicate dif- 
ferences in some of the preceding metabolic 
steps (a not unreasonable assumption), 
an additional reason is seen for desiring 
information about other classes. The Chlo- 
rophyceae, with few exceptions, store sugar 
or starch. The great groups of oil storers, 
the Bacillariae (diatoms), Xanthophy- 
ceae (yellow-green algae), Chrysophyceae 
(golden-brown algae), and Dinophyceae 
(dinoflagellates, etc.), besides the less 
abundant Cryptophyceae and Chloro- 
monophyceae, have all suffered great neg- 
lect by physiologists, the reason being that 
nearly all of them are difficult to culture. 
Notoriously difficult to grow in the labora- 
tory are the Chrysophyceae, though some 
of the members of this class (e.g., Synura) 
at times give rise to spectacular natural 
"blooms." Since these organisms are gen- 
erally rare or missing in most bodies of 
water, it may be suspected that they have 
very particular requirements, now quite 
unknown. 

Given the proper conditions, "rare" algae 
often become exceedingly numerous. An 
opportunity to study one of the less com- 
mon algae was presented when a bloom 
of the dinoflagellate Peridinium cinctum 



was found in an outdoor concrete tank. 
It was estimated that well over 95 per cent 
of all the algal cells present were of this 
single species, and the natural culture held 
its own for the two months that the tank 
was available. Attempts to grow the dino- 
flagellates in the laboratory under a great 
variety of conditions met with uniform 
failure. 

Algology is in great need of a tech- 
nique equivalent to the "selective culture" 
method of bacteriology (also called "en- 
richment culture" or "elective culture"), 
by means of which one can obtain what- 
ever sort of bacteria is desired. If one 
wishes to study an organism capable of 
utilizing inulin, one makes a medium 
containing inulin as the only energy source 
and inoculates it with soil or some other 
unknown mixture of microbes, and pres- 
ently the inulin-decomposing organisms, 
having a competitive advantage, outmulti- 
ply all other organisms. To get a pure 
culture of these organisms one uses, of 
course, the same inulin-containing medium 
used for the selective culture. 

With the autotrophic organisms, how- 
ever, the problem is more difficult; for 
example, what chemical should one use to 
select an oval, uniflagellate cell, having a 
red eye spot, two contractile vacuoles, and 
golden-brown lateral platelike chroma- 
tophores? Where is the logic to connect 
the morphological characteristics of the 
organism with its physiological require- 
ments? Attempts have nevertheless been 
made to discover selective cultures for algae. 
The concentrations of various inorganic 
salts have been varied in a number of 
ways, according to more or less intuitive 
and uncertain hypotheses. In this way a 
number of selective cultures for different 
Chlorophyceae have been found. Selective 
media have also been found for the yellow- 
green alga Tribonema bombycinum and a 
fresh-water centric diatom of the genus 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



79 



Melosira. Whether other useful selective chlorophyll a and (3-carotene, have been 
media can be found by this blindly em- found in all plants examined, 
pirical method, or whether the search The occurrence of pigments in plants 
will, in terms of time and effort, prove too belonging to different major groups is 
expensive to warrant continuing, remains shown in the accompanying table. Be- 
to be seen. cause of the difficulty in obtaining adequate 

The occurrence of pigments in various groups of plants 

(+ indicates the presence of the pigment, — its absence; ? small quantities that may have 
come from contamination of the source by other organisms; a blank space signifies that a thorough 
search was not made for the pigment. Carotenes other than (3-carotene and several minor pigments 
of higher plants have been omitted.) 



Pigment 



/3-carotene 

Chlorophyll a 

Chlorophyll b 

Chlorophyll c 

Chlorophyll d 

New chlorophyll 

Lutein 

Zeaxanthin 

Violaxanthin 

Neoxanthin 

Flavoxanthin 

Fucoxanthin 

Neof ucoxanthins 

Peridinin 

Dinoxanthin 

Diadinoxanthin 

Diatoxanthin 

Myxoxanthin 

Myxoxanthophyll 

Unnamed xanthophylls 



Higher 
plants 



+ 
+ 
+ 



Green 
algae 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 



Eugleno- 
phyceae 



+ 
+ 

+ 



Brown 
algae 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



Diatoms 



+ 

+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



Dino- 
flagel- 
lates 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



Yellow- 
green 
algae 



Red 

algae 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



Blue- 
green 
algae 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Pigments of Algae 

Closer examination of the pigments 
from plants in various botanical families 
reveals some remarkable variations in the 
nature of the chloroplast pigments. These 
variations are especially striking among 
the pigments of algae, which have been 
investigated by Drs. Strain and Man- 
ning. The total number of chloroplast 
pigments found in various plants now ex- 
ceeds two dozen. Only two of these, 



quantities of many species, our informa- 
tion is far from complete. There are indi- 
cations that additional work will reveal 
new chlorophylls and many new xantho- 
phylls in the photosynthetic tissues of 
different autotrophic plants. 

Higher plants and green algae. The 
nature of the pigments occurring in higher 
plants has been established by previous 
investigations. Some attention has been 
given to the pigments of three or four 



8o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



species of green algae, especially Chlorella 
pyrenoidosa. On the basis of these limited 
data, the major constituents of green algae 
appear to be identical with those of higher 
plants. These pigments are chlorophylls 
a and b, (3-carotene (plus considerable 
amounts of a-carotene in Chlorella and 
Stigeoclonium), lutein, zeaxanthin, and 
probably violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and 
flavoxanthin. 

A preliminary examination of Euglena 
gracilis, a. green-colored flagellated alga, 
showed the presence of chlorophylls a and 
b, but some of the xanthophylls differed 
from those of true green algae and higher 
plants. 

Brown-colored algae {diatoms, brown- 
algae, dinoflagellates, and allied forms). 
It was emphasized in last year's report 
that none of the xanthophylls found in 
the diatom Nitzschia closterium were iden- 
tical with those of higher plants. Five 
additional species of diatoms, including 
centric as well as pennate forms, have been 
examined, with the same result. One of 
these diatoms, Navicula torquatum, was 
found to contain considerable quantities 
of a hitherto undescribed pigment having 
the general properties of a carotene, but 
with an absorption spectrum closely re- 
sembling that of violaxanthin. None of 
the other algae examined contained de- 
tectable quantities of this carotene-like 
pigment, which we propose to call £- 
carotene. 

A dinoflagellate, Peridinium cinctum, 
has been found to contain larger quan- 
tities of chlorophyll c than any of the 
diatoms and brown algae thus far exam- 
ined. Peridinin, the principal xanthophyll 
of Peridinium, resembles fucoxanthin, 
but is redder. Fucoxanthin was not found 
in Peridinium. Two other xanthophylls 
were obtained in appreciable quantities; 
one was identical with a xanthophyll of 
diatoms (diadinoxanthin), whereas the 



other has not been reported previously. 
Peridinium also apparently contains none 
of the xanthophylls found in higher plants. 

A small unicellular, brown-colored alga 
was found growing in the tissues of a 
common Pacific coast sea anemone, Buno- 
dactis xanthogrammica. The pigments of 
this alga were found to be identical with 
those of the dinoflagellate Peridinium. 
Although the alga from Bunodactis lacks 
some of the morphological characteristics 
of dinoflagellates, the identity of pigment 
make-up suggests that it is probably a 
member of some closely related algal 
group. 

, Brown algae, like diatoms, contain chloro- 
phyll c (chlorofucine) as the second green 
pigment, and fucoxanthin as the principal 
xanthophyll. Whether or not they con- 
tain traces of the other xanthophylls found 
in diatoms cannot be decided until pure 
(or unialgal) cultures of brown algae are 
available. In addition, brown algae con- 
tain small quantities of two or three of 
the xanthophylls found in leaves, along 
with a new xanthophyll resembling neo- 
xanthin and a similar pigment found in 
flowers of the pansy. 

Red algae. As reported last year, various 
red algae have been found to contain a 
new chlorophyll (chlorophyll d) which 
absorbs light at considerably longer wave 
lengths than does chlorophyll a. Some of 
the properties of chlorophyll d are de- 
scribed below, in the section on chemical 
properties of the chlorophylls. Neither 
chlorophyll b nor chlorophyll c has been 
found in red algae. 

The carotenoids of red algae have not 
been examined, but it has been noted that 
several are present in considerable quanti- 
ties. The occurrence of a unique chloro- 
phyll suggests that a search might also 
reveal new xanthophylls. 

Blue-green algae. A preliminary ex- 
amination has been made of the pigments 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY gj 

of a species of Phormidium. Chlorophyll will establish the degree of natural struc- 
a was found, but not chlorophyll c or tural variation in this class of pigments, 
chlorophyll d. The presence of chlorophyll The diversity of pigments is also inter- 
im was doubtful. esting because it suggests the possibility 

The two principal xanthophylls of Phor- of variation in the mechanism of photo- 

midium appeared to be identical with synthesis in different groups of plants, 

those previously found in blue-green algae This variation in the mechanism would 

by other investigators. These two xantho- be likely to lead to different products, 

phylls were not observed in the other Finally, the results shown in the table 

groups of algae. Several other xanthophylls may provide an indication of the degree 

were present in Phormidium, but have not of phylogenetic relationship between the 

been investigated further. various classes and divisions of plants. 

Yellow-green algae. In recent years, be- Support for this view is derived from the 
cause of certain morphological and physio- following considerations: (i) Pigments 
logical similarities, many algologists have related to the photosynthetic apparatus 
considered yellow-green algae and dia- reflect some of the basic characteristics of 
toms to be related. However, the pigments the genetic make-up of a plant; (2) cer- 
of the one yellow-green alga we have tain plastid pigments appear to be re- 
examined, Tribonema bombycinum, show stricted to given groups of plants, although 
little resemblance to those of diatoms, or the relative amounts may vary in different 
to those of any other group of algae. Chlo- members within a class, 
rophylls b, c, and d were not detected. In It may be seen that chlorophyll a and 
addition to chlorophyll a, very small 3-carotene are common to all the plant 
amounts of another green pigment were classes which have been examined. This 
present in the extracts of Tribonema, but is consistent with the hypothesis of a 
it is not yet certain that this pigment common origin for all plants, 
represents a natural constituent of the Chlorophyll b occurs only in higher 
alga. At least three xanthophylls were plants, green algae, and the Euglenophy- 
present, but none of the three examined ceae. Some of the xanthophylls of Euglena 
appeared identical with any previously re- are not identical with those of green algae 
ported xanthophyll. and higher plants. These statements are 

Significance of pigment diversity. The consistent with the accepted view that 

great diversity of pigments in the various higher plants have evolved indirectly from 

groups of algae is interesting from several green algae, and also suggest that Euglena 

points of view. The results present a is remotely related to the green algae, 

challenge to the organic chemist. Much Brown algae, diatoms, and dinoflagel- 

has been learned about the structure of lates may be regarded as more closely 

chlorophylls a and b as a result of years related to one another than to other groups, 

of intensive research. Similar information because (1) all contain chlorophyll c as 

concerning chlorophylls c and d may pro- the second green pigment, (2) diatoms and 

vide a better basis for generalizations re- brown algae contain fucoxanthin in com- 

garding the type of molecular structure mon, (3) diatoms and dinoflagellates both 

necessary in the photosynthetic process. A contain diadinoxanthin. Since the brown 

similar advance in our knowledge of the algae also contain one or more xantho- 

many different carotenoids found in algae phylls found in green plants, it is possible 



82 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



that they constitute a connecting link be- 
tween the green and brown plants. 

The pigment composition of Tribonema 
suggests that the yellow-green algae (Xan- 
thophyceae) are not closely related to 
diatoms, or to any of the other classes ex- 
amined. This is perhaps the only instance 
where the pigment evidence is in actual 
disagreement with conclusions reached 
from other lines of evidence. 

The fact that red algae appear to be 
the only class containing chlorophyll d 
is a further indication that this class of 
algae is remote from the other classes. A 
more complete study of the pigments of 
red algae, and also of blue-green algae, is 
certainly to be desired. 

Effect of Environment on Pigment 
Content of Algae 

Other investigators have reported that 
various environmental factors may influ- 
ence the pigment concentration, especially 
the chlorophyll concentration, of various 
plants. In the last annual report, there 
was described a marked effect of light on 
the concentration of a diatom xanthophyll 
(diadinoxanthin, in Nitzschia closterium) . 

Further evidence of the influence of 
light, as well as of other factors, on pig- 
ment concentration has been obtained from 
a study of cultures of the green alga 
Chlorella pyrenoidosa, grown by Dr. 
Spoehr and Mr. Milner. Both the chloro- 
phyll and carotene concentrations (per unit 
dry weight) varied by a factor of approxi- 
mately 25, the highest concentrations oc- 
curring in young cultures grown at low 
light intensity, and the lowest concentra- 
tions being observed in older cultures 
grown at high light intensity. The total 
amount of carotenoid pigments relative to 
chlorophyll was higher in the cultures con- 
taining little chlorophyll than in those con- 
taining much chlorophyll. Decrease in the 
amount of yellow and green pigments in 



older cultures, especially in those exposed 
to strong light, does not result from a 
simultaneous increase in the total amount 
of organic matter present, but from an 
absolute decrease in the total amount of 
pigment present. 

In Chlorella cells grown at low light 
intensity the amount of a-carotene usually 
exceeded the amount of (3-carotene, but 
in cells grown at high light intensity the 
reverse was true. This effect has not been 
observed before, nor have other plants been 
found in which the amount of a-carotene 
exceeds that of (B-carotene. 

The surprisingly large capacity for varia- 
tion in pigment content shown by Chlo- 
rella has obvious practical implications. It 
indicates that more general use might be 
made of controlled environments for effi- 
cient production of other specific sub- 
stances. Capacity for variation with change 
in environment may not be confined to 
pigments. 

Properties of Chlorophylls 

Chlorophylls a, b, and d have been 
found to undergo spontaneous, reversible 
isomerization reactions. The reactions take 
place slowly in solutions at room tempera- 
ture, rapidly at higher temperatures. Chlo- 
rophyll a yields a single product, chloro- 
phyll a', which is less adsorbed than chlo- 
rophyll a upon columns of sugar. These 
two pigments show similar absorption 
spectra and yield similar but distinct pheo- 
phytins. Chlorophyll b\ the isomerization 
product of chlorophyll b, differs but slightly 
in absorption spectrum and adsorbability 
from the original chlorophyll. At equi- 
librium, the new isomers constitute about 
a fifth of the pigment mixtures. 

Chlorophyll d yields a more complex 
isomerization mixture. One isomer, chlo- 
rophyll d', differs only slightly from chlo- 
rophyll d in spectral properties. Another 
isomer, isochlorophyll d, is formed in con- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



83 



siderable quantities and is similar to chloro- 
phyll a in its spectral absorption properties. 
A third isomer, isochlorophyll d\ differs 
but slightly from isochlorophyll d. 

These isomerization reactions compli- 
cate investigations of the properties of the 
chlorophylls. Thus far they have not been 
observed to take place in living plants, but 
they occur rapidly when fresh plant mate- 
rial is heated. 

As is the case with the common chloro- 
phylls a and b, chlorophyll d and its isomers 
contain magnesium. When the magne- 
sium is removed from chlorophyll d with 
acid at low temperature ( — 80° C), an un- 
stable pheophytin, pheophytin d, is formed. 
With acid at room temperature, another 
more stable pheophytin is obtained. The 
latter, isopheophytin d, is also obtained 
from isochlorophyll d with acid at low 
temperature. The less stable pheophytin 
apparently has the same molecular ar- 
rangement as chlorophyll d. The more 
stable pheophytin has the same arrange- 
ment as isochlorophyll d. The two pheo- 
phytins are also interconvertible. Introduc- 
tion of magnesium into the isopheophytin 
d molecule results in the regenera- 
tion of isochlorophyll d. In spite of the 
spectral similarity of isochlorophyll d and 
chlorophyll a, these two pigments yield 
spectrally different products when treated 
with alkali and acid. 

These isomerization reactions give fur- 
ther indication of possible variation in the 
photosynthetic apparatus of plants. They 
must also be considered in the isolation of 
chlorophyll pigments and in studies of the 
reactions of these substances. 

The Production of Organic Matter by 
Chlorella pyrenoidosa 

The investigations on the characteriza- 
tion of pigments can be carried out with 
relatively small amounts of algal material, 
thanks to the chromatographic and spectral 



absorption methods which have been de- 
vised during the past few years. For the 
investigations on other components of these 
plants, larger quantities of material were 
required, especially because it was desired 
to determine the influence of certain en- 
vironmental factors on the production of 
particular components. These investiga- 
tions were carried out by H. A. Spoehr, 
H. W. Milner, and Garrett Hardin. The 
culturing of any microorganism in quan- 
tity presents some problems which are 
peculiar to each organism and some which 
are common to the general method which 
is adopted. Although a number of micro- 
organisms, including some diatoms, were 
cultured in larger amounts, special atten- 
tion was given to Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 
because we had had more experience with 
this organism than with any of the others 
and the effects of changes in environ- 
mental conditions could be more rapidly 
worked out with this one organism. Also, 
the methods of chemical analysis which 
were to be applied to these algal investiga- 
tions could be more satisfactorily tested on 
this material than on any other which had 
thus far been cultured. 

Two-liter and 15-liter cultures of Chlo- 
rella were grown. The vessels, fitted with 
tubes for aeration and containing the min- 
eral nutrient solutions, were sterilized be- 
fore inoculation. The 15-liter cultures were 
grown outdoors under north skylight; the 
2-liter cultures, cooled by running water, 
were illuminated from below by incan- 
descent lamps. Carbon dioxide, in air or in 
nitrogen, was the only source of carbon. 
After the cultures had grown the desired 
length of time, which varied according to 
experimental requirements, the organisms 
were separated from the culture solutions 
by centrifugation. The yields varied con- 
siderably according to the culture condi- 
tions used. Excluding the obviously un- 
favorable conditions, the yields were about 



8 4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



2 grams per liter on a fresh-weight basis. 
In some cultures the dry weight showed 
great variation, ranging from n to 39 
per cent. 

The degree of reduction of carbon. Con- 
sideration was given primarily to the or- 
ganic constituents produced by the algae. 
For the purposes of this investigation the 
determination of the organic composition 
of the plants by means of chemical esti- 
mation of particular compounds, or even 
of groups of compounds, was too slow and 
cumbersome because of the large number 
of experiments involved. Since the entire 
organic content of the plant was regarded 
as arising from the reduction of carbon 
dioxide, the energy level of this total or- 
ganic content was of more concern than the 
amounts of any particular constituents. A 
method was, therefore, devised for deter- 
mining the "degree of reduction" of the 
organic material constituting the entire 
body of the plant culture. This "degree 
of reduction" has been designated the R- 
value, and is based on the percentage of 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen of 
the dry plant material, as determined by 
combustion analysis. The R-value can be 
obtained by calculating the amount of 
oxygen necessary to oxidize completely the 
carbon and hydrogen content of the plant 
material. If carbon dioxide is taken as the 
lowest stage of reduction of carbon, with 
an R-value of zero, and methane as the 
highest stage, with an arbitrary value of 
100, all organic compounds fall between 
these extremes and their R-value can be 
readily calculated. For example, the R- 
value of malic acid is 17.94, cellulose 29.70, 
alanine 33.76, leucin 50.45, triolein 72.48, 
hexane 88.42. A plant takes in carbon in 
its most oxidized form, carbon dioxide, and 
from this as the only source of carbon 
builds all the organic material constituting 
its body. A determination of the R-value 
will, therefore, be an over-all measure of 



how far it has carried the reduction of 
carbon dioxide. 

The body of a plant is, of course, com- 
posed of a great many different carbon 
compounds. Is it of fixed composition ? Do 
different components of the plant vary in 
amount, and to what extent can these 
different components be altered by changes 
in the environmental conditions to which 
the plant is exposed? Changes in compo- 
sition would be reflected in different R- 
values. Higher R-values indicate relatively 
greater amounts of highly reduced com- 
pounds such as fats and hydrocarbons; 
lower R-values indicate relatively larger 
amounts of less reduced compounds such as 
carbohydrates and hydroxy acids. 

A survey of the leaves of a number of 
higher plants of widely different genera 
showed that their R-values are within a 
relatively narrow range, from about 30 to 
40. Some of these leaves show very marked 
quantitative variation in some of their com- 
ponents, before and after a period of 
illumination. Notable starch synthesizers, 
such as Nicotiana tabacum and Tro- 
paeolum majus, the leaves of which in- 
crease 10- to 20-fold in starch content after 
a period of illumination and in which the 
starch constitutes finally 20 to 44 per cent 
of the dry matter, showed but a small 
decrease in R-value after a period of 
illumination. 

The lower plants, for example Chlorella, 
appear in some respects to be. more flexible 
than the higher plants. This alga can 
grow under a wide variety of environ- 
mental conditions, and thereby undergoes 
considerable change in composition. That 
this change not only is quantitative but 
results in products of different chemical 
composition is indicated by the fact that 
its R-values range from 38 to 58 according 
to environmental conditions. 

An extensive series of culture experi- 
ments was carried out with Chlorella in 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



85 



order to determine the effect of different 
environmental factors on the production of 
organic matter by this organism. More 
particularly, an effort was made to discover 
the conditions which were favorable to the 
production of compounds of high R-value, 
presumably fats and hydrocarbons. 

Environment and chemical composition. 
In an investigation entailing so complex a 
system as is involved in the culture of 
Chlorella, it is manifestly impossible, with- 
out the expenditure of an inordinate 
amount of time, to give full consideration 
to each member of the constellation of 
environmental factors. Consequently, cer- 
tain of the components of each group of 
environmental factors, which from past ex- 
perience appear to be most significant, were 
selected. Thus, of the mineral nutrients, 
primarily nitrogen and to some extent 
phosphate and potassium were given con- 
sideration. Of the gases, primarily the 
effects of carbon dioxide concentration 
were studied, and to some degree the 
partial pressure of oxygen. Of the light 
factor, primarily intensity, the effect of 
intermittency, and the duration of illumi- 
nation received attention. Studies of the 
effect of temperature have only recently 
been started. Obviously none of these fac- 
tors can be considered entirely independ- 
ently of the others. Moreover, the choice 
of the factors investigated was in part 
influenced by the theories regarding the 
nature and intensity of these factors dur- 
ing past geological eras, so far as it has 
been possible to envisage them. That is, 
on the assumption that petroleum de- 
posits have arisen from the activity of cer- 
tain marine organisms, consideration was 
given to the conditions which are pre- 
sumed to have prevailed at the time these 
organisms lived. Thus far, over one hun- 
dred and fifty 2-liter cultures, grown under 
a considerable range of conditions, have 
been harvested and the product analyzed. 



Some of the more promising of these have 
in turn been grown in larger culture for 
more particular analysis. 

The concentration of carbon dioxide 
has a considerable effect on the compo- 
sition of the organic material produced 
by Chlorella. Not only was the yield 
greater, as was to be expected, with ad- 
dition of carbon dioxide to air, but such 
cultures also showed a higher R-value. 
The highest yields and also the highest 
R-values were obtained with 5 per cent 
carbon dioxide with high light intensities. 
Ten per cent carbon dioxide gave lower 
yields and lower R-values, even with high 
light intensities. Under most conditions 
it appears to make little difference in yield 
or in R-value whether the carbon dioxide is 
mixed with air or whether it is contained 
in nitrogen or hydrogen, that is, whether 
it is an aerobic or anaerobic culture. 
With higher light intensities and longer 
periods of illumination, however, 5 per 
cent of carbon dioxide in nitrogen pro- 
duced higher yields and higher R-values 
than 5 per cent carbon dioxide in air. No 
satisfactory explanation has as yet been 
found for this complex interaction of sev- 
eral factors, which will require consider- 
ably more detailed study. With the more 
extreme condition of mixtures of carbon 
dioxide and oxygen, in the absence of any 
other gas, very pronounced effects are ob- 
servable: the cultures grow exceedingly 
slowly and produce small yields with a 
very low R-value. 

Of the three mineral nutrients studied, 
nitrogen, potassium, and phosphate, the 
first two appear to exert a pronounced 
effect. Since the interpretation in terms of 
plant metabolism of effects obtained by 
variations of any one required mineral ele- 
ment may be exceedingly complex and 
such effects may be obscured in various 
ways, this summary is confined to the ob- 
served gross effects on yields and R-values 



86 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



produced by different concentrations of 
these mineral elements in the solutions in 
which the Chlorella cells were cultured. 
Nitrogen, as ammonium ion, has a pro- 
found effect on both yield and R-value. 
The highest R-value, 56.8-58.4, was ob- 
tained from cultures from which nitrogen 
compounds were omitted, although the 
yields were low. Addition of even very 
small quantities of nitrogen materially in- 
creased the yields and resulted in lower 
R-values. With 0.12 g. NH 4 C1 per liter, 
maximum yields were obtained, with R- 
values of about 53. Further increasing the 
amount of nitrogen does not increase the 
yield and reduces the R-value. A certain 
amount of phosphate is, of course, essen- 
tial, but variations in this nutrient have not 
been found to produce pronounced effects. 
On the other hand, the effects of potassium 
are very pronounced. Increased amounts 
result in decided augmentation of both 
yields and R-values. Some of the highest 
yields combined with the highest R-values 
have been obtained with cultures high in 
potassium. These experiments have not yet 
been concluded, so that it is impossible to 
say how high the R-values can be carried 
by further increases in potassium content. 

Originally it was planned to carry out 
measurements of the rate of photosynthesis 
and determinations of the ratios of carbon 
dioxide absorbed and oxygen evolved in 
conjunction with these investigations. Un- 
fortunately, because of the war, it has not 
been possible to carry out this part of the 
program. As a consequence, it is impos- 
sible to give a rational interpretation of 
the results obtained with variations in the 
light factor in these culture experiments. 
The results are, however, in themselves of 
considerable interest. With 5 per cent car- 
bon dioxide in air or in nitrogen, both 
yields and R-values increase in cultures 
raised with higher light intensities. Above 
about 680 foot-candles, increase in light 



intensity results in no further increase in 
either yields or R-values. The latter in- 
crease with the length of time of illumina- 
tion. Approximately, yields and R-values 
are a product of intensity and length of 
illumination, that is, of lumen hours. Com- 
paring the same periods of illumination in 
intermittent and in continuous light, the 
yields and R-values are slightly higher in 
continuous light. There was no significant 
difference in the R-values between cultures 
which were harvested after a period of 
illumination and those which had been 
kept in the dark for periods of 12 to 48 
hours before harvesting. Nor do the cul- 
tures, after attaining full growth, appear 
to change appreciably in composition, 
when kept free from bacterial contamina- 
tion, during a period of 16 days in the dark. 
The fact is again stressed that variations 
in any single nutrient element may result 
in complex reactions, including changes 
in the pH of the medium, so that their 
interpretation on metabolic principles can 
be accomplished only on the basis of more 
extensive analysis. It has, however, already 
been possible to discover culture conditions 
which result in products of very mate- 
rially different composition from those en- 
countered growing under natural condi- 
tions, and to alter the gross composition 
of the organisms at will to a considerable 
extent and in a satisfactorily reproducible 
manner. 

Vitamins in Algae 

Because certain algae can be grown so 
rapidly and for their culture require only 
air, light, and simple mineral nutrients, it 
seemed possible that, under emergency 
conditions, these organisms might provide 
a single natural source of a number of 
vitamins. A series of vitamin determina- 
tions, by chemical means, was carried out 
principally on fresh Chlorella and on some 
preserved in different ways. An effort was 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



«7 



also made to ascertain to what extent the vitamin C content. Drying the cells in 

vitamin content of this alga was influenced vacuum resulted in a loss of 30 to 50 per 

by the different environmental conditions cent of the ascorbic acid. Nor was it pos- 

under which it was cultured. The caro- sible to reduce this loss by removing the 

tene (provitamin A) was determined by oxygen from the cells before drying in 

Drs. Strain and Manning; vitamin C was vacuum, or by blanching before drying, 

determined by Dr. Smith; and Dr. Man- Even greater losses of vitamin C, amount- 

ning made some determinations of ribo- ing to about 80 per cent, were caused by 

flavin, but the latter work was interrupted sterilization of the algal material after it 

by his being called to other duties con- had been sealed in evacuated tubes, 
nected with the war. 

The carotene content of several species The Photosynthate in Sunflower 

of algae was found to vary greatly. Two Leaves 

species of brown algae yielded 0.016 to l n order that clear interpretation of 

0.033 m g- carotene per gram of fresh algal tne mechanism of photosynthesis may be 

material; four species of diatoms, 0.014 to achieved, there is great need for more 

0.050 mg.; a dinoflagellate, Peridinium precise information concerning the specific 

cinctum, 0.107 mg. These values are some- substances which are synthesized. Dr. 

what smaller than those reported for caro- Smith has continued his investigations on 

tene obtained from leaves of higher plants. t he nature of the substances produced 

The amount of carotene contained in directly by photosynthesis in sunflower 

Chlorella pyrenoidosa varied greatly with leaves. 

the conditions under which the cells were The criterion used to judge whether a 

grown. Cells grown in continuous illumi- particular substance arises from photosyn- 

nation of relatively high intensity contained thesis is whether or not that substance 

as little as 0.01 mg. of carotene per gram increases in amount during short periods 

of fresh cells, whereas those grown in of illumination and carbon dioxide absorp- 

low light intensities contained 0.122 to tion. This criterion becomes more sound 

0.29 mg. the more completely the carbon absorbed 

The vitamin C determinations were as carbon dioxide during photosynthesis 

made by the 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol can be accounted for by an equivalent 

method. The amount of this vitamin in increase in specific organic substances. 

Chlorella was found to vary from about It had long been known that the most 

0.3 to 0.6 mg. per gram of fresh cells, noticeable increases in organic matter dur- 

These values are about the same as those ing photosynthesis occurred in the carbo- 

which have been 'found for a number of hydrate content. How nearly all of the 

marine algae. About the same percentage absorbed carbon could be accounted for 

of vitamin C is contained in fresh Chlorella as carbohydrate was still uncertain, 

as in lemon juice, one of the well recog- The initial report on this research was 

nized sources of this vitamin. made last year. It showed that a very 

Although the losses in carotene (and large proportion of the carbon dioxide 

presumably in riboflavin) when the algal photosynthetically absorbed by sunflower 

material was preserved by various methods leaves could be accounted for by the 

were relatively small, it has not been pos- amount of carbohydrate synthesized. The 

sible to devise a satisfactory means of con- proportion was so large as to indicate that 

venient storage without material losses in under the proper experimental conditions 



88 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

the carbohydrate accumulated would equal photosynthesized) was 96.7 ±2.7 per cent 

the carbon dioxide taken in. Experiments of the carbon absorbed, 
carried out during the past year have The proportion of the assimilated carbon 

demonstrated that the agreement is almost recovered in the sucrose fraction progres- 

quantitative, 98.7 per cent of the carbon sively decreases as the amount of assimi- 

absorbed being recovered as carbohydrate, lated carbon dioxide increases. Conversely, 

To achieve this high degree of correspond- the proportion found in the monosaccha- 

ence, the experiments were carried out ride fraction progressively increases. In 

at io° C. instead of at 20 °, the tempera- fact, the sums of the percentages recovered 

ture at which the earlier experiments were in these two fractions are almost constant, 

conducted. 61 .1 ±1.0 per cent. Likewise, the per- 

From the observations made thus far centages recovered in the starch fraction 
it may be concluded that the specific sub- remain nearly constant, 29.6 ± 1 .6 per cent, 
stances accumulated as a result of photo- These facts suggest that starch and sucrose 
synthesis by sunflower leaves are carbo- are formed simultaneously in sidc-by-side 
hydrates. Although the experimental data reactions and that sucrose is further trans- 
indicate that under certain conditions all formed into monosaccharide. The latter 
the carbon assimilated can be accounted for supposition may be erroneous, for it is 
as increase in carbohydrate, the experi- possible that the monosaccharide present 
mental error of recovery is great enough to in the leaf may be converted into sucrose 
allow for small increases in the amounts by illumination of the leaf. Such a trans- 
of other substances. To establish whether formation would account for the trends 
or not these occur will require exceedingly noted in the sucrose and monosaccharide 
sensitive tests. fractions. 

After it had been demonstrated that Starch, sucrose, and glucose have each 

carbohydrates comprise the specific sub- been proposed as being the primary carbo- 

stances accumulated during photosyn- hydrate formed in photosynthesis. The 

thesis, determinations were made of the results reported here do not give an une- 

amounts of the different carbohydrates quivocal answer to this question, but they 

formed by the assimilation of various suggest that perhaps more than one of the 

amounts of carbon dioxide. As the amount carbohydrates may arise simultaneously, 
of carbon dioxide assimilated increases. The residue fraction (that portion of the 

the percentage of the carbon dioxide re- leaf remaining after extraction with 80 

covered as carbohydrate apparently passes per cent ethanol and with hot water, and 

through a maximum. In view of the prob- hydrolysis with dilute acid) is increased by 

able deviations in the results, however, it treatment of the leaf with carbon dioxide 

is possible that the percentage recovery in the dark. On illumination of the leaf, 

may remain constant over the range in- this fraction decreases progressively as the 

vestigated. Until one of these alternative amount of carbon assimilated through 

possibilities has been established no valid photosynthesis increases. This decrease in 

deductions can be drawn from these data, the residue is reflected in a steady decline 

because these alternative trends lead to in the percentages of total carbon recov- 

quite contradictory conclusions. The maxi- ered. Because of lack of sufficient data, no 

mum amount of carbon recovered under well founded interpretation of the behavior 

these conditions (temperature 20 ° C. and of this fraction during photosynthesis can 

progressively increasing amounts of carbon be attempted at the present time. 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



8 9 



The increases in the other carbohydrate to Mr. R. W. Williams, of the Chemistry 

fractions constituted only small portions of Department, for making the activity meas- 

the total gains in carbohydrate, and no sig- urements. 
nificant trends in the amounts of increase 

were apparent. Improved Methods of Pigment Analysis 

A rigorous treatment of the kinetics of The impact of war with its insistent 
carbohydrate formation and transformation demands for new methods of production, 
should include a consideration of the total preservation, storage, and shipment of 
concentrations of the various carbohydrates plant material to be used as food for man 
contained in the leaf. So far the attempts and animals has prompted us to report 
made to discover a relation between the several improved analytical techniques that 
amount of any one of the carbohydrates were developed in the course of our in- 
synthesized during photosynthesis and the vestigations of the pigments of plants, 
amounts of others present in the leaf at These methodological advances have facili- 
the beginning of the photosynthesis period tated analysis of the complex mixtures of 
have failed. It is possible that the photo- the organic substances found in plant mate- 
synthetic reaction is so localized in the leaf rial. They show promise of application in 
that the increase in any carbohydrate dur- other fields of chemical and biochemical 
ing short periods of photosynthesis is not investigation. 

appreciably related to the total amount of Estimation of carotene (provitamin A), 

any carbohydrate in the leaf, but is related now widely used as a test of the quality 

only to a part confined within some spe- f many preserved plant products, may 

cialized unit. be accomplished quickly and conveniently 

Changes in conditions of photosynthesis, by a procedure developed by Dr. Strain, for 
for example lowering the temperature and the analysis of algal pigments. The pig- 
increasing the amount of photosynthesis, ments are extracted from fresh or freshly 
have been found to change the proportions blanched plant material with acetone, 
of the different carbohydrates formed. It methanol, or ethanol. If the material is a 
may be that greater variations in experi- dried product, it is first hydrated with a 
mental conditions might even alter the little distilled water, and the pigments are 
basic nature of the products. then removed with the organic solvents. 

It was hoped that alternative mecha- The solution of the extracted pigments is 

nisms of carbon dioxide utilization, already drawn through a filter of heat-treated 

pointed out, could be examined by use of siliceous earth (Filter Aid 501) into a 

long-life radioactive carbon, C 14 , prepared spherical flask with a long neck, from 

by means of the Stanford University cyclo- which all the solvent is evaporated at re- 

tron. Though experiments showed that duced pressure and at a temperature not 

irradiation of ammonium nitrate by neu- above 40 C. The residual pigments are 

trons from this instrument formed C 14 , then dissolved in a little petroleum ether, 

the amount obtained was insufficient for which is also evaporated at reduced pres- 

the tracer experiments planned. Observa- sure. The residual pigments are again 

tions on the activity of one sample showed dissolved in petroleum ether, and the solu- 

no change in activity over a period of tion is again drawn through an adsorp- 

seven months. We are indebted to Pro- tion column of the same adsorbent. Under 

fessor Felix Bloch, of the Physics Depart- these conditions, the carotene, which is 

ment, for the use of the cyclotron, and weakly adsorbed, is carried rapidly through 



90 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

the column. Continued washing of the conditions through use of a finely dis- 

column with fresh petroleum ether car- persed liquid as the adsorption agent. For 

ries all the carotene into the percolate, example, it was observed that some of the 

where the amount of this pigment is esti- algal pigments when dissolved in pe- 

mated by colorimetric or spectrophoto- troleum ether were strongly adsorbed on 

metric methods. the surface of the droplets of water. When 

Complete resolution of the complex the small droplets of water were permitted 
mixtures of pigments found in various to fall through the petroleum ether solu- 
green plants has been effected only through tion of the plant pigments contained in a 
use of the sensitive and specific chromato- long, narrow tube, certain pigments were 
graphic adsorption columns. Additional removed from the solution by the droplets 
observations concerning the effect of var- and carried to the bottom of the tube, 
ious conditions on the separation of leaf There they were deposited as a distinct 
pigments in the columns have now led phase at the water surface by the coalescing 
to conclusions that may be of great benefit droplets. In this way the strongly adsorbed 
to those using this method in other fields, pigments were removed from the weakly 
and on an industrial scale. For example, adsorbed ones. With extracts of leaves, 
the relative positions of pigments adsorbed strongly adsorbed xanthophylls were re- 
in the columns depend on the nature of moved from the weakly adsorbed chloro- 
the adsorbent and the solvent. Changes phylls and carotenes. With extracts of 
in either the solvent or the adsorbent may diatoms, brown algae, and dinoflagellates, 
reverse the relative adsorbabilities of the the strongly adsorbed xanthophylls and 
pigments. This changes the relative rates chlorophyll c were removed from the 
at which the pigments move through the chlorophyll a and carotene, 
adsorption column and may change their This procedure shows promise of being 
relative positions. It follows that if, with a applicable to the separation and purifica- 
given adsorbent, one solvent causes a pair tion of some important technical products, 
of substances to be adsorbed in one se- Stearic acid is rapidly removed from fats 
quence, and another solvent causes them (olive oil) dissolved in petroleum ether 
to be adsorbed in the inverse order, there when droplets of water buffered with 
should be at least one mixture of the two phosphate to pH 8 are allowed to fall 
solvents that will not effect a separation through the solution. By minor modifica- 
of the two adsorbed compounds. This tions of the apparatus, this procedure could 
emphasizes the fact that determination of be made continuous in its operation, 
the homogeneity of chemical substances 

and comparison of materials suspected of New Sources of Cis-Lycopene 
being identical will be most effective when Correlation of the properties of the caro- 
various solvents are used with different tenoid pigments and postulations regard- 
adsorbents, ing their possible reactions and functions 

Utilization of the chromatographic ad- [ n tne plant depend, to a considerable ex- 
sorption method for the preparation of tent, upon knowledge of the various kinds 
substances on a large scale involves the r types of these pigments. Some members 
consumption of enormous quantities of of this group occur in very small quanti- 
adsorbent relative to the amount of mate- ties in a few sources; hence, they are dim- 
rials separated in the columns. This dis- cult to obtain in quantity sufficient for 
advantage may be overcome under certain chemical and physical examination. Dis- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 9I 

covery of rich sources of these pigments culty, have now been found by Dr. Strain, 

provides substantial aid to investigators in These sources are the red fruits or berries 

this complicated field of research. Con- of Arum orientale and of Dracunculus 

venient and abundant sources of the very vulgaris (Arum Dracunculus), lilies be- 

labile isomer of lycopene, the so-called longing to the Araceae, the jack-in-the- 

aV-lycopene, hitherto obtainable with diffi- pulpit family. 

EXPERIMENTAL TAXONOMY 

Jens Clausen, David D. Keck, and William M. Hiesey 

The experiments on plant relationships Amphiploidy has been a highly im- 

have shown that many small and gradual portant mechanism in plants, because many 

steps are involved in the differentiation groups have followed this method of spe- 

of the natural units, from the local popu- ciation, pyramiding their chromosome 

lation to the genus. The higher of these numbers in progressively higher series to 

biosystematic units are separated from one form new species. The mechanism of 

another by more distinct genetic barriers amphiploidy has various patterns, and the 

than the lower. One finds natural units success of new species that arise by it 

on different levels of separation, but cer- hinges on many circumstances, 

tain levels represent significant evolution- With the three thoroughly analyzed 

ary starting points. One of the more im- cases of amphiploidy in the Madiinae as 

portant of these levels is reached when a a background, an analysis has been made 

group of plants has become so mature of many well documented cases reported 

that the entire set of chromosomes, rather in the literature. The objectives have been 

than the individual gene, becomes the to determine the principles that govern 

evolutionary building unit. the production of amphiploids, and the 

At this evolutionary level distinct ceno- criteria for their success when they appear 

species have differentiated. When higher in nature. The results of this investigation, 

plants have reached this stage, new species together with an outline of the biosystem- 

may rise abruptly through the addition atic principles, have been incorporated in 

of entire sets of chromosomes of old spe- a monograph, the manuscript for which 

cies. This process is known as amphiploidy is now ready for publication, 

(amphidiploidy). The origination of three This investigation has answered ques- 

new amphiploid Madiinae in this labora- tions regarding the evolutionary pattern 

tory prompted an inquiry into the require- common to many genera of plants, and is 

ments for successful amphiploidy. Prin- of further significance because the con- 

ciples of general importance were revealed trolled production of amphiploids is cer- 

that elucidate the relationships between tain to become of increasing economic im- 

natural units on the highest level that portance. The usefulness of amphiploids 

can be studied experimentally— that of dis- lies in the fact that they combine the 

tinct but related cenospecies. heredities of other species and represent 

This rounds out a formulation of the new, often superior combinations. Their 

principles governing the degrees of bio- genetic qualities are changed, and so are 

systematic relationship, the lower levels of their physiological qualities, 

which were discussed in the last three Year In order to understand the sudden ap- 

Books. pearance of amphiploids, one must bear 



9 2 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

in mind the organization of plants into Consequently, the comparium becomes the 
natural units of different degrees of com- largest natural unit which is subject to 
plexity. The existence of these units, in experimental analysis, 
graded series from simple to complex, has The ecotype is frequently the counter- 
been amply demonstrated by an abundance part of the geographic subspecies, and the 
of experimental data. ecospecies approaches the species of the 

moderately conservative taxonomist. The 
The Biosystematic Units cenospecies approximates the level of the 
The first important natural unit above section in most genera, but in some cases 
the level of the local population is the it may equal the entire genus. In complex 
ecotype. It is that component of the species groups the comparium frequently corre- 
which is genetically and physiologically sponds to the genus, but there are also 
adapted to one of the major environments examples of several adjacent genera corn- 
occupied by the species as a whole. A posing one comparium, as, for instance, 
widespread species may have a number of the wheat allies in the genera Triticum, 
such ecotypes, kept distinct by the selective Aegilops, Agropyron, Haynaldia, Secale, 
action of the environment, but genetically an d Elymus. 

capable of free interbreeding where they 

t Evolutionary Sequences 

The biosystematic unit on the next level The four kinds of biosystematic unit 

of complexity above the ecotype is the just described represent important evolu- 

ecospecies. Each ecospecies has evolved a tionary nodes, but they are connected by 

separate genetic system that is balanced many intermediate steps. The ecotype is at 

both internally and externally. The in- the evolutionary level where fitness to more 

tricacy of these balances is such that genes than one major environment evolves. The 

of related systems cannot be freely inter- ecospecies is at that level at which separate 

changed without seriously impairing the units arise through constitutional barriers 

ensuing development of the offspring. In to successful interbreeding. Beyond the 

other words, genetic barriers are always level of the cenospecies gene exchange is 

interposed between ecospecies. These bar- no longer possible, although an addition 

riers are carried along by the species wher- of all the chromosomes of two cenospecies 

ever it migrates, insuring it a greater of one comparium is still possible through 

permanency than that of the ecotype. amphiploidy. The comparium marks the 

Species entirely unable to exchange genes limit for even this event in evolution, for 

through hybridization belong to different distinct comparia have to depend on their 

cenospecies. Their genetic balances have own gene resources. 

become so unlike that even a very limited Evolution may be said to be reticulate 

exchange between their chromosome sets in pattern from the level of the ecotype 

is lethal. A cenospecies may consist of to that of the comparium, but beyond that 

from one to many ecospecies capable of level it becomes exclusively forked in type, 

limited gene exchange. The comparium therefore represents a very 

Some distinct cenospecies are still enough important node in the evolutionary process, 
related to be able to form sterile hybrids. The study of hundreds of different 
Such cenospecies belong to one co mparium. hybrids between units of many degees of 
If they are unable to produce even sterile relationship suggests that one kind of bio- 
hybrids, they belong to different comparia. systematic unit may evolve from another 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



93 



in successive order. The machinery for comparium, as represented by the nearly 

this development is provided by the proc- extinct maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba, 

esses of mutation, recombination, and se- which at present probably consists of only 

lection; and the materials come from the one ecotype. The fossil record discloses a 

supply of genes within the individual, or circumboreal distribution for Ginkgo in 

the natural unit. As the mutation process earlier times, making it virtually certain 

supplies new raw materials, or genes, the that many ecotypes, and probably also 

recombining processes repattern them, and ecospecies, existed to enable it to inhabit 

the selective processes eliminate the unfit these different climates, 

from the resultant new products. Somewhere between these extremes are 

Below the level of the ecospecies the most the comparia that are most complex in 
important evolutionary unit is the gene, structure, namely, those that contain sev- 
but above the level of the cenospecies it eral cenospecies well differentiated into 
becomes the genome. The genome is the ecospecies and ecotypes. Such a corn- 
sum of all the genes in the sex cells of a parium is probably in its most active and 
species, and is represented by the haploid expansive stage of development, for gene 
set of chromosomes. When amphiploidy interchanges can repattern the ecotypes, 
occurs, the retention of unbroken parental and, to a certain extent, the ecospecies also, 
genomes is necessary for success. Between These changes can be incorporated in 
the ecospecies and the cenospecies levels, amphiploids that arise between members 
the genome evolves by the increasing inter- of its cenospecies. Many of our most 
dependence of chromosomes operating in important crop plants are members of such 
blocks, rather than as individual genes comparia; for example, wheat, cotton, 
or chromosomes. tobacco, cabbage, etc. And the most com- 

Because the comparium is the sum of plex groups of wild plants that show both 
all its subordinate units, many different aggressive distribution and much inter- 
kinds of comparium exist. The columbine gradation are also largely comparia of this 
genus, Aquilegia, is among the simplest kind, as exemplified by the Artemisia 
and most flexible comparia. It has very vulgaris complex of North America. The 
few and but slightly separated ecospecies, genus Layia, reviewed in Year Book No. 
but each contains many ecotypes. The 40, pp. 162—168, approaches this condition, 
majority of its described species are actually although it has developed only one wild 
but ecotypes or groups of ecotypes, and amphiploid species. 
all the biological units have remained 

diploid. Comparia of this kind are very SuccESS OR Failure of Amphiploids 
adaptable to changing conditions, for they 

have virtually no barriers to gene inter- The success or failure of amphiploids 
change, and are able to inhabit areas with and other species is determined by the 
widely contrasting climates. The section same factors. All the genes of the amphi- 
Drymocallis of Potentilla, with P. glan- ploid must work together in such a way 
dulosa and its allies, is another example as to insure a harmonious development, 
of a climatically very adaptable comparium and the hereditary mechanism must be 
consisting primarily of ecotypes that have able to transmit the balanced gene corn- 
remained diploid. bination to the descendants. This con- 

At the opposite extreme of the evolu- elusion was reached through studies on 

tionary succession one finds the monotypic amphiploids that had arisen in the Ma- 



94 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



diinae, and was confirmed by other amphi- amphiploid is successful in inverse pro 

ploids on record. portion to the degree of homology that 

The three amphiploids synthesized in exists between the chromosomes of its 
the Madiinae were Madia nutrammii, n— parents. This assumption proves to be 
17 (from M. nutans (Greene) Keck, n= only partly true, for other determining 
9, X M. Rammii Greene, 72 = 8); Madia factors are of greater importance. For 
citrigracilis Keck, 72 = 24 (from M. gracilis instance, the doubling of the chromosomes 
(Sm.) Keck, 72 = 16, X M. citriodora in intraspecific hybrids has no deleterious 
Greene, 72 = 8); and Layia pentaglossa, effect even though they are homologous, 
72 = 15 (f rom L. pentachaeta Gray, 72 = 8, for the parent genomes are so alike that 
X L. platyglossa (F. et M.) Gray, 72 = 7) . their genes are freely interchangeable. The 
The synthesis of Madia citrigracilis was resulting autoploid is therefore ordinarily 
attempted in order to duplicate a native successful. On the other hand, doubling 
species suspected of having arisen through the non-homologous sets of a hybrid be- 
amphiploidy and of having this parentage, tween remotely related species does not 
The synthesized and the natural products guarantee a successful amphiploid, for 
are very similar. The production of these during the irregular formation of sex cells 
three amphiploids was reported in Year in such hybrids fatal chromosome ex- 
Books Nos. 39 and 40. changes may take place. If the parents 

All three amphiploids arose from sterile are very different, even slight interchanges 

Fi hybrids without chemical or physical may be lethal. 

treatment, and therefore are indicative of The two conditions necessary for the 
what can happen in the wild. In all three production of a successful amphiploid are : 
Fi hybrids the parental chromosomes were first, that the genomes of its parents inter- 
essentially unpaired, and often failed to act to insure a harmonious and vigorous 
disjoin during meiosis, thereby producing development of the Fi hybrid; and, second, 
diploid gametes that contained all the that the successful initial balance be pre- 
chromosomes from both parents. This served through succeeding generations, 
provided a mechanism for amphiploidy. This is most likely to materialize if the 

The two Madia hybrids produced sue- parents have nonhomologous chromo- 
cessful amphiploids, which resembled the somes, precluding intergenomal pairing. 
Fi and remained constant in later genera- In other words, the parents should be 
tions. The Layia amphiploid, however, closely enough related to be able to pro- 
showed interspecific segregation in spite duce a vigorous Fi hybrid, but remotely 
of the fact that the parental chromosomes enough so that the balance between their 
were not homologous, and it finally be- combined genomes can be perpetuated, 
came so sterile that it could not be con- In terms of biosystematic units, an am- 
tinued further. The morphological con- phiploid is therefore most likely to succeed 
stancy of the two Madia amphiploids if its parents belong to distinct cenospecies 
indicates that no interchange of genes took of the same comparium. The conditions 
place between their parental genomes. On under which amphiploidy can take place 
the other hand, the distinct interspecific are limited by this requirement, but de- 
recombinations in the second and third termined by the maturity of the corn- 
generations of the Layia indicated that parium. The columbines, for example, 
such interchanges had occurred here. are too immature in their evolutionary 

It has been widely assumed that an development for successful amphiploidy, 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



95 



whereas Ginkgo probably passed the stage the chromosomes of different species, and 

millions of years ago, for all its close the parents may have either the same or 

relatives are extinct. different chromosome numbers. If the 

In reviewing the literature on amphi- basic chromosome sets of the parents 

ploidy, one finds examples of both stable have the same number, amphiploids fol- 

and unstable combinations, and in the lowing an arithmetical progression may 

more thoroughly documented cases, causes result from their addition in various com- 

for these differences can be traced to the binations (for example, 72 = 8, 16, 24, 32). 

factors mentioned. As would be expected, If the basic chromosome sets differ in 

the more unstable types occur only as number but are not polyploid, the amphi - 

garden products (for they would be rapidly ploids will be dysploid like the parents, 

eliminated in the wild), but the stable This is exemplified by the cabbage com- 

amphiploids arise either in the garden or parium (Brassica, Raphanus, and Sinapis), 

in nature or, occasionally, in both. where the species on the diploid level have 

Amphiploids versus autoploids. A classi- 8, 9, or 10 pairs of chromosomes, their 

fication of the best-known instances of natural amphiploids on the tetraploid level 

added genomes was attempted on bio- have 17, 18, or 19 pairs, and two newly 

systematic principles. It was soon apparent reported amphiploids represent the rudi- 

that the stable combinations could be mentary hexaploid level, with 27 and 

placed in two successful classes depending 29 pairs. 

on the degree of relationship between their Autoploids arise either from a non- 
parents: (1) those that arose from hybrids hybrid individual or by doubling of the 
between distinct or nearly distinct ceno- chromosomes in an intraspecific hybrid, 
species, or amphiploids in the strict sense, Since such parents have the same chromo- 
and (2) those that arose within one eco- some number, the autoploids are also poly- 
species, or autoploids in the wide sense, ploids, but their chromosomes usually fol- 
Between these extremes occur amphiploids low a geometric progression (for example, 
between parents of intermediate relation- « = 8, 16, 32, 64). 

ship, that is, between distinct ecospecies The biologist dealing with natural 

of one cenospecies. Most of these represent groups of plants may find cases of both 

unstable combinations, for their parental autoploidy and amphiploidy in the same 

genomes are not sufficiently alike to be genus or comparium, one often superim- 

freely interchangeable, but are too homol- posed upon the other. Such combinations 

ogous to prevent interchange after doub- are found in complex genera like Galium, 

ling. The nuclear processes that tend to Tradescantia, and Zauschneria. Much of 

perpetuate a given combination and those the taxonomic complexity that seemed so 

that tend to break it up are, however, hopeless in these groups becomes much 

so delicately balanced that in marginal clarified when they are analyzed in terms 

cases gametic elimination of occasional of the genomes of their basic diploid 

unfit combinations may compensate for species combined by amphiploidy and 

too close a chromosome homology. There- autoploidy. 

fore, when the parents belong to distinct Ecologic relations. Amphiploids fre- 

ecospecies of one cenospecies, the success quently combine the genomes of species 

or failure of their amphiploids cannot be native in different climates. As a conse- 

safely predicted. quence they are able to invade habitats 

Amphiploids arise by the addition of from which their parents are excluded by 



96 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



natural selection, and they are often more 
adaptable than either parent. Thus, amphi- 
ploidy extends the range which the forms 
of a comparium may occupy. The culti- 
vated timothy, Phleum pratense L., for 
example, is an amphiploid that combines 
the genomes of P. alpinum L., an alpine 
and arctic species of moist situations, and 
P. nodosum L., of dry, lowland situations. 
It grows spontaneously in fairly moist 
lowlands, but is more adaptable than 
either parent and competes successfully 
with both. 

Ecologically and taxonomically the am- 
phiploid reacts as an interspecific Fi hybrid 
that has become constant. The observa- 
tions on the general adaptability of amphi- 
ploids are therefore confirmed by those 
on Fi hybrids between lowland and alpine 
ecotypes of Potentilla glandulosa Lindl. 
In the transplant experiments these have 
a wider range of tolerance for different 
environments than do their parents. This 
principle may be of importance in the 
breeding of economic plants to fit different 
climates. 

Each chromosome level above the diploid 
makes new genome additions possible, so 
that in many genera almost all the diploid 
species may be interlinked genetically via 
the superstructure of amphiploids and 
autoploids in the higher levels. The char- 
acter of the superstructure is determined 
by the diploid species, whose genomes are 
the building units that give the whole its 
essential attributes. The various units of 
such a complex usually are found to occupy 
different ecological niches. 

The Madia gracilis complex. During 
the study of experimental material for 
the publication on amphiploidy, it was 
discovered that what had been taken for a 
single species, Madia gracilis, is in fact a 
polyploid complex. Fifty-eight populations 
from localities in the three Pacific coast 



states were investigated and the following 
facts uncovered. 

A rare diploid species with 8 pairs of 
chromosomes occupies a few scattered 
localities in the dry foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada. This form is morphologically 
distinguishable from the others and has 
been given the name M. subspicata. This 
nearly extinct form is probably a relict of a 
once more common species and may be an 
important link in the evolution of this 
complex. 

The great bulk of the material occurring 
below 4500 feet altitude is tetraploid {n — 
16) and is typical Madia gracilis. It is very 
unlikely that this is an autoploid deriva- 
tive of subspicata, for in hybrids with 
other species its 16 chromosomes do not 
pair inter se, but remain single. Tetra- 
ploid M. gracilis is more probably a very 
old amphiploid, of which no more than 
one possible ancestor is known. 

Above 4500 feet elevation a hexaploid 
form replaces tetraploid gracilis. It appears 
to have a wide distribution at higher alti- 
tudes, but is morphologically indistinguish- 
able from the tetraploid, although it differs 
perceptibly in ecologic reactions. The fact 
that its chromosome number is 24, and 
not 32, points to the conclusion that it 
arose as an amphiploid between tetraploid 
gracilis and probably subspicata, rather 
than as an autoploid. 

In northeastern California a fourth 
member of this polyploid complex, the 
narrowly endemic, 24-chromosome M. 
citri gracilis, forms an island between the 
two forms of gracilis. The suspected 
origin of this form has been verified by 
its synthesis as an amphiploid between 
tetraploid gracilis and the 8-chromosome 
M. citriodora, a native of the region. This 
connection brings the latter species into the 
complex as its fifth member. The rela- 
tions observed in this group, which is 
but a part of the cenospecies M. sativa, 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



97 



parallel those found in other complex 
groups of plants. 

Maturation of the comparium. The 
initiation of amphiploidy within a mature 
comparium tends to rejuvenate it. A spe- 
cies created through this process may be 
able to hybridize to some extent with 
its parents, which previously were effec- 
tively barred from exchanging genes with 
each other. If even a minor amount of 
gene migration takes place through the 
medium of the amphiploid, a revitalization 
occurs in what was rapidly becoming a 
static line of development. 

After a comparium has exploited the 
possibilities of differentiation into ecotypes, 
ecospecies, and cenospecies on the diploid 
level, and then has recombined species, 
where possible, through amphiploidy, auto- 
ploidy, or both, it may still show a new 
flare of rejuvenated diversity through apo- 
mixis. This device for asexual reproduc- 
tion circumvents the exacting cytological 
requirements for sexual propagation, per- 
mitting all sorts of hybrid derivatives to 
be preserved. Apomixis probably repre- 
sents the last evolutionary surge that a 
group experiences in the course of its 
history, so that groups showing this char- 
acteristic may generally be regarded as 
very mature. Apomictic species are usually 
highly polyploid, apparently having passed 
earlier through the stages of genome addi- 
tion by means of amphiploidy and auto- 
ploidy. 9 

The study of the circumstances that 
lead to amphiploidy calls attention to 
basic facts concerning plant relationships 
that elucidate the origin of much of the 
otherwise perplexing biological variation. 
The importance of the various biosystem- 
atic elements in the evolutionary history 
of a group becomes evident, and the com- 
plexity in so many genera assumes new 
meaning, as these are found to be but 



the logical expressions of the operation of 
fairly simple laws. 

Investigations on Range and Forage 
Grasses 

The biosystematic principles that furnish 
a key to the understanding of the differen- 
tiation in living things have wide applica- 
tion in problems of both purely scientific 
and practical interest. Plant breeding, 
which aims to improve crops for given 
conditions and is essentially a problem of 
creating adapted new forms, should follow 
the basic laws that govern natural evolu- 
tion. Therefore, before the breeding pro- 
gram for a group of plants is mapped, 
their degree of evolutionary maturity 
should be known. Several agronomically 
important genera of grasses show many 
of the complex features of comparia in 
the expansive and mature stages of de- 
velopment, with series of climatic ecotypes, 
ecospecies, and cenospecies on the diploid 
level, as well as amphiploidy and auto- 
ploidy at higher levels of chromosome 
number, and even apomixis or asexual 
propagation. 

One of the vital needs of the country 
is for improved range grasses to increase 
food production and soil conservation. 
Ordinary methods of plant breeding are 
slow, but there are certain short cuts 
applicable to plants that have reached the 
evolutionary levels where amphiploidy and 
apomixis develop, and where the genome, 
rather than the gene, becomes the basic 
evolutionary unit. By taking advantage of 
the constancy of the offspring in apomictic 
and amphiploid plants, it may be possible 
to preserve the vigor and the new combi- 
nations of first-generation hybrids between 
even rather remotely related species. 

A beginning has been made at this 
laboratory in the breeding of forage 
grasses by utilizing economically impor- 



10 



9 8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



tant forms of the genus Poa, the blue- from high latitudes with those from low 

grasses. These experiments are being latitudes, and, similarly, the combining of 

conducted in cooperation with the Soil high-altitude with low-altitude plants, of 

Conservation Service of the U. S. Depart- Coast Range with interior types, and of 

ment of Agriculture, which has supplied meadow forms with those native to dry, 

breeding stocks from their valuable col- sandy localities. A program following 

lections assembled at the Regional Nursery these principles should of course also 

at Pullman, Washington. Mr. J. H. Christ, utilize the best strains available, 

director of the Pacific Division, and Dr. Experience has shown that an endemic 

A. L. Hafenrichter, in charge of the species with no close relatives is usually 

Nursery Division, have extended every less adaptable to different environments 

aid toward the furthering of this program, than an equally specialized ecotype from 

Drs. Keck and Hiesey made detailed the same environment belonging to a 

studies on the materials at Pullman in species of wide distribution. For this 

June, when the grasses were in their best reason, members of widely distributed 

stage of development. The grasses in this species complexes should be utilized in the 

collection represent an important sampling crossings. 

of our national resources, because they are Several simplifications in technique are 

selected and tested strains native to the possible in a program of breeding by the 

semiarid regions of the Pacific Northwest, addition of whole genomes rather than 

Of no less importance is the fact that the by an exchange between genomes. Also, 

native habitat of each strain is known, and the opportunity is afforded of tapping 

exact records are available on the per- reservoirs of genes that have not previously 

formance of most of them for a period of been used for breeding purposes. Plants 

years at several regional nurseries. that succeed under alpine or desert con- 

A few crossings between species of dif- ditions have superior characteristics for 
ferent sections of Poa were attempted many purposes, but they do not thrive in 
during 1943, and a cytological investiga- climates suitable for agriculture. By com- 
tion of a number of important forms is bining their genomes with those of plants 
under way. More extensive crossings are from opposite extremes, new forms adapted 
being planned for 1944, and the work is for agricultural climates may be obtained, 
also to be extended to the wheat grasses, and by similar methods genomes of value 
of the genus Agropyron. In addition to in producing types suitable for marginal 
the forms from the Pacific Northwest, a lands may be obtained from plants of the 
more southern series of strains is being extensive wastelands in our country, 
collected along our station transect across This method should also make possible 
central California. Important forms occur the development of certain desirable char- 
here from the Coast Ranges to alpine acteristics in the plants. The combination 
habitats in the Sierra Nevada. of a bunch grass with a rhizome grass, for 

A few basic principles are to be followed example, might result in a type that would 

in this program. The inheritances of eco- furnish better ground cover than either of 

types of remotely related species native its parents alone. Likewise, breeding for 

to contrasting climates should be com- disease resistance might be somewhat sim- 

bined to produce constant hybrids fitted plified by introducing whole genomes of 

to intermediate environments. This will disease-resistant natural species, 

mean, for instance, the crossing of forms Some of the most important range 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



99 



grasses of the temperate zone belong to 
the genera Poa and Agropyron. The out- 
standing examples of asexual propagation, 
or apomixis, among the grasses are found 
in Poa. In North America this genus has 
developed a remarkable set of species 
adapted to environments from the imme- 
diate coast to the dry interior, from lowland 
to alpine habitats, and from arctic to south- 
ern latitudes. Agropyron has almost as 
great an ecological diversity, but it is com- 
posed of sexually propagating species with 
strictly polyploid chromosome numbers. 
Whereas Poa has reached the stage of 
apomixis and very irregular chromosome 
numbers, Agropyron, along with the other 
genera of the Triticum comparium, ap- 
pears to be characterized by extensive am- 
phiploidy. Both should be suitable for 
breeding by the addition of whole sets 
of chromosomes. 

By the cooperative arrangement made 
with the Soil Conservation Service, we are 
to determine the chromosome numbers of 
the strains, make the crossings, test the 
amphiploid or apomict products for con- 
stancy, and then turn the new strains over 
to the Service for propagation and dis- 
semination. 

The problems involved in grass breeding 
are so complex that every principle gov- 
erning plant relationships that has been 
discovered in the purely scientific investi- 
gations with wild species will find appli- 
cation. The climatic transplant stations 
at Mather and Timberline are invaluable 
assets in the execution of this program. 

Other Studies 

Garden cultures of both annual and 
perennial species have been grown to 
obtain data needed for rounding out the 
cytogenetic investigation on Layia and for 
carrying out scheduled studies on the 
climatic races of Potentilla glandulosa and 
Achillea. 



Miss Marguerite Hartung has been 
engaged in microtechnical work in con- 
nection with the grass program and the 
study of amphiploids. In addition, she 
has assisted with the records and has un- 
dertaken a special cytological study of the 
nonhybrid natural strains of Layia that 
have been grown over a period of years, 
and also of the intraspecific Fi hybrids 
of that genus. 

The transplant stations at Mather and 
Timberline were maintained through 1942 
on a normal basis, all necessary records 
having been taken. Owing to general 
shortages in transportation facilities during 
1943, activities at the mountain stations 
have been reduced to those necessary for 
bare maintenance. 

Because of war conditions, physiological 
studies on climatic races begun last year 
have been temporarily suspended, but the 
plans for experimental work for future 
investigations along these lines are becom- 
ing increasingly mature. 

Guest Investigator 

From June 1942 to September 1943, 
Professor William E. Lawrence, of Oregon 
State College, Corvallis, was present as 
guest worker at the laboratory while on 
sabbatical leave from that institution. His 
primary objective was to become familiar 
with the researches conducted here on the 
nature of species, particularly as they apply 
to the field of his special interest, ecology. 
As projects for research, he undertook a 
study of the ecotypes in Deschampsia 
caespitosa (L.) Beauv.; a cytogeographic 
study on the distribution of Achillea 
borealis Bong, and A. lanulosa Nutt. in 
western North America; and an inquiry 
into the occurrence and nature of vivipary 
in plants and its relation to apomixis. 

On the basis of his first-hand observa- 
tions at Stanford, Mather, and Timberline 
and the records and materials supplied him, 



100 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Professor Lawrence has prepared a manu- 
script covering his studies on Deschampsia 
caespitosa. This species is conspicuous 
among the grasses because of its wide- 
spread distribution. It is circumboreal 
across the continents of the northern 
hemisphere and is also found in South 
America. Three climatic ecotypes repre- 
senting the California transect and two 
from northern Europe, including Lapland, 
were studied, and showed very distinct 
reactions and behavior at the three trans- 
plant stations. Despite their racial diversity 
and wide distribution, all were tetraploid, 
with 14 pairs of chromosomes. 

Although D. caespitosa is not viviparous 
in northern Europe, nearly 50 per cent of 



the individuals in three strains from that 
region became more or less viviparous 
when moved 20 ° to 30 ° south to Cali- 
fornia. New plants grown from their bulb- 
lets were found by Professor Lawrence 
to have the same chromosome number as 
the parent plant. Viviparism in this species 
is therefore not accompanied by an increase 
in chromosome number to make it iden- 
tical with its high-arctic hepta- and octo- 
ploid relative D. alpina (L.) R. et S., which 
is always viviparous. The same plants 
tend to become viviparous year after year. 
Since none are viviparous in northern 
Europe, and only some in California, this 
form of vivipary must be produced by the 
interreactions of heredity and environment. 



DESERT INVESTIGATIONS 

Forrest Shreve 



The conditions of the past year have 
greatly curtailed the progress of field work 
on the Chihuahuan Desert project. Sev- 
eral areas remain which have not been 
explored. In them the character of the 
vegetation may or may not be similar to 
that in adjacent areas in which the physical 
conditions are presumably the same. Pre- 
vious work has shown the strong localiza- 
tion of many species of plants and the 
occurrence of outlying colonies of species 
more abundant elsewhere, and these facts 
indicate the desirability of making collec- 
tions in the previously unvisited areas. 

It has been possible, however, to go 
forward with the study of data, observa- 
tions, and materials previously obtained. 
Some progress has also been made in field 
work, through the collaboration of Mr. 
Robert M. Stewart, of Santa Elena, Coa- 
huila, Mr. U. T. Waterfall, professor of 
botany in the Oklahoma City High School, 
and Dr. L. C. Hinckley, principal of the 
High School at Marfa, Texas. These men 
were able to visit critical localities sug- 



gested by Dr. Johnston and to send him 
collections of plants made in the most 
favorable seasons. These collections extend 
our knowledge of the distribution of plants 
of the desert plains and the small desert 
mountains, and throw new light on the 
floristic affinities of little-known areas in 
northern Mexico and western Texas. 

Work on the flora of the Sonoran Desert, 
which has been conducted by Dr. Ira L. 
Wiggins for several years, has been con- 
tinued, and additional manuscript for the 
published flora has been prepared. Some 
of the large and difficult groups of plants 
have now been completed. The collection- 
made by Dr. Wiggins and Dr. Reed C. 
Rollins in the summer of 1941, in previ- 
ously unvisited parts of Sonora, has been 
studied. This has proved to be a very 
valuable contribution to knowledge of the 
Sonoran flora, revealing many northward 
extensions of range in the interior and a 
number of southward extensions on the 
Gulf coast between Tiburon Island and 
Guaymas, and also bringing to light 7 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY I0I 

new species. These have been published features of the plants that cannot be learned 

by Dr. Wiggins and Dr. Rollins. by consulting a herbarium specimen. Al- 

During the year Dr. Johnston has been though these plants are mentioned many 

able to give a large share of his time to times in the descriptions of the ecological 

preliminary work on the flora of the subdivisions of the Sonoran Desert, it 

Chihuahuan Desert. He has organized the seems desirable, for ease of reference, to 

series of collections made by himself and place much of the information about them 

the several collaborators on this project, under individual specific headings, 

and has studied the material in the Gray Among the plants confined or nearly 

Herbarium collected in neighboring re- confined to the Sonoran Desert, over 125 

gions by early botanists. In the recent species are dominant in some part of the 

exploration particular attention has been area, and a larger number are locally 

given to northern Coahuila, where there dominant or infrequent. Many of these 

is a great diversity in topography and plants have been collected so seldom that 

physical conditions, where there proves to existing herbarium material gives an im- 

be an unusual assemblage of species, as perfect record of their distribution. Field 

well as of plant communities, and where notes taken during the years of exploration 

very little collecting had previously been greatly augment the records and make it 

done. The discovery of a large number possible to prepare maps showing the 

of novelties in this area has compelled Dr. known areas of distribution of single spe- 

Johnston to give considerable time to their cies and related groups of species, 

study and the preparation of descriptions The plants now endemic to the North 

for publication. In this group 13 new spe- American Desert undoubtedly include 

cies and varieties have been published this relict species of great age, some of which 

year. As an aid to the preparation of the formerly enjoyed a wider distribution, 

flora of the Chihuahuan Desert, Dr. John- and also modern species which have 

ston is now bringing together an enumera- emerged under the conditions of recent 

tion of the plants of the State of Coahuila, time. It is scarcely to be hoped that a 

which occupies an important place in this close study of the present areas of dis- 

desert both geographically and floristically. tribution of the endemics can give much 

In the preparation of results of the study information about their ranges in the past, 

of Sonoran Desert vegetation, the principal There are a few cases, however, in which 

recent work has been concerned with de- the ecological life history of a plant 

scription of as much as is known of the strengthens the distributional evidence that 

ecological life histories of certain common it is a waning relict. There are also a few 

plants, determination of the geographical groups of closely related endemics whose 

distributions of some 100 dominant species collective distribution throws some light, 

on the basis of herbarium specimens and on the recent development and movements 

field notes, and assembling of all available of the genus to which they belong. As 

data on the distribution of the summer examples of these cases may be taken the 

and winter herbaceous ephemerals. small tree Holacantha Emory i and the 

The object of the descriptions of life large genus of shrubs Franseria. 

histories is to place on record all that has Holacantha is fairly abundant in a few 

been learned from long observation of the areas in the Gila Valley, Arizona, and in 

plants, and in some cases from cultiva- the central Mojave Desert, and is very 

tion and propagation, and also to indicate uncommon elsewhere. It never forms pure 



I02 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

stands and is often represented only by woody species, and by the appearance of 
isolated trees in widely separated localities, a form so highly specialized in its fruit 
A closely related species, H. Stewarti, is of that it has been referred to a separate mono- 
very limited occurrence in the Chihuahuan typic genus, Acanthambrosia. 
Desert. The seeds of Holacantha remain Between these extreme examples of the 
on the tree for 3 to 7 years and germinate endemics lie many forms which are clearly 
poorly and tardily. Seedlings and young relicts, many aggressive ones which are 
trees are rare. The growth of the tree is apparently recent, and others whose status 
very slow, and its flowering is sporadic is doubtful. 

and late in the life of the tree. These fea- A tabulation of the distribution of sum- 

tures all indicate a poor adjustment to mer and winter herbaceous ephemerals has 

environment and corroborate the distribu- been made on the basis of herbarium 

tional evidence that Holacantha is a wan- material, published reports of occurrence, 

ing genus, now confined to two species. and localities recorded in field notes. Cau- 

Franseria is a genus of about 40 species tion has been necessary in using citations 

which has its principal development in from different sources, and the uneven- 

the Sonoran Desert. It is also represented ness of the taxonomic scrutiny that has 

on the dunes and beaches of the Cali- been given the many genera concerned has 

fornia coast and on the coast and moun- made it necessary to disregard varietal 

tain slopes of Peru and Chile. The mem- differences, although they are often very 

bers of the genus show considerable significant. 

diversity in habit and habitat, although With few exceptions the appearance of 
there are several cases of very closely re- the two groups of ephemerals is strictly 
lated species. Nearly all the species are confined to either the winter or the sum- 
abundant and aggressive in their optimum mer rainy season. The distribution of the 
habitats, and 5 of them are among the two groups is therefore primarily con- 
most common dominants in their respec- trolled by the seasonal distribution of rain- 
tive parts of the Sonoran Desert. A few fall. The great number of winter ephem- 
species are confined to unusual habitats erals on the California coast, where there 
but are abundant wherever these habitats are no other native lowland herbaceous 
occur. In the dominant desert species, the plants, falls sharply at the western edge 
seeds germinate at winter temperatures, of the desert and declines gradually from 
In a group of species which are infrequent the Colorado River to the Rio Grande, 
or absent in the heart of the desert, the The strongest representation of northern 
seeds germinate at summer temperatures, genera in the desert is found among the 
The ranges of these species extend from winter ephemerals. The entire group ap- 
the edge of the desert far east and north pears to have entered the desert during a 
into the grassland and forest. prolonged cool and rainy period. It is 

Franseria embraces the largest group of particularly significant that nearly all the 

congeneric endemics in the Sonoran winter ephemerals in southern Arizona 

Desert and has shown its vigor by the are representative of species found in 

development of the group of dominants, coastal California or the Mojave Desert, 

which are often the commonest plants and that there are no clearly distinct spe- 

over large areas, by the development of a cies that are confined to the region east 

group requiring special conditions, by the of the Colorado River, 

attainment of a treelike habit in one tall The summer ephemerals of the Sonoran 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



103 



Desert are for the most part of wider 
distribution than the winter ones. A high 
percentage of them are common to the 
northern part of the Chihuahuan Desert, 
the desert grassland region, and the north- 
ern part of the Pacific coast thorn forest 
in Mexico. In this group the Compositae, 
Allioniaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Euphor- 
biaceae are the principal families repre- 
sented, and among the genera are many 
which have a large number of representa- 
tives in central Mexico. Only a few of the 
summer ephemerals occur in the deserts o£ 
California, appearing after the summer 
rains which reach that area on rare occa- 
sions. The summer ephemerals are clearly 
a group derived from the regions southeast 
and south of the Sonoran Desert. In south- 
ern Sonora there is a very poor representa- 
tion of winter ephemerals, and a few of 
the summer species are active in the winter. 
This is because the soil temperatures of 
winter are higher in southern Sonora than 
in southern Arizona. 

Mr. Howard Scott Gentry, now a gradu- 
ate student in the University of Michigan, 
spent five periods of several months in 



botanical exploration of the drainage basin 
of the Rio Mayo, in southern Sonora. This 
river crosses the western slopes of the Sierra 
Madre very close to the boundary between 
the Sonoran Desert and the thorn forest 
belt of the Mexican west coast. On 
account of the close relation between Mr. 
Gentry's work and our own investigations, 
he was granted the facilities of the Desert 
Laboratory for studying his material and 
preparing a report on his work. He has 
now published a brief description of the 
physical features and vegetation of the 
area, together with an annotated list of 
1276 species and varieties of plants col- 
lected (Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Publication 527). The lack of previous 
exploration in the Mayo Valley is proved 
by the detection of 92 new species. 

This publication helps to fill a wide gap 
in knowledge of the vegetation of the 
mountains of the west coast of Mexico. 
The annotated list gives data on the flow- 
ering and seasonal behavior of the plants, 
economic uses by the aborigines, and habi- 
tat distribution in an extremely rugged area 
where desert and subtropical species meet. 



PALEOBOTANY 



Ralph W. Chaney 



Progress in the study of Tertiary and 
Cretaceous plants in the western United 
States has been delayed by war activities. 
Dr. Chaney's time has been largely occu- 
pied by administrative duties related to the 
war program of the University of Cali- 
fornia, but he has continued the study of 
Miocene collections from the John Day 
Basin made within recent years. Dr. Erling 
Dorf has been fully engaged in teaching 
courses assigned at Princeton University 
under the Army Program. His studies of 



the Cretaceous floras of the Rocky Moun- 
tain area continue when time is available. 
Lieutenants Harry D. MacGinitie and 
Daniel I. Axelrod are attached to the Army 
Air Force. MacGinitie is an instructor in 
a Bombardier Training Headquarters, and 
is finding limited time to carry on his in- 
vestigation of the Florissant flora. Axelrod 
is on active duty in the South Pacific area, 
and is taking advantage of occasional op- 
portunities to become acquainted with the 
modern vegetation there. 



104 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Dorf, Erling. Upper Cretaceous floras of the 
Rocky Mountain region. II. Flora of the 
Lance formation at its type locality, Nio- 
brara County, Wyoming. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Pub. 508, II, pp. 79-159 (1942). 

Emerson, Robert, and Charlton M. Lewis. 
The dependence of the quantum yield of 
Chlorella photosynthesis on wave length of 
light. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 30, pp. 165— 
178 (1943). 

Gentry, Howard Scott. Rio Mayo Plants, vii 
+ 328 pp. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 527 

(i94 2 )- 
Hardin, Garrett. See Strain, Harold H. 

Johnston, I. M. Noteworthy species from Mexico 
and adjacent United States. Jour. Arnold 
Arboretum, vol. 24, pp. 227-236 (1943). 

Lewis, Charlton M. See Emerson, Robert. 

Manning, Winston M. See Strain, Harold H. 

Martin, Emmett. Studies of evaporation and 
transpiration under controlled conditions. 
iii + 48 pp. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 550 

(i943)- 

Nye, William, and H. A. Spoehr. The isola- 
tion of hexenal from leaves. Arch. Biochem., 
vol. 2, pp. 23-35 (i943)- 

Rollins, Reed C. See Wiggins, Ira L. 

Shreve, Forrest. The life forms and flora of 
the North American Desert. Proc. 8th 
Amer. Sci. Cong., vol. 2, pp. 125-132 (1942). 



Smith, James H. C. Molecular equivalence of 
carbohydrates to carbon dioxide in photo- 
synthesis. Plant Physiol., vol. 18, pp. 207- 

223 (i943)- 
Spoehr, H. A. The culture of albino maize. 

Plant Physiol., vol. 17, pp. 397-410 (1942). 

See Nye, William. 

Strain, Harold H. Problems in chromatography 

and in colloid chemistry illustrated by leaf 

pigments. Jour. Phys. Chem., vol. 46, pp. 

1151-1161 (1942). 
and Winston M. Manning. Chloro- 

fucine (chlorophyll y), a green pigment 

of diatoms and brown algae. Jour. Biol. 

Chem., vol. 144, pp. 625-636 (1942). 
Isomerization of chlorophylls A 

and B. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 146, pp. 275- 

276 (1942). 
and Garrett Hardin. Chloro- 



phyll C (chlorofucine) of diatoms and 
dinoflagellates. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 148, 
pp. 655-668 (1943). 

Wiggins, Ira L. Two new plants from the San 
Felipe Desert, Baja California, Mexico. 
Contr. Dudley Herbarium (Stanford Uni- 
versity), vol. 3, pp. 285-288 (1943). 

and Reed C. Rollins. New and note- 
worthy plants from Sonora, Mexico. Contr. 
Dudley Herbarium (Stanford University) 
vol. 3, pp. 266-284 (1943). 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 

Baltimore, Maryland 
GEORGE W. CORNER, Director 

Although the work of the Department sex-gland hormones have developed in 

of Embryology, like all other essentially several directions. All these investigations 

peaceful activities, has been limited by the are explained below. 

national mobilization for war, a consider- Owing to the absence of staff members 

able part of the program of investigation engaged in war activities, the physiological 

has gone forward. The collection of human- and biophysical studies have been greatly 

embryos has received numerous additions limited. 

from contributors in many different cities, Several lines of research involving the 
including three of the second week. Prepa- use of rhesus monkeys — cyclic histology 
ration and study of selected choice speci- of the reproductive tract, physiology of 
mens has been carried on, particularly menstruation, structure of the placenta — 
several of the Hertig-Rock series described have been carried on in a limited way. 
in Year Book No. 41. Early publication Conditions in the Pacific have greatly 
of these and other important presomite impeded the importation of monkeys, and 
embryos will add a new chapter to the the resources of the colony have there- 
history of the human body in its earliest fore had to be husbanded, 
stages. The experience gained by Dr. Louis 

The work in experimental biology and Flexner and his colleagues in research on 

the effects of hormones on the marsupial chemical exchanges between mother and 

embryo has begun to yield not only ex- infant through the placenta, and the ap- 

tensive observational results, but also theo- paratus developed for that purpose, have 

retical conclusions of importance. A long- been applied by Dr. Alfred Gellhorn to 

term study of the development of behavior a medical problem of special importance 

in the infant monkey has been brought to in war time. 

conclusion. Additions have been made to Absences and difficulties due to the war 
our knowledge of the structure of the have fortunately caused only delay, with- 
ovary in two species which are yielding out fundamental disruption, of the pro- 
much valuable information, namely the gram of investigation, and the Depart- 
rhesus monkey and the opossum. Experi- ment will at the close of hostilities be 
mental studies of the use and effects of the ready to resume work on the full scale. 

EMBRYOLOGY 

Developmental Horizons in Human up a practical standard of comparison for 

Embryos human embryos, especially in the earlier 

The appearance during this year of the stages, which can serve as a measure of 

first installment of Dr. Streeter's extensive the degree of development reached by a 

work on developmental horizons in human given embryo. 

embryos demands a special word of ex- Every science aims at systematization 

planation to non-embryologist readers. The and precise statement of its data and ulti- 

aim of this work, briefly stated, is to set mately at expression of its results in terms 

105 



I0 6 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

as nearly mathematical as possible. In the an embryo or to put a series of them in 
case of embryology, however, and espe- order. Wilhelm His made the first thor- 
cially in that branch which treats descrip- ough attempt to construct a tabular norm 
tively of the early growth of external form for human embryos, in his Anatomie 
and of the internal organs, there are menschlicher Embryonen, of 1880— 1885. 
peculiar difficulties which have long im- In his plate a series of selected individual 
peded even the beginnings of quantitative embryos is depicted as he arranged and 
formulation. As simple a first step as the numbered them in the supposed serial 
arrangement of a number of embryos in order of their development. The same 
the serial order of their development meets principle was applied in the various vol- 
with grave obstacles. An embryo is a living umes of the Nortnentafeln zur Entwic\e- 
thing, subject to all the variability of the lungs geschichte der Wirbeltiere, written by 
life process. Its form is ever changing and various authors under the leadership of 
is difficult to characterize except by means Franz Keibel between 1897 and 1922. The 
of pictures. Comparison of dimensions is method has the disadvantage that indi- 
precarious, for young embryos are very vidual embryos cannot in fact be arranged 
plastic and one of them may be flexed or in a perfect series; one specimen may be 
twisted more than another of the same more advanced in one respect, more re- 
age. What is more, the significance or the tarded in another, than a similar embryo, 
usefulness of a given dimension changes; Even after an approximately serial array 
to cite an example, up to a certain stage of pictures is prepared, in using it (for 
the head of the human embryo is so small example) to date a new embryo it may 
and so bent down that the nape of the prove impossible to match the specimen 
neck is higher (so to speak) than the successfully to any one of the pictured 
crown of the head, and the neck-to-rump stages. 

measurement is then the best expression In No. 4 of the Keibel Nortnentafeln, 

of the size to which the embryo has which deals with the rabbit, C. S. Minot 

grown. After the head straightens up, took advantage of the easy breeding of 

however, the crown-to-rump length ("sit- that species to set up norms each of which 

ting height") gives the best measure of was based on the collective evidence of 

the embryo. Finally, the evaluation of three embryos chosen from the median 

human embryos that come to the labora- litter of a group of the same age. Thus 

tory is hindered by all sorts of variable he introduced the rudiments of a statis- 

factors such as pathological states, non- tical method. 

uniform preservation, and uncertain his- Another step which was to prove useful 

tories. for human embryology had been taken 

Every descriptive embryologist since the years before by the brilliant Francis Balfour 

beginning of the science has of course {The development of elasmobranch fishes, 

found it necessary to arrange his embryos 1876) when he assembled his embryos into 

in a series based on some standard such a series of groups or stages (indicated by 

as the age, the size, or the state of develop- key letters) based on the comparison of 

ment. Because in the case of early human many features of each specimen so that 

embryos the age is often uncertain, and individual differences were rendered less 

the size is an unreliable guide, the in- significant. For use in comparing em- 

vestigator is forced to depend in large bryos with the standard, the method of 

degree upon the apparent state of develop- formal stages has the further advantage 

ment if he wishes to gauge the status of that it is obviously more practicable to 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



107 



match a specimen to a given stage, having 
a certain latitude of variation, than to one 
single specimen of a more numerous and 
more gradual series. 

That the normal series of stages, pic- 
tured and described by a master embry- 
ologist, is the only practical way we have 
to express the degree of development of 
an early embryo is shown by the wide 
use of Ross G. Harrison's stages of the 
salamander Ambly stoma punctatum, a fa- 
vorite material of experimental embry- 
ologists. Without having been formally 
published, Harrison's plates have circu- 
lated from laboratory to laboratory until 
everyone who works with Amblystoma 
can make himself clear to a fellow worker 
about the stage of an embryo by referring 
to the Harrison number. Similar guides 
have been prepared for two or three other 
amphibians, and recently }. S. Nicholas 
has set up a series of numbered stages of 
the mouse embryo for use by experimental 
workers. 

Dr. F. P. Mall, founder of this Depart- 
ment, was the first to attempt a classifica- 
tion of human embryos into formal stages. 
In a paper published in 1914, just before 
his collection was transferred to the Car- 
negie Department of Embryology, Mall 
published in the Anatomischer Anzeiger a 
brief paper on "Stages in the development 
of human embryos from 2 to 25 mm. long." 
In this document he proposed fourteen 
stages indicated by letters, from H to U, 
each stage being distinguished by the pres- 
ence of certain anatomical features. Stage I, 
for example, begins with the appearance 
of an arm bud and has three pronounced 
branchial arches; in Stage P, the branchial 
arches have disappeared, the ear is well 
formed, and the toes are outlined. To a 
mathematician this may seem a crude way 
of constructing a scale, but it is a re- 
spectable method in biology and has its 
own kind of precision. Mall did not illus- 
trate these stages, for he did not view the 



grouping as final. He was well aware 
that he lacked sufficient specimens for his 
earlier stages, and he was under the neces- 
sity of reserving the letters prior to H 
for the presomite stages, which were then 
practically unknown. 

In the 28 years between 1914 and 1942 
the Carnegie Collection has grown so ex- 
tensively that it can provide an immensely 
richer material for comparison than Mall 
had before him, and there has been a 
great advance in our detailed knowledge of 
the earlier stages, including the early 
somite stages, of which Mall had very few 
specimens, and the presomite stages, of 
which he had none. The present is the 
time, and Dr. Streeter is unquestionably 
the best-qualified expert, to undertake a 
definitive classification of human embryos 
in age groups. 

Dr. Streeter has planned to include all 
stages from the earliest available, up to 
fetuses between 32 and 38 mm. long, the 
stage at which the eyelids have come 
together. This is about the beginning of 
the eighth week after ovulation. Beyond 
that time the rate of increment in size is 
large enough to provide an adequate index 
of relative development. It is in embryos 
of the first seven weeks that the external 
form and structural organization give more 
reliable information as to age than do the 
dimensions. 

Dr. Streeter proposes to subdivide the 
first seven weeks of development into about 
twenty-five age groups, of which he orig- 
inally defined twelve, as follows: I, one- 
celled egg; II, segmenting egg; III, free 
blastocyst; IV, implanting ovum; V, ovum 
implanted, but still avillous; VI, primitive 
villi, distinct yolk sac; VII, branching villi, 
axis of germ disk defined; VIII, Hensen's 
node, primitive groove; IX, neural folds, 
elongated notochord; X, early somites 
present; XI, 13 to 20 paired somites; XII, 
21 to 29 paired somites. The first four of 
these stages are still unknown in the 



io8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



human species. Stage V is now being 
revealed by the Hertig-Rock embryos, 
mentioned below, and other specimens. 
Stages after XII will be defined as the 
work progresses. 

Because of the size of the undertaking, 
Dr. Streeter plans to issue his monograph 
in parts as rapidly as they are finished. 
He has chosen to begin with stage XI 
rather than earlier, largely because knowl- 
edge of the younger stages is growing and 
the material will be richer in the future 
when he works back from stage XI. 

The first installment, comprising stages 
XI and XII, was published in volume 
XXX of the Contributions to Embryology, 
and the second, comprising stages XIII 
and XIV, is at the present writing almost 
ready for press. Each section includes 
photographs and diagrams of representa- 
tive embryos of the given stage, with 
text describing the external form and the 
internal structure. Not only the typical 
characteristics of the group are noted, but 
also the changes due to growth during 
the period, and the range of variation. 

The work is accompanied by tables 
which list the embryos of each group in 
the Carnegie Collection and by a list of 
those embryos, not only in the Collection 
but elsewhere in the world, which have 
been described in the literature. It will 
consist, therefore, of a descriptive atlas of 
early human embryology, an authoritative 
classification by stages, a catalogue of early 
embryos in the Carnegie Collection, and a 
guide to the world material. We are con- 
fident that its progress will be eagerly 
watched by embryologists everywhere. 

Human Embryos of the Second Week 

We can again report an advance in the 
cooperative program of study of early 
human embryos, carried on in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. A. T. Hertig and Dr. John 
Rock, of Boston. Last year's report men- 



tioned the specimens 8020 (believed to be 
7 1 days old) and 8094 (believed to be 
9ij days old) . During the present year the 
Boston collaborators, continuing their work 
under a renewed. grant from the Carnegie 
Corporation, have obtained two more spec- 
imens of this age group, nos. 8155 and 
81 71. The older of these is intermediate 
between the 92-day and the 72-day speci- 
mens; the younger is much like the latter, 
and may be a little older or a little 
younger. 

These two new embryos have been suc- 
cessfully cut into serial sections, mounted 
and stained by Dr. Heuser with the aid 
of Miss Caspari and Mr. Drane, and fully 
photographed by ' Mr. Heard and Mr. 
Reather. Taken together with 4 Hertig- 
Rock embryos previously reported and the 
incomplete Miller embryo, the Carnegie 
Collection now contains 7 normal embryos 
from about the 7th to about the 12th day; 
a truly impressive addition to the sum of 
human knowledge, for until a very few 
years ago this period of development was 
totally unknown so far as the human 
species was concerned. Each addition to 
the group has not only contributed its 
own quota of new information, but helped 
to distinguish those features which are 
common to them all from those which 
are individual peculiarities. 

The study and description of these spec- 
imens is going on in spite of all the 
limitations of research in wartime. Two 
were published by Hertig and Rock in 
volume XXIX of the Carnegie Contribu- 
tions to Embryology, as reported in Year 
Book No. 41; two more are being pre- 
pared for publication in volume XXXI; 
and the two newly acquired are being in- 
tensively studied. 

An Embryo of about 19 Days 

One more has been added this year to 
the series of important embryos described 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



109 



in the Contributions to Embryology. This 
is a presomite embryo from a tubal preg- 
nancy, estimated to be about 19 days old. 
The specimen is in the possession of Dr. 
W. C. George, of the University of North 
Carolina, who has studied and described 
it in consultation with Dr. Streeter and 
Dr. Heuser. The embryo is slightly more 
advanced than that described by Heuser in 
1932 (Carnegie no. 5960). 

A Frog Which Has No Tadpole Stage 

The Jamaican frog Eleutherodactylus 
nubicola passes its life at a high altitude 
among rocks and stones, and lays its eggs 
in small hollows beneath the stones. Al- 
though an amphibian by relationship, it 
is in fact not amphibious, for the embryos 
develop in a relatively dry environment 
and not in the water. The tadpole stage 
is perforce completely omitted. The em- 
bryos get their oxygen directly from the 
air, and they develop rapidly and directly 
into tiny frogs. Such a remarkable adapta- 
tion of course deserves the fullest study. 

Similar direct development occurs in 
other species of Eleutherodactylus , and 
several writers have contributed informa- 
tion on the subject. In recent years Dr. W. 
Gardner Lynn, while a member of the 
Department of Zoology of Johns Hopkins 
University, has made a thorough study of 
E. nubicola. The Department of Embry- 
ology has been able to contribute to the 
illustration and publication of this work. 

Even the non-biological reader will be 
fascinated by the extraordinary pictures on 
plate 1 of Dr. Lynn's paper in the Contri- 
butions to Embryology, which show the 
change from egg to frog in about 26 days. 
During the embryonic development no 
gills at all are formed. The tail develops 
into a great leaflike expansion, rich in 
blood vessels, which apparently serves as 
a respiratory organ. The fore and hind 
limbs appear simultaneously and grow 



steadily throughout the embryonic period. 
The central nervous system differentiates 
with great rapidity. The formation of the 
skull and the hyoid apparatus is much 
modified by the omission of the tadpole 
stage. The pharyngeal derivatives, because 
of the absence of gills, are easily studied 
and furnish clear evidence concerning the 
origin of the postbranchial bodies, carotid 
glands, and "Kiemenreste" of ordinary 
frogs. 

Hormones and the Development of the 
Reproductive System 

The work of Dr. R. K. Burns, Jr. on 
the effects of the sex-gland hormones on 
the embryonic reproductive system of the 
opossum has progressed favorably and was 
reported in three papers during the year. 
This work is based upon the fact that the 
young opossum is born (that is, leaves the 
uterus) at the extremely early age of about 
13 days, and is thereafter for some weeks 
carried in the brood pouch of the mother. 
The investigator can therefore get at the 
embryo for purposes of experimentation at 
a far earlier age than in other mammals. 
Dr. Burns has used this advantageous 
situation to study the effect of the sex- 
gland hormones on the embryonic urino- 
genital system. Some of his general con- 
clusions thus far are explained in his con- 
tributions to two biological symposia held 
in 1942 (see bibliography), as follows: 

Because of difference in origin, develop- 
mental age, and previous differentiation, 
the parts of the embryonic urinogenital 
system in the young opossum vary widely 
in their reactions to estrogenic and andro- 
genic hormones. Differences in reaction 
threshold exist, which may shift from one 
stage of development to another. 

Some structures, for example the phallus, 
pass through three phases in their relations 
to hormones: an early "somatic phase," 
in which hormones are apparently not 



no 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



concerned; an intermediate "humoral 
phase," in which hormones collaborate 
with the constitutional, genetic factors in 
determining the form of the structure; 
and a final period in which hormones no 
longer exert a morphogenetic effect, but 
continue, nevertheless, to influence growth 
and functional state. 

For certain other structures (prostate, 
vagina) "critical periods" exist, during 
which presence or complete absence may 
be determined by the type of hormone ad- 
ministered. These critical periods may be 
of relatively short duration. 

A constant, sex-linked difference in size 
(or rate of growth) is shown by most 
structures in their responses to hormones. 
The phallus of a female, for instance, can- 
not be developed to full male size by male 
hormones. This characteristic appears to 
be inherent in the primordium itself as 
one aspect of its primary conditioning. 
Large dosages have no power to override 
this difference. Though hormones may 
condition the form or the sex type, or even 
the presence or absence of a part, the size 
attained is influenced at all stages of de- 
velopment by genetic constitution. 

In large quantities, crystalline hormones 
typically produce marked bisexuality, 
through their ability to stimulate certain 
heterotypic sex structures. Male hormones, 
for example, if the dose is fairly large, 
cause simultaneous differentiation of epi- 
didymis and vas deferens from the Wolff- 
ian duct, and oviduct and uterus from the 
Miillerian duct. The manner in which 
this nonspecific effect is exercised is still 
uncertain. Testosterone propionate at the 
proper dosage, however, is capable of act- 
ing as a sex-specific agent to a remarkable 
degree. 

The so-called paradoxical effects of crys- 
talline hormones on heterotypic structures, 
at high dosages (that is, the elicitation of 
female characters by male hormones and 



vice versa), are apparently limited to parts 
having alternative manifestation, such as 
the Wolffian and Miillerian ducts, one of 
which is normally differentiated to the 
exclusion of the other. The mystery of 
these effects is greatly reduced, as Dr. 
Burns has shown by his experiments, if 
the size of dosage be taken into considera- 
tion. Just how an excessive dose elicits a 
heterotypical effect remains to be ascer- 
tained by experiment. It is possible (i) 
that the normal level of responsiveness of 
the tissue is overridden, or (2) that some 
of the excess hormone is converted in the 
body into chemical derivatives having dif- 
ferent effects, or (3) that the production 
of other hormones elsewhere in the body 
is stimulated. 

The work has brought out very strongly 
the existence of specific levels of reactivity 
in the various tissues of the embryo; in 
other words, the constitutional or genetic 
factors which determine growth make one 
organ or region more susceptible to a 
given hormone than another. The final 
result of treatment with a hormone de- 
pends on the nature of the tissues affected, 
as well as on the type and the dosage of the 
hormone. 

Origin of the Epithelium of the 
Urinogenital Sinus 

In volume XXX of the Contributions to 
Embryology Dr. Burns has published the 
full account of his studies on the urino- 
genital sinus of the embryonic opossum, 
mentioned in Year Book No. 40. The 
lining of the urinogenital sinus reacts 
sharply to estrogenic hormones by assum- 
ing a characteristic histological structure 
similar to that of the adult female, and 
thus can be indicated or marked, so to 
speak, by hormone treatment long before 
.it would normally respond to hormone pro- 
duced in the animal's own ovaries. The 
extent to which the sinus epithelium 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



III 



participates in the formation of later 
stages of the urinogenital organs (neck 
and trigone of the bladder, sinus horns, 
and vagina) is thus readily followed. 
Dr. Burns' results suggest that stratified 
squamous epithelium found in the vagina, 
urethra, and prostatic utricle of higher 
forms, and under experimental or patho- 
logical conditions in the bladder and even 
the uterus, in all probability is derived 
from sinus epithelium and reaches its rela- 
tively wide distribution in the adult by 
spreading from the sinus region, rather 
than by local differentiation in situ. This 
suggests further that so-called "metaplasia" 
or local modification of cell types seen in 
the adult urinogenital system as a result 
of hormone treatment or pathological 
change may actually be due to migration 
of epithelia rather than to local change. 
The results have therefore considerable 
bearing on some of the problems of pa- 
thology of the urinogenital system in man, 
and also on theoretical questions of dif- 
ferentiation and growth. 

Fate of the Medullary Cords 

The ovary is formed as a result of two 
successive proliferations of cells from the 
germinal epithelium investing the ventral 



surface of the mesonephros. The cells of 
the first proliferation (primary sex cords) 
normally are transitory and of no func- 
tional significance. The second prolifera- 
tion (the future cortex) dwarfs and crowds 
the remnants of the primary cords to a 
central position in the medulla of the 
ovary. The nature and time of disappear- 
ance of the medullary cords has become a 
matter of importance because the eminent 
gynecological pathologist Robert Meyer has 
suggested that masculinizing ovarian tu- 
mors of the type known as arrhenoblastoma 
develop from medullary cords present 
atypically in the adult ovary. Dr. Thomas 
R. Forbes, of the Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, has studied the question in 55 
serially sectioned ovaries of human em- 
bryos and young children, partly from 
the Carnegie Collection. He finds that 
the primary sex cords begin to regress at 
150 mm. crown-rump length and usually 
disappear at 280 mm. They were not 
present at all in the 11 postnatal infants 
of the series. Meyer's hypothesis regard- 
ing arrhenoblastoma is of course not con- 
tradicted by these findings, but if such 
tumors do arise from primary sex cords, 
there must be exceptional ovaries in which 
the cords persist into postnatal life. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FETUS 



Swallowing and Peristalsis in Utero 

It has been demonstrated clearly by 
many observations and experiments that 
in birds before hatching and in mammalian 
fetuses in utero the gastrointestinal tract 
is functionally active, as evidenced by 
swallowing of amniotic fluid and by in- 
testinal peristalsis. Such observations on 
the human are scanty but convincing. Dr. 
Harold Speert has now carried out sys- 
tematic experiments on monkeys at known 
stages of pregnancy, using a method 



worked out some years ago by roentgen- 
ologists. Small quantities of radiopaque 
substances (Diodrast, Thorotrast) are in- 
jected into the amniotic cavity through 
the intact abdominal wall of the mother. 
Corresponding amounts of the amniotic 
fluid are withdrawn before the injection. 
Subsequent radiograms show that the am- 
niotic fluid is swallowed and passes along 
the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of swal- 
lowing increases and the emptying time oi 
the fetal stomach decreases as pregnancy 



II2 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

progresses. Since the intestinal contents are intestine. No evidence was obtained that 

found to become concentrated, it is ob- in the rhesus monkey defecation normally 

vious that water is absorbed by the fetal occurs in utero. 

THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND THEIR HORMONES 

Corpora Lutea and Corpora Aberrantia much longer. The corpus aberrans turns 

^. . , , i i r out to represent simply an alternative mode 

I here has been no thorough study or r . c ' , , 

, . i i • r r i or retrogression or the corpus luteum. 

the retrogression and ultimate rate or. the T iri • • i r i • 

i , . r Instead or degenerating in the rashion 

corpus luteum in the ovary in any or , ., , , . , 

, r , , i • i i described above, certain corpora lutea pass 

the lower mammals, and in the human ,. r , , i. c „ . 

, . -11 (l us t alter the menstrual now rollowing 

species we have only a vague idea about \ . r x . r . , 

r . i-iii their tormation) into a state or prolonged 

such matters as the time taken by the . , ,. ;i r , 

. ,. r i existence resembling that or the corpus 
corpus luteum to disappear from the . , ° _. i-rr *r 
r , . i • luteum or pregnancy. I hey differ sum- 
ovary, and its structure at the various • i i r i 1 

J , . ^ ^ Tir n ciently, however, trom standard corpora 

stages or retrogression. Dr. Cj. W. Corner , J , , , . , , r 1M 

it -r, i lutea or the functional stage to be readily 

undertook some years ago, at Rochester, ,. . . , , , A , i 1 ^ 

, , . , , distinguishable. As late as 1=5^ weeks they 

experiments on rhesus monkeys intended to ? u „ . _,, ^ . . . ; 

r , • r 1 • ar e still well preserved. I he time or their 

answer these questions tor that species. , . ,. r , 

T 11111 • ultimate disappearance rrom the ovary 

It was hoped also that the experiments 1 

. , . , r « . . . . r r . remains unknown, 
would help explain the history or the cor- 
pora aberrantia, peculiar structures of very 
uncertain history occurring in the ovaries 
of the rhesus monkey. 

In a group of 5 animals showing Cytological studies of the corpus luteum 

fairly regular menstrual cycles, the ovaries of the rhesus monkey by Dr. I. Rossman, 

were exposed by surgical exploration un- of the Department of Anatomy, University 

der anesthesia. The most recent corpora of Chicago, revealed so much of interest 

lutea were marked or "tattooed" by tiny in connection with Corner's studies, -just 

injections "of India ink just under their described, that Dr. Rossman was invited 

capsules. Careful sketches of the ovaries to publish his results simultaneously in the 

were made, and by transillumination in Contributions to Embryology. He finds 

the darkened laboratory the presence and that the retrogressing standard corpus lu- 

situation of solid masses (i.e., corpora teum accumulates a chemically distinct sub- 

lutea, etc.) were noted. By re-exploration stance of faint yellow color which he calls 

in several subsequent cycles, and by final luteolipin. By observing, in suitably stained 

autopsy and microscopic examination of sections, the relative quantity of luteolipin 

the ovaries, it was possible to discover what and ordinary lipins, it is possible to dis- 

happened to the corpora lutea. tinguish three well defined stages in the 

Corpora lutea of the standard type shrink retrogression of the corpus luteum. Dr. 

gradually after their functional period is Rossman was able, in fact, to restain some 

over, and become more and more dis- of Corner's specimens, the age of which 

torted by adjacent structures. Their cells was known by direct observation, and to 

become contracted and laden with lipid diagnose their age correctly. His studies 

granules. They are still recognizable after also agree in showing that the transition 

18 weeks, but probably are not identifiable from the standard corpus to the corpus 



Lipin and Pigment in the Corpus 
Luteum 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



113 



aberrans occurs during menstruation. An 
outstanding feature of the transition is the 
loss of lipin from the granulosa elements. 

Atypical Forms of the Corpus Luteum 

When an ovarian follicle is converted 
into a corpus luteum, the point of rupture 
normally heals over smoothly or (in some 
species) is marked by a small crater-like 
protrusion of corpus luteum tissue. As a 
rare abnormality, the corpus luteum may, 
however, be protruded or herniated to a 
great extent, going so far sometimes that 
the corpus luteum may be said to be 
everted. Having seen cases of eversion of 
the corpus luteum three times in rhesus 
monkeys, Dr. G. W. Corner has made an 
experiment aimed at producing the condi- 
tion artificially. Since everyone who has 
studied the subject has supposed that ab- 
normal extent of the rupture in the follicu- 
lar wall is the cause of the protrusion, Dr. 
Corner chose a rabbit with mature follicles 
on the point of rupturing and under 
anesthesia produced (by cutting with a 
small knife) abnormally large rupture 
slits. The follicles so treated gave rise to 
everted corpora lutea. 

The matter has some practical impor- 
tance because if extreme herniation of the 
corpus luteum ever occurs in human pa- 
tients, a surgeon unfamiliar with it might 
think it some sort of ovarian tumor. 

In a few species of insectivores, eversion 
of the corpus luteum is a constant and 
normal event. 

The Ovary of the Opossum 

Dr. Pedro Martinez-Esteve, during his 
stay in our laboratory on a Guggenheim 
Fellowship, was given access to Dr. C. G. 
Hartman's extensive collection of opossum 
ovaries. Since very little has been pub- 
lished regarding the structure of the mar- 
supial ovary, Dr. Martinez has prepared a 



general account of what he has seen in the 
opossum. The following points are of 
special interest. The cumulus is small and 
there is no corona radiata. The zona 
pellucida of the ovum is much thinner 
than that of eutherian ova. The first polar 
body is given of! and the second matura- 
tion spindle formed within the ovary, as 
in most of the higher mammals. The 
corpus luteum is formed from luteinized 
granulosa cells. It seems to develop more 
rapidly than in the higher mammals, for 
at the age of 3 days it is already a solid 
body with only a small connective-tissue 
core. Signs of involution are seen at 10 
days in the pseudopregnant animal, and at 
13 days (the time of parturition) in the 
pregnant. The involution of the corpus 
luteum is not influenced by lactation. 

Dr. Martinez describes two features of 
follicular atresia which seem not to have 
been mentioned previously. One is filling 
of the antrum folliculi with swollen cells; 
the other is the metamorphosis of granu- 
losa cells into connective-tissue-like cells in 
follicles in an advanced stage of atresia. 
The interstitial tissue, which is extremely 
variable in amount, arises as in other mam- 
mals, from the theca interna of degenerat- 
ing medium-sized follicles. 

History of the Ovary 

Having been invited to contribute some- 
thing of historical interest to a testimonial 
volume in honor of Dr. Herbert McLean 
Evans, of the University of California, a 
former Research Associate of the Carnegie 
Institution, Dr. Corner prepared a trans- 
lation of the key chapter of Regner de 
Graaf's famous book on the female repro- 
ductive system (De mulierum organis 
generation! inservientibus , 1672, cap. xn). 
In this chapter the brilliant young Dutch- 
man published the first thorough descrip- 
tion of the mammalian female gonad and 



11 



ii4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



established the fact that this organ, like 
its homologue in birds, is actually an 
ovary. De Graaf did not, of course, iden- 
tify the actual egg, for he thought that the 
whole Graafian follicle was the ovum.. It 
remained for von Baer in 1827 to com- 
plete the story. De Graaf s epoch-making 
description has apparently been translated 
into modern languages only twice before. 
There is a Dutch version of his complete 
works made in 1686, and an English trans- 
lation of this chapter by Robert Knox in 
1848. The latter appeared in an obscure 
journal and is little known. Dr. Corner's 
new translation is accompanied by an ex- 
cellent portrait of de Graaf based on an 
old engraving, by Mr. D. K. Winter. 

MlCRODETERMINATION OF PROGESTERONE 

Before his departure to join the U. S. 
Army Air Force (School of Aviation Medi- 
cine), Dr. S. R. M. Reynolds was able 
(with the collaboration of Dr. N. Gins- 
burg) to complete a report on the first 
stage of his projected program of micro- 
detection of hormones concerned in repro- 
duction. Using the ultraviolet spectropho- 
tometer, with the aid of a physicist, Dr. 
Ginsburg, he found that the absorption 
curves for progesterone and estrogen are 
such that the two hormones may be meas- 
ured simultaneously. The test for pro- 
gesterone is characteristic for alpha, beta 
unsaturated ketones, and by employing 
suitable chemical procedures in preparing 
the hormone for examination, the investi- 
gator may be reasonably certain that he 
is dealing with A 4 -3 ketosteroids. The 
method does not distinguish between 
testosterone, corticosterone and related sub- 
stances, androstenedione, and progesterone. 
At present, therefore, its usefulness is lim- 
ited to experimental conditions in which it 
is certain or highly probable that proges- 
terone or at least one of the A 4 -3 keto- 
steroids is present. There are many prob- 



lems, however, in which the method could 
be usefully employed, and after the war 
no doubt it can be further improved. 

Evidence against a Progesterone-Like 
Action of Ascorbic Acid 

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is present in 
high concentration in the corpus luteum. 
It is also present in the uterus, where it 
is said to increase in amount when the 
corpus luteum is functional. Removal of 
ascorbic acid from the diet of the guinea 
pig is said to diminish the effects of the 
corpus luteum and even to cause termi- 
nation of pregnancy. These facts have led 
certain workers to suppose that ascorbic 
acid is an intermediate agent in the action 
of the corpus luteum. An article appeared 
recently claiming that this substance, given 
directly, produced progestational prolifera- 
tion of the endometrium resembling that 
brought about by progesterone. Mr. 
Philip C. Pratt, of Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, repeated and extended these ex- 
periments in our laboratory with com- 
pletely negative results. The very attrac- 
tive hypothesis directly relating vitamin C 
to progesterone action must therefore be 
considered untenable. 

Absorption of Pellets of Crystalline 
Hormones 

Dr. T. R. Forbes, of Johns Hopkins 
Medical School, has published further re- 
sults of his studies of absorption of pellets 
of crystalline hormones. This work was 
explained and a summary of previous re- 
sults given in Year Book No. 40. In one 
of his new papers (see bibliography) he 
gives a table of the time required for 90 
per cent absorption of subcutaneous pellets 
of 20 crystalline compounds, including 
cholesterol, 17 other steroids, and 2 stil- 
bestrol derivatives. When made up into 
uniformly compressed pellets, 6 to 10 mg. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY II5 

in weight, and implanted beneath the skin fibroid tumors or disseminated miliary 
of rats, these various substances required fibrous nodules such as are seen in the 
from 29 days to more than a year for 90 guinea pig. Two, however, showed pro- 
per cent absorption of the pellet. Choles- nounced fibrosis of the myometrium, and 
terol was not absorbed at all. The table one of these had marked operative ad- 
will be useful to other workers. In another hesions and fibrosis at the site of an 
contribution Dr. Forbes shows that pellets exploratory laparotomy; another had a 
made from large crystals are absorbed as keloid plaque of fibrosis on the stomach, 
well as those made from small crystals The rhesus monkey therefore seems to be 
of the same compound. Three different less sensitive to estrogen-induced fibroid 
steroid hormones were used in this experi- changes than is the guinea pig. 
ment. In a third contribution it is shown Dr. Vargas also made experiments to 
that the age of the rats receiving hormone find out whether the pituitary gland has 
pellets strongly influenced the rate of ab- a necessary part in the production of fibroid 
sorption. When testosterone monopro- tumors in the guinea pig. He found that 
pionate was used, the rate of absorption removal of the anterior lobe of the pituitary 
fell with age, during the first two months, gland (hypophysis) caused no change in 
as shown by the following figures : 33 per the intensity, extent, or distribution of the 
cent of pellets implanted at 16 days was tumor process. As an incidental finding, it 
absorbed after 12 days' implantation; 31 was noticed that the mammary glands of 
per cent if implanted on the 30th day; 26 the hypophysectomized guinea pigs grew 
per cent if implanted about the 50th day; if only when the operation had been incom- 
at the end of 1 year, 26 per cent. plete, leaving a fragment of the anterior 

lobe. Failure of the mammary gland to 
Experimental Fibroids grow after hypophysectomy is therefore a 
It is a well known fact that continuous good test of the completeness of the 
treatment with estrogenic hormones tends operation, 
to produce fibrosis of the female reproduc- 
tive tissues, differing in type and degree Attempts to Cause Ovulation in the 
according to the species of animal. In Monkey 
guinea pigs, as shown by Nelson and by 

the extensive work of Lipschutz and his It: is now we U known that the pituitary 
students during the past six years, the g land contains a hormone or hormones 
estrogen-produced fibrosis takes the form having the property of stimulating growth 
of extensive fibroid tumors. One of the and function of the ovary, and also that 
former students of Professor Lipschutz, substances of similar function exist in the 
Dr. Luis Vargas F., spent more than a urine of pregnant women and the blood of 
year at our laboratory as a Guggenheim pregnant mares. Complete function of the 
Fellow, working on special aspects of the ovary, including the discharge of egg cells, 
problem. In the first place, an attempt obviously depends upon successful opera- 
was made to produce fibroid tumors in tion of the pituitary hormones. It has, 
rhesus monkeys, using the same experi- however, been difficult to produce ovula- 
mental technique which had been used tion in adult experimental animals by use 
with the guinea pig. None of the 4 animals of the available hormone preparations, 
treated with estrogen by subcutaneous im- Except in experiments with the rabbit, only 
plantation of tablets of estradiol developed a few successes have been reported. Dr. 



n6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



C. G. Hartman, while a member of our 
staff, interested himself in the problem as 
it concerns the rhesus monkey. It is not 
only a matter of theoretical interest, for 
nonovulating monkeys have not been un- 
common in the Carnegie colony, and it is 
of practical value to render them fertile if 
possible. Dr. Hartman published in 1938 
the none-too-encouraging results of 104 
experiments. He now presents 46 more 
experiments on 37 nonovulating females. 
Among these there were 6 cases in which 
hormone treatment appears to have caused 
ovulation. This favorable result was ob- 
tained, in various cases, with pituitary 
follicle-stimulating hormone and with a 
preparation from pregnant mare serum. 
Hartman's papers contain a very clear and 
instructive account of the gonad-stimulat- 
ing hormones now commercially available. 
He cites many interesting details as to 
their action in monkeys, including the 
matter of overstimulation of the ovary (a 



frequent result), injury to follicles, recov- 
ery after treatment, refractory states, etc. 

Collecting Uterine Fluid 

Dr. Somers H. Sturgis, who worked in 
the laboratory as a Rockefeller Fellow for 
several months until called to service with 
the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army, was 
able to complete the first stage of a unique 
effort to study the fluid of the uterine 
cavity in primates arid the physiology of 
its secretion. By skillful experimental pro- 
cedures he made uteroabdominal fistulas 
in 4 monkeys, through which he collected 
the uterine fluids, measuring the rate of 
accumulation. He found that adrenalin 
and intravenous normal salt solution in- 
creased the rate of flow, and that pilo- 
carpine did not increase it. There was 
some evidence that factors which influence 
the rate of flow locally or cause systematic 
changes of blood volume may produce 
changes in the rate of uterine secretion. 



CYTOLOGY 



Nucleolar Vacuoles 



Dr. Warren H. Lewis reports observa- 
tions on nucleolar vacuoles, made in this 
laboratory and in the Wistar Institute of 
Philadelphia. Vacuoles in the nucleoli of 
cells have often been noted by cytologists, 
but their origin and significance is un- 
known. Dr. Lewis therefore attempted 
to discover correlations between their oc- 
currence and some cultural or cytological 
characteristics of normal and of malignant 
fibroblasts in tissue culture. Studying hun- 



dreds of cultures including a wide range 
of tumors, no consistent relations were 
found between the number of cells having 
nucleolar vacuoles and the culture medium, 
the extent of migration, the life of the 
culture, the number of mitoses, the amount 
of pinocytosis, or any cytological feature 
of the nucleoplasm such as the number 
of nucleoli, the number of fat globules, 
the mitochondria, the neutral-red-staining 
vacuoles and granules, or the size of the 
central area. The article is illustrated by 
striking photographs. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF PRIMATES 

Among the contributions of the group Rudimentary Digits 

of comparative anatomists in the Depart- Dr. W. L. Straus, Jr. points out that a 

ment of Anatomy of the Johns Hopkins f ew of the Primates normally have one or 

Medical School, closely associated with the more stunted or rudimentary digits. This 

Carnegie Department of Embryology, there statement applies to the second finger and 

are several dealing with topics in the com- second toe of the lorises (lemurs) ; to the 

parative anatomy of primates. thumb of spider monkeys (Atelinae), 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



117 



guereza (Colobus), chimpanzee, and go- 
rilla, the thumb and first toe of orangutan, 
and the fifth toe of man. 

There appears to be no absolute corre- 
lation between bones and muscles. In 
some rudimentary digits the skeleton is 
the more severely affected (fifth toe of 
man, hallux of orang), in others the mus- 
culature (thumbs of great apes and of 
certain Colobinae), and in still others both 
of these structures show essentially similar 
degrees of curtailment (second fingers and 
toes of Lorisidae, thumbs of Ateles and 
Colobus). The long, extrinsic muscles of 
the affected digit distinctly tend to be more 
defective than the short, intrinsic muscles. 

The significance of some normally rudi- 
mentary digits (fifth toe of man, hallux 
of orang) is entirely obscure. The arrested 
digits of the Lorisidae, however, seem to be 
related to the peculiar pincers-like grasp 
of their hands and feet, in which the first 
and fourth are the dominant digits. As for 
a rudimentary or stunted thumb, this ap- 
parently can be correlated with the habit 
of "brachiation." This mode of locomo- 
tion, nevertheless, is not necessarily accom- 
panied by a poorly developed thumb, as 
witness the Hylobatidae (gibbons). These 
animals clearly are adapted to a brachiating 
life in a manner quite different from that 
of Atelinae, Colobinae, and great apes. 

The evidence produced by a comparative 
study of the thumb supports not only the 
view that man's phylogeny did not include 
a pronounced brachiating stage, but also 
that view which denies man other than 
very remote relationship to the great an- 
thropoid apes. 

Crown Pad and Cheek Pad 

Most of the specialized superficial struc- 
tures seen in the Primates are of epidermal 
or glandular nature, for example the 
sternal glands of the orangutan or the 
ischial callosities of catarrhine monkeys. 
Two, however, represent modification of 



the connective tissue, namely the crown 
pad of the gorilla and the cheek pad of 
the orangutan. The first of these has ap- 
parently never been carefully studied from 
the histological standpoint. Dr. Straus has 
recently been able to dissect the head of a 
female lowland gorilla, which had a crown 
pad although the latter has been con- 
sidered a peculiarity of the mountain spe- 
cies. The pad proved to consist largely 
of heavy bundles of collaginous connective 
tissue like that of the corium of the skin, 
with which it blended. The cheek pad of 
an orangutan was quite different, consist- 
ing largely of subcutaneous fat. 

Balance of the Head 

In man the occipital condyles, by which 
the head is jointed to the spine, are much 
more nearly under the center of gravity 
of the head than in any other mammal. 
This human peculiarity is undoubtedly 
connected with man's erect posture and 
facilitates the balancing of the head on the 
spinal column. Dr. A. H. Schultz now 
asks the question: How closely does the 
head of modern man approach the con- 
ditions for perfect equilibrium, and to what 
degree does man differ in this respect from 
other primates? He uses a simple ap- 
paratus in which the head is posed on 
the occipital condyles as a fulcrum. The 
anterior part of the head is then slightly 
heavier. Weights are suspended from the 
inion (a standard point at the occipital 
protuberance) sufficient to balance the head. 
Again, the upward pull necessary to bal- 
ance the head when applied at the most oral 
point is measured by weights and a pulley. 
The percentages of these two weights 
in relation to the total head weight are 
then compared. In man they are more 
nearly alike than in other mammals; that 
is, the head is more nearly balanced at 
the occipital condyles. Study of ape and 
human heads at various ages shows that 
the conditions for balancing the head are 



n8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



more alike in man and the apes at early 
than at late stages of growth. In man the 
head becomes more nearly balanced with 
advance in age. 

The weights thus found empirically 
should be in inverse ratio to the length 
of the lever arms, from the fulcrum to 



the joints at which the weights act. Since 
they do in fact correspond very closely to 
expectation, Dr. Schultz has been able to 
use measurements instead of actual weights 
in studying casts of fossil human skulls. 
These (Gibraltar and Rhodesia man) have 
the ratio characteristic of modern man. 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



Development and Regression of Reflexes, 
Postures, and Progression 

Dr. Marion Hines, of the Department 
of Anatomy of Johns Hopkins Medical 
School, has completed a notable study of 
the development of motor responses and 
activities in the young rhesus monkey. 
This work, which might be classified as 
the embryology of behavior, will interest 
not only neurologists but all who are 
concerned with infant behavior in the 
human species and with the earliest phases 
of infant care and education. The obser- 
vations cover the last month of gestation 
and the first year of life. Thirty-one ani- 
mals were used, including 5 fetuses re- 
moved by Caesarean section. These 5 and 
15 others were bred in the Carnegie colony 
by Dr. Carl G. Hartman. 

Within the space of 3 months the infant 
macaque develops from a state of com- 
plete dependence on its mother to one of 
relative independence. At the end of a 
year he uses his body like an adult. During 
all this period of rapid development Dr. 
Hines has kept her little subjects under 
constant observation in quiet surroundings, 
with the cooperation of a trained tech- 
nician. Her success in this arduous task is 
made evident to the nonspecialist reader 
by the series of photographs accompany- 
ing the article. Charming beyond the 
wont of scientific monographs, they were 
made by Dr. Hines herself to illustrate the 
technical points discussed in the text. 

In view of the detailed character of the 



work, only a general summary can be 
given here. Observation of the changing 
muscular behavior of prenatal and infant 
monkeys supports the idea that the de- 
velopment and regression of the various 
reflexes and postures are an expression 
of the progressive maturation of one part 
after another of the central nervous system, 
and in particular the cerebral cortex. 

All newborn animals show a period of 
tonic innervation of the flexors and asso- 
ciated muscles. During this period the 
grasp reflex is dominant, and reaching 
and grasping movements are used in pro- 
gression, in righting, and in the early ex- 
ploration of objects. 

A spastic state follows, in which the 
"clasp knife" type of resistance to passive 
movement and brisk irradiating tendon 
reflexes are present, and in some animals 
the positive supporting reaction is markedly 
exaggerated. 

As the spastic state regresses, coinner- 
vations of somatic musculature appear and 
disappear. Fixation of proximal muscles 
is observed, and the discreteness of use of 
distal muscles becomes more evident. 

The order of development of response 
to sensory stimuli proceeds from relatively 
simple reflex patterns to more complex 
responses, which increase in their discrete- 
ness until it becomes evident that the young 
monkey is able to localize certain moieties 
of general cutaneous sensibility and to re- 
spond to sounds heard and to objects seen 
as if they held definite significance. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



119 



Dr. Hines remarks that anyone who has 
watched the development of the human 
infant from the neurological point of view 
will be astonished at the similarity of the 
order of the development in the two 
primates. 

A very striking fact which has come out 
of the studies of Dr. Hines during the 
past ten years is that some of the char- 
acteristic reflexes and spastic reactions 
which the infant develops, and then loses 
again as its behavior becomes more and 
more coordinated, reappear in adults if 
certain areas of the cerebral cortex are 
removed. This affords an argument in 
reverse to support the general theory of 
the development of motor activity and re- 
sponse which grows out of this and similar 
studies on other species. 

Development of the Motor End Plate 

Dr. Fidel Cuajunco, of the University 
of the Philippines, who was a guest worker 
in the Johns Hopkins Department of 
Anatomy several years ago, prepared in 
the Department of Embryology a series 
of nerve endings in muscles of embryos. 
He continued his study of these in Manila, 
and in 1940 he published in volume 



XXVIII of our Contributions an account of 
the embryology of the human neuromus- 
cular spindle. A second paper, on the 
development of the motor end plate, was 
on hand for publication at the time of Pearl 
Harbor and was prepared for press with 
the kind assistance of Dr. Marion Hines, 
necessarily without consultation with the 
author. His conclusions are highly de- 
tailed. Summarizing them briefly, it ap- 
pears that the terminal loops of nerve fibrils 
come into contact with the sarcolemma of 
muscle fibers about the nth week, when 
the transverse striations are just beginning. 
By the 13th week the network of nerve 
terminals of the end plate is beginning to 
form, and the adult pattern is recognizable 
in the 14th week. Active growth and 
reorganization take place from the 14th 
to the 24th week, leading to the formation 
of the large multiple end plates. 

Spontaneous movements of fetal limbs 
occur before the union of muscle and 
nerve is established. Reflex contractions 
begin after the nerve endings have con- 
nected with the muscle fibers, and after 
the 1 6th week both muscle fibers and 
motor end plates are in a high enough 
state of development to permit strong 
muscular movements. 



APPARATUS AND TECHNICAL METHODS 



Vertical Camera 

About Rwt years ago Dr. C. H. Heuser 
and Mr. O. O. Heard collaborated in the 
design of a vertical stereocamera for use 
particularly in photographing embryos. 
Mr. Heard constructed three of these in- 
struments in the Department's shop. Prac- 
tically all the photomicrography of the 
laboratory, both monocular and stereo- 
scopic, is done with them. The excellent 
service they have given has prompted pub- 
lication of an illustrated description. 
One of the unique features of this camera 



is an arrangement for posing very small 
specimens under a binocular microscope, 
which is swung out of axis and replaced 
by the camera. The camera may be set 
in advance for any given magnification, 
since the distance between the lens board 
and the plateholder end of the camera 
can be fixed before focusing. The object 
is placed on an adjustable stand which is 
moved vertically to bring it into focus. 
The design and construction of the instru- 
ment afford a very high degree of rapidity 
and precision. 



120 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



DIFFUSION AND POPULARIZATION OF RESULTS 

This department recognizes its respon- logical Supply House of Chicago. Lan- 

sibility for making the results of its investi- tern slides, better than a teacher can make 

gations available in easily interpretable by copying our illustrations, can thus be 

form for use by the world of science, for obtained at reasonable cost and of course 

general application, and for understanding without profit to the Carnegie Institu- 

by the people. This duty has frequently tion. 

been pointed out by the leaders of the Several embryologists writing or revis- 

Carnegie Institution, most notably perhaps ing textbooks have requested and received 

in a passage in the President's Report of prints for use as illustrations. Still more 

1937 (Year Book No. 36) relative to the noteworthily, a new high-school textbook 

views of Elihu Root on the subject. Dur- of home care and nursing, by Dr. Alma 

ing the past year a number of opportuni- Long of Purdue University, contains a 

ties have presented themselves for service handsome series of photographs of human 

to the scientific and to the general public, embryos and fetuses, especially selected by 

We have received, for example, numerous us from our files. The Vanuxem Lec- 

requests for lantern slides illustrating the tures for 1942 on "The hormones in human 

Hertig-Rock series of early human em- reproduction," given at Princeton Univer- 

bryos, to be used in teaching embryology sity by the Director of the Department, 

in medical schools and colleges. In order appeared in book form during the year, 

to fulfill these requests without interrupt- The volume, which is written for the 

ing the research work of our photographic educated general public, refers extensively 

laboratory, with the permission of Dr. to the work of the Department of Embry- 

Hertig and Dr. Rock we have placed ology and contains among its illustrations 

duplicate negatives with the General Bio- several from our collections. 

PERSONAL 

At the end of June 1943, Miss Rebecca D. service therefore covered the entire history 

Hepburn retired from active service. Miss of the laboratory, and the contribution she 

Hepburn was secretary to Professor Frank- has made by her efficiency and devotion 

lin. P. Mall, founder of the Department, is appreciated by all who have worked 

prior to its organization. Her term of here. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Burns, R. K., Jr. The origin and differentiation 
of the epithelium of the urinogenital sinus 
in the opossum, with a study of the modifi- 
cations induced by estrogens. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Pub. 541, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, 
pp. 63-83 (1942). 

Hormones and the growth of the parts 

of the urinogenital apparatus in mam- 
malian embryos. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. 
Quant. Biol., vol. 10, pp. 27-33 ( I0 4 2 )- 

Hormones and experimental modifica- 
tion of sex in the opossum. Biol. Symp., vol. 
9, PP- 125-146 (1942). 



Corner, G. W. Problems of structure and func- 
tion in the reproductive organs of primates. 
(Part of a lecture presented March 2, 1941, at 
the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia de S. 
Paulo, Brazil.) Rev. de med. e cirurg. de 
Sao Paulo, vol. 1, no. 4-5-6, pp. 131-134 
(1941). 

The hormones in human reproduction 

(Vanuxem Lectures). Princeton Univ. Press 
(1942). 

The fate of the corpora lutea and the 

nature of the corpora aberrantia in the rhesus 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



121 



monkey. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 541, 
Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 85-96 (1942). 

Corner, G. W. Eversion and herniation of the 
corpus luteum. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 
vol. 72, pp. 333-337 (i943)- 

(Review) The embryological treatises 

of Hieronymus Fabricius of Aquadepen- 
dente. The formation of the egg and of the 
chick (De jormatione ovi et pulli). The 
formed fetus (De formato foetu). A fac- 
simile edition, with an introduction, a trans- 
lation and a commentary, by Howard B. 
Adelmann. Science, vol. 97, pp. 466-467 

(i943)- 

(Translation) On the female testes or 



ovaries, by Regner de Graaf (chapter xn 
of De mulierum organis generationi inser- 
vicntibus, Leyden, 1672). In Essays in 
biology, in honor of Herbert M. Evans, pp. 
123-137. Univ. Calif. Press (1943). 

Cuajunco, F. Development of the human motor 
end plate. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 451, 
Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 127-152 
(1942). 

Forbes, T. R. On the fate of the medullary cords 
of the human ovary. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 541, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 
9-15 (1942). 

Further observations on the relative ab- 
sorption rates of pellets of various crystalline 
compounds implanted subcutaneously in rats. 
Endocrinology, vol. 30, pp. 761-764 (1942). 

Factor of age in the rate of absorption 

of, and in mammary stimulation by, testo- 
sterone monopropionate pellets in rats. 
Endocrinology, vol. 30, pp. 765-766 (1942). 

Additional data on the relative absorp- 



tion rates of subcutaneous pellets of various 
crystalline compounds in the rat. Endo- 
crinology, vol. 32, pp. 282-284 ( J 943)- 

George, W. C. A presomite human embryo with 
chorda canal and prochordal plate. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash. Pub. 541, Contr. to Em- 
bryol., vol. 30, pp. 1-7 (1942). 

Ginsburg, N. See Reynolds, S. R. M. 

Hartman, C. G. Further attempts to cause ovu- 
lation by means of gonadotropes in the adult 
rhesus monkey. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
541, Contr. to Embryol, vol. 30, pp. 111- 
126 (1942). 

Gonadotrophic stimulation of the ovaries 

of the adult rhesus monkey. In Essays in 
biology, in honor of Herbert M. Evans, pp. 
227-234. Univ. Calif. Press (1943). 



Heard, O. O. See Heuser, C. H. 

Heuser, C. H., and O. O. Heard. A vertical 
stereocamera for biological photography. 
Jour. Biol. Photogr. Assoc, vol. 11, pp. 5-12 
(1942). 

Hines, M. The development and regression of 
reflexes, postures, and progression in the 
young macaque. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
541, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 153-209 
(1942). 

Lewis, W. H. Nucleolar vacuoles in living nor- 
mal and malignant fibroblasts. Cancer Res., 
vol. 3, pp. 531-536 (1943). 

Lynn, W. G. The embryology of Eleutherodac- 
tylus nubicola, an anuran which has no tad- 
pole stage. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 541, 
Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 27-62 (1942). 

Martinez-Esteve, P. Observations on the his- 
tology of the opossum ovary. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Pub. 541, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, 
pp. 17-26 (1942). 

Pratt, P. C. Evidence against a progesterone-like 
action of ascorbic acid. Endocrinology, vol. 
32, pp. 92-96 (1943). 

Reynolds, S. R. M. Method for correlating data 
from menstrual cycles of different lengths. 
Amer. Jour. Obstet. and Gynecol., vol. 44, 
pp. 151-152 (1942). 

and N. Ginsburg. Microdetermination 

of a A 4 -3 ketosteroid (progesterone) ob- 
tained from small volumes of serum. Endo- 
crinology, vol. 31, pp. 147-161 (1942). 

Rossman, I. On the lipin and pigment in the 
corpus luteum of the rhesus monkey. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash. Pub. 541, Contr. to Em- 
bryol., vol. 30, pp. 97-109 (i94 2 )- 

Schultz, A. H. Conditions for balancing the 
head in primates. Amer. Jour. Phys. An- 
thropol., vol. 29, pp. 483-497 (1942). 

Speert, H. Swallowing and gastrointestinal ac- 
tivity in the fetal monkey. Amer. Jour. Ob- 
stet. and Gynecol., vol. 45, pp. 69-82 (1943). 

Straus, W. L., Jr. The structure of the crown- 
pad of the gorilla and of the cheek-pad of 
the orang-utan. Jour. Mammal., vol. 23, pp. 
276-281 (1942). 

Rudimentary digits in primates. Quart. 

Rev. Biol., vol. 17, pp. 228-243 ( I 94 2 )- 

Sturgis, S. H. Methods for obtaining uterine 
fluid from the monkey: effect of pilocarpine, 
atropine, physiological salt solution and 
adrenalin. Endocrinology, vol. 31, pp. 664- 
672 (1942). 



122 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Streeter, G. L. Developmental horizons in 
human embryos. Description of age group 
XI, 13 to 20 somites, and age group XII, 
21 to 29 somites. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
541, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 30, pp. 211- 
245 (1942). 



Vargas, L., Jr. Experimental fibroids in hypo- 
physectomized female guinea pigs. Cancer 
Res., vol. 3, pp. 309-3 1 7 (1943)- 

Attempt to induce formation of fibroids 

with estrogen, in the castrated female rhesus 
monkey. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., vol. 
73, pp. 23-30 (1943)- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 

Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New Yor\ 
M. DEMEREC, Director 

In war research there has not yet been tent can be reduced by breeding. After 
any great demand for personnel with the only one generation of selection, offspring 
training possessed by members of this De- from selected low-content parents have 
partment, nor for facilities such as are been shown to have a significantly lower 
offered by our laboratories. Consequently, marihuana potency than those from sc- 
our participation in work related to war lected high-content parents. New tetra- 
problems is not as extensive as we should ploid hemp strains from quality fiber stocks 
like it to be. An effort has been made, have been produced and will be submitted 
however, to take up problems brought for comparative fiber tests. Additional tests 
about by the war, and this effort has been carried out with improved techniques con- 
successful in a number of instances. firm the increased marihuana content of 

MacDowell, Potter, Fano, and Demerec triploids and tetraploids, reported tenta- 

are actively engaged in a cooperative proj- tively last year. 

ect with the Biological Laboratory of the One of the many hazards that have 
Long Island Biological Association, under been accentuated by war conditions is 
contract with the Chemical Warfare Serv- that of injury to the human eye result- 
ice; and the mouse colony of the Depart- ing from exposure to ultraviolet radia- 
ment is being extensively used in this work. tion. With the purpose of learning the 

In cooperation with the Department of causes of such injury and determining the 
Agriculture, Warmke has continued and minimum dosage capable of producing de- 
extended his breeding studies with Russian tectable changes in the tissues of the eye, a 
dandelion and with hemp, initiated soon cooperative study has been undertaken by- 
after the outbreak of the war. By sampling Kaufmann and Dr. A. Hollaender, of the 
roots of the Russian dandelion at different National Institute of Health, Bethesda, 
levels, he has found a gradient in latex per- Maryland. It is known that the cells of 
centage. The latex percentage at the ex- the basal layer of the corneal epithelium 
tremities of roots may be three or four undergo divisions, which provide the ma- 
times as great as that at the crown. This is terial necessary for the continual replace- 
of basic importance in the selection and ment of the cells of the upper layer. Studies 
breeding programs being carried on by the conducted at this Department indicate that 
various cooperating laboratories. Tetraploid exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wave 
plants of the Russian dandelion have been length 2537 A at an intensity of about 3000 
grown to maturity and have been sub- ergs per square centimeter per second for 
mitted to the Department of Agriculture periods of only 5 to 10 minutes will arrest 
for comparative rubber determinations, cell division for a considerable length of 
The polyploids appear to have certain im- time. In order that more exact informa- 
portant advantages, including increased tion might be obtained concerning the 
general vigor, broader leaves, and larger effect of wave length 2537 A on cell divi- 
roots. They retain the normal sexual be- sion, Dr. J. Gordon Carlson, of the Uni- 
havior of the diploids. The studies on versity of Alabama, was asked by the Na- 
hemp now indicate that marihuana con- tional Institute of Health to investigate this 

123 



124 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



problem by using tissue cultures of neuro- 
blast cells of the grasshopper. Working at 
this Department, he has found that ex- 
posure for only 7.5 seconds at an intensity 
of no ergs per square centimeter per sec- 
ond produces a measurable retardation in 
cell divisions. This result indicates that 
dividing cells are extremely sensitive to 
wave length 2537 A, which fact was taken 
into consideration when the tolerance dose 
for that wave length was established. 

Since new work brought about by the 
war has occupied only a fraction of our 
time, the members of the Department have 
proceeded with their regular research. A 
brief summary will be given here of the 
individual reports of the various members 
for the year ending September 1, 1943; the 
reports in full are printed on the succeed- 
ing pages. 

Working with maize, McClintock has 
continued investigations on the breakage 
and fusion of chromosomes. The new evi- 
dence obtained by her suggests that the 
capacity for fusion of a recently broken 
end of a chromosome will be lost if this 
chromosome undergoes a division cycle 
before fusion with another such end has 
occurred. In another investigation, under- 
taken to determine the amount of crossing 
over that may occur within small segments 
of a chromosome, the results indicated that 
a relatively large amount of crossing over 
may occur between the loci of two mutants 
that are physically close to each other on 
the chromosome. This is in agreement 
with results obtained in studies on Dro- 
sophila, where it was found that in several 
chromosomal regions frequency of cross- 
ing over does not correspond to the physi- 
cal distance between loci. McClintock's 
studies with broken chromosomes have 
been greatly facilitated by the development 
of a method for increasing the number of 
such chromosomes that could be recovered. 
This method utilized differential pollen- 



tube growth, which favored those grains 
carrying newly broken chromosomes. The 
gametic recovery of newly broken chromo- 
somes 9 rose from the previously available 
3.6 per cent to as high as 90 per cent. These 
breakages frequently delete a terminal seg- 
ment of the short arm of chromosome 9. 
When the deletion is small, the deficient 
chromosome is male- and female-transmis- 
sible. Plants homozygous for these defi- 
ciencies show mutant characters ascribable 
to the deficiency. These same mutants are 
repeatedly and independently produced 
whenever the short arm of chromosome 9 
is subjected to breakage, regardless of the 
method which brings about this breakage. 
Two types of deficiency mutant, pale- 
yellow seedlings and white seedlings, have 
been isolated. Together with the normal 
chromosome producing green seedlings, 
they form an allelic series of descending 
order of dominance, which is related to a 
progressive increase in the length of the 
deficiency. Thirteen of these deficiency 
mutants are now receiving intensive study. 

In addition to work on the extensive co- 
operative project with the Department of 
Agriculture already mentioned, Warmke 
has made a preliminary study, on Nico- 
tiana, of the relation of the arrangement of 
the microspores within the tetrad to the 
number of germ pores in the mature pollen 
grains. Results obtained so far indicate 
that the latter is not directly controlled by 
the former, as has been commonly sup- 
posed. 

In cooperation with Hollaender, Dem- 
erec and Sansome have continued irra- 
diation experiments with the fungus 
Neurospora. It has been found that the 
frequency of X-ray-induced mutations in- 
creases approximately in proportion to the 
dosage, even when very high dosages are 
applied. Treatment with 126,000 roent- 
gens induced about 78 per cent mutations, 
which is the highest induced-mutation rate 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS I2 r 

on record. In experiments with ultraviolet mothers. As the mother's age increases, the 
radiation, the mutation-rate curve reaches incidence falls of? to virtually zero. As the 
a certain peak and then, unlike the X-ray proportion of leukemics declines, the leuke- 
curve, begins to drop. This drop has been mics live to a greater age. The leukemics 
observed by Hollaender in several fungi, from the youngest mothers die, on the 
In Neurospora it is probably caused by average, much earlier than the non-leuke- 
heterogeneity of spores. It has been ob- mics; the leukemics from the oldest moth- 
served that 2650 A, which is absorbed by ers die as much after the non-leukemics, 
nucleic acid to a high degree, is the wave whose life span is not influenced by the 
length most effective in producing muta- age of their mothers. Genetic differences in 
tions, that 2280 A is least effective, and that leukemic tendency that are shown clearly 
2937 A is intermediate between the two. when mothers are young are hidden when 

Kaufmann has continued with attempts mothers are old. MacDowell and Bryson 

to influence the fusion of Drosophila have obtained direct embryological evi- 

chromosomes broken by X rays, through dence of retardation in the growth of the 

subsequent treatment with ultraviolet and ribs of screw-tail mice and resulting dis- 

infrared radiation, and high and low tortion of the sternal bands. This supports 

temperatures. the conclusion that the unique pattern of 

Fano has completed experiments in the unsegmented sternum, characteristic of 
which sperm of Drosophila was treated this mutation, is not a direct expression 
with neutrons. His findings indicate that of the gene, but rather the result of the 
about 40 per cent of sex-linked lethals car- failure of the rib-ends to approach the 
ried chromosomal aberrations. Through a mid-line at the normal rate, 
study of the data on complex rearrange- The age at which female doves and 
ments induced by X rays, Fano has reached pigeons become sexually mature, as shown 
the conclusion that the healing of potential by the laying of their first egg, was earlier 
breaks is influenced by mechanical stress found to be greatly influenced by both 
that may be exerted through movements environmental (seasonal) and genetic fac- 
of the chromosomes. Several theoretical tors. Riddle and Hollander now report 
questions arising from irradiation prob- that, incidental to the selection to establish 
lems have been considered by him. With "endocrine" races 22 years ago, a segrega- 
Mr. L. D. Marinelli, he devised a plan tion of genetic factors was obtained in one 
for experiments to study the time-intensity race of doves which at all seasons delays 
factor; he has also contributed a new the attainment of sexual maturity by one 
calculation to the hypothesis that large ion to two months. The genetic influence on 
clusters are responsible for X-ray-induced age at maturity now separates this slow- 
chromosomal breakage, and supplied a maturing race of doves from another dove 
qualitative explanation of the disagreement race to a greater extent than the latter is 
between calculations and observations of separated from typical breeds of pigeons. A 
the physical action of ionizing radiations, few years ago it was learned that female 

MacDowell reports that the incidence of sex hormones, estrogens, greatly increase 

spontaneous leukemia in certain groups the calcium of the blood in pigeons and 

of hybrid mice is profoundly influenced fowl. The parathyroid glands were known 

by the age of the mother from the non- to exercise much influence on the serum 

leukemic strain. The highest incidence is calcium, and it seemed probable that 

given by the young from the youngest estrogens produce their effect by stimulat- 



126 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ing the parathyroids. Riddle, Rauch, and 
Smith have shown that estrogens are fully 
effective in increasing the "bound" or non- 
diffusible fraction of the serum calcium in 
pigeons whose parathyroids have been com- 
pletely removed. For this aspect of blood- 
calcium regulation in birds the parathy- 
roids are therefore not necessary, but their 
indispensability is indicated by the fact that 
in their absence tetany may occur even 
though the "bound" calcium exists at 
higher than normal levels in the blood. 

In previous years Steggerda has made 
anthropometric studies on adults of the 
Maya Indian, Dutch white, Jamaica Negro, 
and American Negro groups. This year he 



is presenting a similar study on adult 
Navajo Indians, based on measurements of 
150 males and 100 females. It appears that 
the Navajos are of medium body build, 
and rather light in weight; that their trunks 
and arms are relatively long; and that they 
are brachycephalic. During a 10-year period 
Steggerda has collected data about the 
growth of corn on the same plot of ground 
in Yucatan. He found that the yield de- 
creased because of weed competition, grass 
encroachment, and insect pests. Steggerda 
has completed three papers for the Hand- 
boo\ of South American Indians, which 
is to be published by the Smithsonian 
Institution. 



MOUSE GENETICS 

E. C. MacDowell, J. S. Potter, V. Bryson, M. J. Taylor, E. N. Ward, and T. Laanes 



The facilities and personnel of this group 
have been placed at the disposal of a special 
project under the Chemical Warfare Serv- 
ice. Dr. Potter has given full time to this 
work for the entire year, and Dr. Bryson 
joined him in the summer of 1943. The 
mice required for this work are being sup- 
plied, and responsibility is being taken for 
care, clinical observation, gross autopsy, 
and histological study of the experimental 
animals. The strains of mice especially 
concerned with leukemia are being main- 
tained, as are important lines of trans- 
planted leukemia; but the active work on 
leukemia has been virtually limited to the 
maintenance of established long-time ex- 
periments. 

Foster-Nursing Experiment 

The question has been raised (Year Book 
No. 41, p. 199) whether the effect of the 
strain of the foster nurse on body weight at 
weaning, as observed in the special foster- 
nursing experiment, might have any con- 
nection with the nurse's influence, pre- 
viously observed, upon the incidence of 



spontaneous leukemia. Up to the present 
very few cases of leukemia have appeared 
in this experiment, but the size differences 
due to the strain of the nurse reported last 
year have been entirely outgrown. At the 
age of 12 weeks — 8 weeks after weaning — 
one of the four categories of mice still 
showed the effect of nurse's strain on body 
weight, and two of these categories showed 
an effect of nurse's strain on tail length. 
By 9 months all traces of the nurse's effect 
on body weight and tail length had dis- 
appeared. 

The long persistence of the effect of the 
nurse's strain on size is the surprising fea- 
ture of this result; and yet even more 
interesting is the immediate and transitory 
nature of the differential influence of foster 
nurses from two strains, as compared with 
the increasing and permanent differential 
influence of mothers from these same two 
strains. The mice in the foster-nursing 
experiment are all first-generation hybrids; 
half were borne by mothers from one 
strain, half by mothers from the other. 
Mice from mothers of different strains, but 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



127 



nursed by females from the same strain, 
showed only a suggestion of size difference 
at 4 weeks; at 12 weeks and at 9 months 
size differences according to mother's strain 
were marked. Males showed this consist- 
ently in both tail length and body weight, 
whereas females showed it in tail length 
but only very questionably in body weight. 
This finding is apparently due to a sex 
difference in the factors regulating adi- 
posity, which in females masks the effect 
of the mother's strain on weight. 

It is possible that the influence of a 
female as a mother and as a nurse is de- 
pendent on the same mechanism, but if 
so why should the effect from mothers 
increase with age and the effect from nurses 
disappear ? The increasing divergence with 
age of mice from mothers of different 
strains more closely parallels the expression 
of sex differences and suggests that the 
maternal influence is intrinsic or germinal. 
The final outcome of the foster-nursing 
experiment in terms of the incidence of 
leukemia may differ from the originally 
anticipated conclusion if the interpretation 
of the nursing effect offered in the follow- 
ing section should be substantiated. 

Mother's Age and Spontaneous Leukemia 

An important addition has been made to 
the list of extrinsic variables that appear 
to modify the incidence of spontaneous 
leukemia in hybrid mice (Year Book No. 
40, p. 243) with the discovery that mother's 
age has an outstanding influence. The 
mothers in this case were from the inbred, 
so-called non-leukemic strain in the second 
backcross experiment that has been re- 
peatedly mentioned in these reports. The 
exact age of the mother at the birth of every 
litter could readily be determined from the 
records; but this had never been done, for 
the importance of mother's age was unsus- 
pected. The second backcross experiment 
was designed to test for genetic segregation 



among 50 males of the first backcross of 
the leukemic and non-leukemic strains C58 
and StoLi. These males were bred, and 
the young (50 or more) sired by each of 
them were called a family. Since the moth- 
ers were all inbred StoLi, the genetic differ- 
ences between families were due to the 
fathers alone. When the mice of each 
family were divided into two groups, ac- 
cording as their mothers were older or 
younger than 18 weeks at their birth, the 
incidence of leukemia per family of mice 
with younger mothers showed a frequency 
distribution markedly higher than that for 
mice from the older mothers. Indeed, the 
divergence of these two distributions was 
more impressive than that of corresponding 
distributions of the families divided on any 
other basis that showed correlation with 
the incidence of leukemia. This was true 
even for the difference due to the two 
strains of nurses, which led to the special 
experiment on foster nursing. It is now 
evident that the next experiment on the 
incidence of spontaneous leukemia will 
have to be a direct confirmation of the 
effect of mother's age. 

A more complete analysis of the data 
shows a progressive reduction in the pro- 
portion of leukemics as mother's age in- 
creases. With the variation due to nurses 
from different strains eliminated by con- 
sidering only mice nursed by StoLi females 
(mostly their own mothers), and with 
the effects of the genetic differences be- 
tween fathers reduced by dividing the 
families into four groups according to the 
total percentage of leukemia per family, 
the percentage of leukemia within each 
group of families was plotted according 
to mother's age. The group of "high leuke- 
mia" families gave 35 per cent leukemia 
for youngest mothers (8 to 15 weeks old), 
less than 2 per cent for oldest mothers 
(32 weeks or more), and for intermediate 
ages points along a curve connecting these 



I2 8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

extremes. The next two groups of families action of hybrid young on the mother 

also gave their highest incidence of leuke- that in turn modifies later litters, since 

mia (25 per cent and 15 per cent) with the same influence of mother's age appears 

the youngest mothers. The percentages when only the first hybrid litter from each 

fell off as mother's age advanced, as in mother is counted. The influence is trans- 

the "high" families; but they fell less missible before the birth of the young, since 

rapidly, for the same end point was indi- the young nursed by Bagg albino females, 

cated. The "low leukemia" group, start- when classified as above, show clearly the 

ing with 5 per cent for youngest mothers, reduction in leukemia with the advancing 

showed only a slight decline as mother's age of own mothers. But the influence is 

age increased. Thus the effect of mother's also transmissible after birth, through nurs- 

age depends on the family (paternal) ing, for when such transmission is pre- 

tendency. If the leukemic tendency is vented by fostering with the Bagg nurses, 

strong, the influence of mother's age will the decline in the proportion of leukemics 

be marked; if weak, any influence of moth- with mother's age is notably less rapid, 

er's age will be hard to demonstrate. If With the old mothers of 32 weeks, the 

only young mothers had been used, the group of "high leukemia" families nursed 

differences between families would have by Bagg foster mothers gave 15 per cent 

been more striking; if only old mothers leukemia and the other groups of families 

had been used, family differences would were distinguishable instead of being all 

have been entirely concealed. close to zero. The mice nursed by Bagg 

Another measure of the effect of increas- females show the effect of mother's age 
ing mother's age is the associated length- on length of life of leukemics; but here 
ening of life of the leukemics. The life again the effect is less marked, being only 
span of non-leukemics shows . no change from 70 days before the non-leukemics for 
with mother's age. The leukemics with youngest mothers to 50 days after non- 
youngest mothers, when nursed by StoLi leukemics for old mothers. Again, the 
females, died on the average 120 days average age of non-leukemics remains con- 
before the non-leukemics. As the mother's stant. The difference depending on the 
age increased, the averages rose regularly strain of the nurse may be explainable by 
until they were 120 days above the non- the presence or absence of that part of the 
leukemics. The reduction in the propor- mother's age influence that is transmitted 
tion of leukemics is accompanied by a through nursing, 
delay in the death of the leukemics. 

These results indicate that age brings The Screw-Tail Sternum 

some change in the mothers from the As the first of a series of embryological 

"non-leukemic" strain, whereby they trans- studies on different organs of the screw- 

mit something to their young that tends tail mouse, Bryson has made extended 

to ward off the manifestation of leukemia, observations on the development of the 

The nature of the change in mothers, and unique, unsegmented sternum. In connec- 

the manner of passing on this something, tion with this study a series of 12- to 18-day 

are matters of broad importance. The embryos have been sectioned, all of the 

action appears to be specific for leukemia same genetic constitution except for the 

and not an increase in general resistance to variations in occurrence of the screw-tail 

causes of death, since the life span of non- gene. This series naturally provides mate- 

leukemics is not influenced. Nor is the rial for the study of other parts as well as 

change in mothers due to some antigenic the sternum. In the report of last year, 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



129 



an interpretation of the striking features 
of the screw-tail sternum was proposed, 
which placed the responsibility for these 
features on the ribs rather than on a direct 
modification by the gene of the intrinsic 
properties of the anlage of the sternum. 
That the ribs, which seem normal in 
adults, should be responsible for the dra- 
matic deviations of the sternum is surpris- 
ing; but Bry son's observations provide con- 
vincing embryological evidence that this 
is the case. In addition to studying the 
sections directly, he made reconstructions 
and models as well as many dissections of 
embryos especially prepared to reveal skel- 
etogenous tissues. He found the earliest 
certain deviation of the screw-tail sternum 
at 14 days after conception, when the longi- 
tudinal bands that subsequently unite at 
the mid-line to form the sternum are wider 
than normal. Later the widening becomes 
more marked, and lateral projections at the 
rib connections indicate tension at these 
points, whereas normally the sternal bands 
are indented by the stress of the ribs 
elongating toward the mid-line. Though 
the bands are still separate for most of 
their length (at 14^ days), the distance 
between the ends of opposite ribs is greater 
in screw-tails than in normals. Bryson 
measured the distance between the ends of 
second ribs and of seventh ribs in 29 screw- 
tail and 78 normal embryos 14^ days 
old. When the embryos were classified 
by weight, the average distance decreased 
as embryo weight increased; that is to say, 
the rib ends were approaching. But within 
each weight class this average was greater 
for the screw-tails than for the normals. 



In the heavier classes, individual variability 
was reduced and the differences between 
screw and normal became statistically sig- 
nificant. Since the greater distance between 
the ends of pairs of ribs in screw-tails ap- 
peared before the two halves of the sternum 
were brought together, it is evident that the 
ribs themselves are responsible for the posi- 
tion of their ends, and that the wide 
sternum of screws is a result and not a 
cause of the position of the rib ends. 

In order to compare screw and normal 
ribs, rib volumes were calculated from the 
weight of cut-out projections of sectioned 
ribs. The rib volume of screw-tails was 
less than that of normal embryos of the 
same weight. It seems necessary to assume 
some depression of rib growth in screw- 
tails which effectively retards instead of 
facilitating the movement of the sternal 
bands toward each other. In spite of this, 
cellular readjustments accomplish the 
union of the inner margins of the bands; 
but this is accomplished at the sacrifice 
both of thickness and of length. At the 
same stage that the sternal bands are be- 
ginning to widen, as they stretch toward 
each other away from the retarded ribs, 
they also begin to be shortened. Measure- 
ments of the distance between first and 
seventh ribs on the same side of i4?-day 
embryos show that, within the same weight 
group, first and seventh ribs are closer 
together in screw-tails than in normals, 
and that as the weight of the embryos 
increases, the difference between averages 
for screws and normals increases pro- 
gressively from very slight and statistically 
insignificant to markedly significant. 



ENDOCRINE STUDIES 

O. Riddle, W. F. Hollander, R. A. Miller, F. E. Visscher, E. L. Lahr, G. C. Smith, and 

V. M. Rauch 

The products of hormonal regulation of adult life. At all developmental stages, 
are observable in higher animals at all cross sections of the gradually expanding 
life stages, from immature egg to the end cone of organization disclose patterns of 



12 



130 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



structure and function which hormones 
have helped to form. In some cases it is 
clear that a change in the controlling genes 
is associated with a modified expression of 
a hormone's effect or action. In all cases 
the hormones contribute to the regulation 
of development, or to bodily maintenance, 
or to both. Most of our effort this year 
has been directed toward an extension 
of our knowledge of hormonal regulation 
in those areas in which our earlier studies 
had pointed to significant facts and re- 
lationships. 

Hormone Action in Carbohydrate and 
Fat Metabolism 

During recent years this laboratory and 
a few others have engaged in an attempt 
to learn which hormones of the pituitary 
gland are responsible for bodily changes 
such as increased sugar in the blood (gly- 
cemia), anti-insulin effects (glycotrophic 
response), increase of acetone bodies in 
the blood (ketosis), increase of liver and 
muscle glycogen, and increased deposit of 
fat in the liver. The anterior lobe of the 
pituitary gland, whose hormones often act 
upon and through other "target" glands, 
is currently regarded as the chief or only 
source of these several effects; a useful 
test of this view can now be reported. 
During a part of the past two years 
Riddle, Visscher, and Marvin have investi- 
gated the possible share of substances aris- 
ing in the posterior lobe of the pituitary 
gland in the production of the effects 
named above. This particular study will 
be considered first, and somewhat more 
fully than related items, because no similar 
study has been reported for birds and 
because the results indicate that posterior- 
lobe products, though responsible for 
hitherto undescribed glycotrophic-like ef- 
fects, are not the regulators of the above- 
mentioned phases of carbohydrate and fat 
metabolism. 



Effects of substances originating in the 
posterior pituitary. A single preparation, 
in the form of a standard powder, was 
made from carefully dissected posterior 
lobes of cattle which had been quickly 
frozen at an abattoir. These glands were 
defatted and dehydrated with acetone (to 
125 g.), ground, extracted for 3 hours in 
alkaline (pH 9.5) ethanol (60 per cent), 
then centrifuged, and a part of the extract 
precipitated at pH 5.0. The supernatant 
fluid obtained from this procedure pro- 
vided the substance (preparation No. 779; 
1 1. 2 g.) which was first very extensively 
assayed for its content of the several pitui- 
tary hormones, and was used thereafter 
in direct determination of effects on blood 
sugar, liver and muscle glycogen, and liver 
fat of normal pigeons of uniform race and 
age. These last-named determinations were 
made on nearly 200 treated birds; and 65 
test birds and 38 untreated control birds 
were used in comparable studies on the 
action of a commercial preparation from 
posterior lobes (pituitrin). 

Measurements were made of the effects 
of single and of daily injections of the 
two types of posterior-lobe preparation. 
Groups of birds were killed and sampled 
after 2 to 5 daily injections and at 2, 5, 
10, 17, and 24 hours after a single injec- 
tion. At 24 hours before sampling, every 
bird was force-fed 15 g. of mixed grain 
and thereafter was allowed no food. 

The alkaline extract had little or no 
effect on the blood acetone of pigeons and 
rats. The principles contained in anterior 
pituitary extracts that increase liver fat 
and blood ketones in pigeons are not pro- 
duced in the posterior lobe; it is also 
shown that those responses are not pro- 
duced by intermedin and are probably not 
produced by the "specific metabolic prin- 
ciple" of Collip. 

The level of blood sugar was slightly, 
but significantly, raised at 10, 17, and 24 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS ^ 

hours after a single injection of the alka- the alkaline extract, their heat production 

line extract. At these same periods 2 to 4 was — 1. The respiratory quotients of 3 

units of pituitrin increased the blood sugar of these birds taken under these conditions 

insignificantly. averaged 0.73 (range, 0.71 to 0.76) ; this 

The level of muscle glycogen was not value seems definitely lower than that of 

maintained in normal pigeons injected uninjected controls (average for 12 tests, 

with alkaline extract No. 779 and fasted 0.81 ±0.014; range, 0.74 to 0.89), and sug- 

24 hours; pituitrin had little or no effect, gests a diminished oxidation of sugar in 

The alkaline extract of posterior pitui- the injected birds. Data obtained by palpa- 

tary tissue maintained liver glycogen at tion of the crops of birds injected with 

higher than fasting levels at 10, 17, and 24 No. 779, or with pituitrin, indicated that 

hours after a single injection, and at 24 the crops of such birds were emptied rather 

hours after 2, 3, 4, and 5 daily injections, more rapidly than those of control birds. 

The data of Riddle and Opdyke show It is not known whether digestion was 

that this prolonged effect on liver glycogen more or less complete in the crops that 

is not obtained in equal degree by purified were more speedily emptied. None of the 

anterior pituitary hormones nor by whole crops in either group was completely empty 

extract of anterior pituitaries, though it is at 7 hours after feeding; it therefore seems 

obtained by high doses of insulin. These probable that, despite apparent ingress of 

results involve a sparing of liver glycogen sugar into the blood from their alimentary 

(glycotrophic-like action) but not a new tracts, the tissues of injected birds were 

formation of glycogen, since, after 48-hour oxidizing little if any more sugar than at 

fasts, the values obtained from uninjected the end of a 24-hour fast, 

birds were the same as from birds injected Cortical hormones and glycogen storage 

17 or 24 hours earlier. in pigeons. In studies on rats, Long and 

The glycotrophic-like and glycemic ac- Kendall and their associates have shown 
tions of this alkaline extract are probably that n-dehydrocorticosterone is especially 
of pharmacological rather than physiologi- effective in increasing the stores of liver 
cal significance. These responses are appar- glycogen. With hormone supplied by Dr. 
ently associated with digestive disturbance Kendall, a sufficient number of tests have 
and they may result from repeated over- been made on pigeons by Riddle and Vis- 
stimulation of the pancreas; they should scher to show the absence of a comparable 
not be regarded as specific actions of any effect in this species. Doses of 3 mg. failed 
hormone. to increase the liver glycogen of 17 fasting 

The posterior pituitary and heat pro- (24 hours) young Carneau pigeons at 5, 
duction. Some observations on effects of i7> an d 2 4 nours aj fter injection. In 5 birds 
a posterior pituitary extract (described treated with implanted pellets (10 to 12 
above) on heat production and digestion mg.) during 4 days there was also no effect, 
were made by Mrs. Smith. Respiratory Pancreatectomized rats are especially sensi- 
metabolism measurements were made on a tive; but in 3 pancreatectomized pigeons 
group of 8 birds injected with No. 779 at no effect was observed at 24 hours after 
a time when the digestion and absorption injection of 3 mg. of this hormone. The 
of their last meal should have been in muscle glycogen stores were measured con- 
progress. At 7 hours after the birds were currently on all birds, but in no group of 
fed their usual 15 g. of grain, and at 7 birds was an increase of muscle glycogen 
hours after their last (third) injection of found. 



132 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Since anterior pituitary hormones, in- 
cluding corticotropin, were earlier shown 
to have some ability to increase the glyco- 
gen stores of pigeons, it was desirable to 
learn whether desoxycorticosterone acetate 
is capable of producing this eflfect. A small 
number of tests made on normal and hypo- 
physectomized pigeons at 5 hours after a 
single injection, and at 24 hours after the 
last of 6 daily injections, have failed to indi- 
cate any action on the glycogen stores. 
Under a stimulus supplied by the anterior 
pituitary, the adrenal probably produces a 
hormone which increases the glycogen 



livers of the two age groups respond about 
equally at 5 hours after injection; but be- 
tween 5 and 17 hours after the insulin in- 
jection the livers of adult birds increase 
their store of fat little or not at all, though 
livers of young birds double their fat stores 
during this period. The additional (un- 
published) data of Riddle and Opdyke on 
fat stores of young pigeons (at 10, 24, 48 
hours, etc.) make it clear that in such birds 
maximum storage is reached at about 12, 
17, or 24 hours, and that thereafter the fat 
stores diminish despite repeated daily in- 
iections. 



Effect of age on the ability of insulin to increase the storage of fat in the liver 





Percentage of liver fat after injection of control 
protein (muscle extract) and insulin 


Age of pigeon 


Muscle extract 
(5 hours) 


Insulin, 30 units 
(5 hours) 


Insulin, 30 units 
(17 hours) 


Young 

Adult 


(6) 3.86±0.24 
(6) 4.52±0.30 


(5) 7.35±0.54 
(7) 8.06±1.29 


(8) 14.75±1.07 

(7) 7.57±1.17 



stores of birds; that hormone, however, has 
not yet been identified. At the moment, 
these results serve to emphasize the fact 
that species differences are of such magni- 
tude that a variety of animals must be uti- 
lized in endocrine research. 

An age factor in the action of insulin on 
liver fat in pigeons. In a study on the 
action of insulin on the liver glycogen 
stores, Goldblatt noted that these are much 
less variable in fasted young than in adult 
rabbits. It was earlier observed by Riddle 
and Opdyke (Year Book No. 40) that a 
first dose of insulin, and a first dose only, 
greatly increases the deposit of fat in the 
liver of young pigeons. Some comparisons 
have now been made by Rauch and Riddle 
of the action of insulin on the liver fat of 
young and of adult pigeons. The results 
are shown in the accompanying table. 

An unusual type of difference associated 
with aging is evident. It appears that the 



Hormones and Growth 

The studies described below were carried 
out as items of a more comprehensive in- 
quiry, partly reported previously, on the 
role of hormones in the maintenance of 
body weight after removal of the pituitary 
or the adrenals. These studies are based on 
the view that adequate knowledge of the 
mechanism through which the pituitary 
gland affects bodily growth must include a 
determination, in young animals of various 
species, of all generally favorable effects of 
pituitary activity. These effects surely in- 
clude such things as changes in amount of 
food consumption, hormonal support of 
body weight after removal of pituitary or 
adrenals, and similar support or increase of 
weight of essential "vegetative" organs by 
both pituitary and "target" hormones. 

Hormonal support of weight of pancreas. 
Studies reported earlier showed that during 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS ^ 

the 10 days following the removal of the cent to 10 per cent although food consump- 
anterior pituitary gland of pigeons there is tion remained 32 per cent below normal, 
a marked loss in body weight (20 per cent) Since anterior pituitary hormones stimu- 
and a notably greater loss in the weight of late the production of thyroxin and adrenal 
the intestine (43 per cent) and pancreas hormones, it thus appears that at least three 
(54 per cent) . These weight losses, except anterior pituitary hormones (prolactin, 
that in the pancreatic tissue, could be pre- adrenotrophin, thyrotrophin) share in the 
vented and even overcompensated by mod- maintenance of pancreatic tissue, 
erate daily dosage with highly purified Action of prolactin and cortical hor- 
prolactin alone. Maintenance of the weight mones on body weight and food intake of 
of the pancreas seemed, according to those adrenalectomized pigeons. Our earlier 
earlier studies, to require thyrotrophin in demonstration of the action of hormones 
addition to prolactin. During the present of the adrenal cortex in maintaining weight 
year Miller and Riddle have obtained evi- of the body and some essential organs in 
dence that hormones of the adrenal cortex pituitaryless birds made it necessary to 
and thyroxin (when the latter is adminis- learn whether the similar action of pro- 
tered together with prolactin and adrenal lactin on body weight and food intake was 
cortical hormone) actively assist in main- exercised through or upon the adrenal 
taining the weight of the pancreas after the glands. Although it was known that most 
pituitary is removed. of the preparations of prolactin used in 
The anterior pituitary gland was re- those particular studies were almost free of 
moved from successive groups of 5 to 8 any ability to enlarge the adrenals of 2-day 
White Carneau pigeons at 1.5 months after chicks and 21-day rats (and thus apparently 
hatching (weight about 450 g.). The food free of adrenotrophin), only tests of the 
and water intake of all control and treated effectiveness of prolactin in completely 
groups was measured. Suboptimal daily adrenalectomized pigeons could resolve 
doses of prolactin (1 unit) and of desoxy- this question. Results of a study by Miller 
corticosterone acetate (1 mg.) were each and Riddle, as summarized below, show- 
found to provide partial support to the that these actions of prolactin are not medi- 
pancreas, and when these quantities of the ated by the adrenals. 

two hormones were given together their It was found that adrenalectomized 

effects on the pancreas were additive. It young Carneau pigeons fed 1.75 g. of a salt 

was next learned that the administration of mixture daily showed an average period of 

minute doses of thyroxin (5 gamma daily) survival of 9 days. Such pigeons take little 

in connection with prolactin and cortical food and lose weight. Either adrenal cor- 

hormone provided still further support to tical extract or desoxycorticosterone acetate 

the pancreas. This action of thyroxin is maintained life in adrenalectomized pi- 

the more notable since, when given alone, geons. Daily doses of 2 mg. of desoxycorti- 

it did not significantly affect the weight of costerone acetate fully restored the rate of 

the pancreas, and since its effective support increase of body weight and the daily food 

of pancreatic tissue was not accompanied consumption to levels characteristic of nor- 

by any increase in food consumption, mal unoperated pigeons. Highly purified 

Under dosage with these minute amounts prolactin induced more than normal gains 

of the three hormones the loss in weight in body weight when adrenal insufficiency 

by the pancreas, during 10 days following was not acute, and it restored food intake 

hypophysectomy, was reduced from 54 per to a level almost equal to that of unoper- 



!3 4 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

ated birds. A group of adrenalectomized Non-basal (5 to 12 hours after taking 

birds given high dosage of both prolactin food) values for heat production were ob- 

and adrenal cortical extract showed more tained from 13 birds both before and after 

rapid gains in body weight and larger food the removal of one adrenal. The average 

intake than has ever been observed in nor- values from the two groups of tests differed 

mal unoperated pigeons of the age used in by only 1.0 per cent. Basal values (after 

these tests. 24-hour fast) on 6 of these same birds dif- 

Effect of adrenal removal on heat pro- fered by only 0.9 per cent. It is evident 
d action. Two years ago Riddle and Smith therefore that the removal of a single 
made a preliminary report on the effect of adrenal does not measurably affect the 
adrenalectomy on the respiratory metab- metabolism. Non-basal values (5 to 12 
olism of adult pigeons. Repeated tests on hours after food) were obtained on 37 
12 operated adults seemed to show that birds after one adrenal was removed and 
their basal metabolism had been affected again at 3 to 7 days after removal of the 
only slightly; a decrease of about 6 per cent other adrenal; the second measurements 
was observed and the respiratory quotient showed an average reduction of 10.2 per 
seemed unchanged. Careful autopsies of cent, and a reduction was observed in all 
the longest-lived survivors of that group of the six groups of birds subjected to the test, 
birds, together with later experience, cast The respiratory quotients of the two series 
doubt on the completeness of the operation were 0.84 and 0.81, respectively. Values 
in some of the birds used in that test, and which are known to be basal (24 hours 
thus aroused doubt concerning the conclu- after food) in the case of intact pigeons 
sions. In this laboratory Miller later found were obtained from 26 birds after one 
that adrenalectomy can be performed com- adrenal was removed, and again at 3 to 7 
pletely and satisfactorily on young pigeons, days after removing the other adrenal; the 
and these birds maintained (on a salt mix- latter measurements indicated an average 
ture) free from terminal symptoms long increase in heat production of 6.4 per cent, 
enough to permit the desired measure- and an increase was observed in all the five 
ments. The two adrenals were removed in groups of birds subjected to the test. Res- 
two operations separated by an interval of piratory quotients from the two series aver- 
one week. During the present year metab- aged 0.70 and 0.73, respectively. Additional 
olism measurements (at 30 ° C.) on non- measurements were obtained either after 
fasting birds and on those fasted 24 hours removing both adrenals (15 tests, non- 
have been made on a satisfactory number basal; 24 "basal"), or after removal of one 
of completely adrenalectomized young only (44 tests, non-basal; 18 basal), but not 
Carneau pigeons at 7 to 10 weeks after at both of these stages. These data from 
hatching. unmatched individuals confirm the results 

It was found that respiratory quotients stated above, 
of young pigeons are modified little if at Heat production in pigeons was thus 
all by the loss of the adrenals 3 to 7 days shown to change but little during the first 
earlier. A few measurements of rectal tern- few days following removal of the adrenals, 
peratures indicate that little or no change The direction of the change, however, was 
of temperature results from loss of the found to differ in an unexpected way 
adrenals, and probably there is no signifi- according to whether the last food was con- 
cant difference between the body tempera- sumed at 5 to 12 hours, or at 24 hours, be- 
tures of operated birds measured at 5 to 12 fore measurement; the supposedly "basal" 
and at 24 hours after food. values (24 hours after food) obtained by 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS ^5 

us are about 6 per cent higher, and the roids in pigeons was unknown. Because of 

values at 5 to 12 hours after food are 5 to other special advantages of the pigeon, it 

10 per cent lower, than those for intact was necessary to overcome this difficulty, 

animals. This confusing result at first ap- Dissections and histological study by 

pears to support the paradox of a basal heat Rauch and Smith showed that, at least in 

production (4.708 Cal./kg./hr.) definitely the race of pigeons (Carneau) most used 

higher than the non-basal value (4.244 in this study, the two pairs of parathyroids 

Cal./kg./hr.). Other evidence indicated typically lie outside and posterior to the 

that this anomalous result rests on a delay thyroids. A fortunate result of this circum- 

of the specific dynamic action of food in stance is that our studies on parathyroid- 

the absence of the adrenals; such a delay ectomized birds, unlike those on most 

has been observed by Brownell and Hart- mammals, are not complicated by simul- 

man in adrenalectomized dogs. taneous removal of part or all of the 

thyroids. 

Parathyroids and Estrogens in the Regu- The second advance resulted from the 

lation of the Serum Calcium development by Smith of a technique for 

Largely because of the peculiar suita- complete removal of the relatively inacces- 
bility of pigeons for such studies, this sible parathyroids. This involves removal 
laboratory was earlier able to show that of the glands on the two sides of the thorax 
the serum calcium of female birds is more in operations separated by a few days, 
than doubled during the short, recurrent Some hours preceding the second oper- 
periods when a pair of ova become fully ation, and usually for several days there- 
mature in the ovary, It was also shown after, the birds were given dihydrotachy- 
that estrogens, but not androgens, will sterol (AT10) in order to prevent the early 
cause similar or greater increases of the crisis that would otherwise result from the 
serum calcium in old or young birds of rapid decline of the serum calcium. The 
either sex and in pigeons deprived of such feeding of calcium gluconate also was 
organs as the pituitary, testis, pancreas, and found especially efTective in preventing the 
thyroid. Though others have shown that symptoms of hypoparathyroidism, 
the parathyroid gland normally assists in A third and much desired test has been 
the regulation of the serum calcium, very made on 25 of these animals by Riddle and 
little is known of the mechanism by which Rauch. In pigeons completely deprived of 
either parathyroids or estrogens exert this their parathyroids, estrogens were found to 
action. Whatever this mechanism may be, increase the serum calcium as effectively 
it probably is more or less concerned in as in intact animals. Heavy dosage with 
bone growth and in the formation of cal- estrone or estradiol benzoate during 4 or 
cium phosphate stones in the urinary tract. 5 days sometimes raised the calcium level 
During the past year four distinct advances by as much as 500 per cent. In all the 10 
have been made in a still unfinished study cases in which a second (or third) period 
of this problem; and cooperative studies on of estrogen dosage was given, the serum 
two different phases of the problem have calcium rose for a second or third time 
been undertaken with two research groups above a pre-injection level that was defi- 
in New York City. nitely subnormal. The parathyroids are 

Though complete removal of the para- therefore not essential to this action. It 

thyroids was necessary in order to learn was found, however, that following the 

what estrogens can do in their absence, the termination of a series of estrogen injec- 

location and distribution of the parathy- tions, and while the calcium level is still at 



i3 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



or above normal, some of these birds may 
show tetany or even die in convulsions. It 
is evident, therefore, that the injected estro- 
gen does not fully replace the normal 
action of the parathyroids, but affects solely 
or mainly the nondiflfusible (or "bound") 
calcium. 

Some attention is being given to the 
effects of both parathyroidectomy and 
estrogen dosage on bone resorption and 
bone deposition. The skulls of these oper- 
ated and treated animals, including some 
which were both parathyroidectomized 
and hypophysectomized by Smith, are 
being utilized in a special study by Dr. 
E. P. Fowler, under the auspices of the 
Central Bureau of Research of the Ameri- 
can Otological Society. 

Finally, estrogen treatments of unoper- 
ated birds of both sexes, and also those 
phases of the reproductive cycle of females 
which involve highest and lowest points in 
apparent parathyroid activity, are being 
utilized by Rauch and Riddle in an effort 
to provide a functional interpretation of 
the histology of the parathyroid glands. 
Although this study is unfinished, it now 
seems that the so-called "light cells" under- 
go increase in number and in size, acquire 
a more granular cytoplasm, and have 
smaller fat droplets at a time when para- 
thyroid activity, estrogens, and serum cal- 
cium are all at higher levels. 

During the latter part of the present year 
our laboratory has cooperated with Dr. 
Ephraim Shorr, Department of Medicine, 
Cornell Medical College, in a study of the 
calcium, phosphate, and citrate changes in 
the bones of pigeons at ovulation and dur- 
ing ovarian inactivity. 

Endocrine Races and Records 

During the past twenty-two years a large 
amount of breeding data, and a larger 
amount of data on weights and measure- 
ments of organs of endocrine significance 



from selected inbred strains, have been 
obtained for many races of doves and 
pigeons. These records are now being 
analyzed and summarized with the special 
aid of Dr. Hollander. During the past 
sixteen years the basal metabolism of mem- 
bers of all these races and their hybrids 
has been intensively investigated, and the 
summarization of these records has en- 
gaged most of Mrs. Smith's time during 
much of the present year. It is hoped that 
all results of this prolonged study of heat 
production, as affected by race, sex, hy- 
bridity, season, etc., may be reported next 
year. 

Current breeding tests supervised by 
Hollander involve outcrosses of the her- 
maphrodite-producing stock, as briefly de- 
scribed last year, and further genetic tests 
with "scraggly" and ataxia. The latter 
characters are being recombined with fea- 
tures of the White Carneau. This should 
provide a useful check on the mode of 
inheritance of ataxia, and will perhaps 
perpetuate these interesting mutations in 
a more vigorous stock. The breeding 
studies incident to a clarification of the re- 
lation of goiter to embryonic vigor are 
mentioned in another part of this report. 

In the analysis of the data for organ 
weights from individuals of many genera- 
tions of the various races or strains of both 
doves and pigeons, it is found that in most 
races there exists a sex difference in body 
weight, liver weight, intestinal length, 
spleen weight, and thyroid weight. Rather 
generally the several organs listed are 
heavier in the female, although body 
weight is greater in the male. Much less 
adequate evidence for this conclusion was 
cited several years ago (Year Books Nos. 
27, 28). 

A summary, now almost complete, of 
data on the relation of race and season 
of origin to the age at which an individual 
female dove or pigeon becomes sexually 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



137 



mature deserves special mention. On the 
basis of the much less abundant data avail- 
able 12 years ago (Year Book No. 30) it 
was noted that, although genetic racial 
differences are evident, birds hatched in 
the period from September to January usu- 
ally become sexually mature (lay their 
first egg) at an earlier age than do birds 



modify or determine the median age at 
which the first egg is produced. This 
genetic difference is particularly evident 
for the two races of ring doves, which 
differ more from each other than the early- 
maturing dove race differs from pigeons — 
another species. In the doves this genetic 
difference is especially significant since it 




MAR. APR. 



MAY JUNE 



JULY 



AUG. SEPT. 



OCT. 



NOV. 



DEC 



JAN. 



FEB. 



MONTH OF ORIGIN 
Fig. 1. Parallel fluctuation of age at first ovulation in females of a late-maturing race of ring 
doves (272A), of an early-maturing race (263A), and of two representative breeds of pigeons. 
Both month of birth and genes (race) affect the age at which sexual maturity is attained. The 
points on the curves are median values for the number of birds indicated by the numerals. 



hatched in the period from February to 
June. The data obtained to date for two 
of our selected ("endocrine") races of 
doves, and for a large and a small race 
of pigeons, have been graphed by Hol- 
lander in the form shown in figure 1. 

The graph shows that age at sexual 
maturity, in all the four races, is markedly 
affected by an environmental factor, 
namely, something associated with season. 
It is also made clear that genetic factors 



is an example of a character which was 
unintentionally segregated and established 
by the selection involved in the formation 
of these two "endocrine" races. 

Relation of Goiter in Pigeons to 
Embryonic Vigor 

Last year's report briefly noted an ap- 
parent relation between weakness in pigeon 
embryos and endemic goiter in their par- 
ents. Investigations led by Hollander have 



i38 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



yielded significant results. A survey of a 
large amount of data indicates that in 
adult pigeons the weight of thyroids which 
may properly be called "normal" seldom 
exceeds 0.02 per cent of the body weight. 
Since thyroids exceeding 0.02 per cent of 
body weight have been fairly frequent in 
our colony of pigeons, and since their 
histology had suggested a deficiency of 
iodine, a test of the curative effect of add- 
ing potassium iodide to the diet was con- 
ducted over a period of 6 months. During 
this period 31 pairs of breeding birds re- 
ceived a supplement of KI in their mineral 
or grit mixture; the amount consumed 
weekly was not more than 0.5 mg. of KI 
per bird, and the average supplementary 



thyroids of the 5 female parents were ex- 
amined and found to be goitrous (3 to 5 
times normal). Unilateral thyroidectomy 
was performed on 3 of them and the glands 
examined histologically (all hypertrophic, 
no colloid) . Thereafter these females were 
given doses of 10 mg. of KI, and in most 
instances the dose was repeated about once 
each month. Records for production of 
weak young before and after treatment 
were strikingly different. Previous to treat- 
ment, all the young from these selected 
pairs were weak at hatching; following 
treatment, none of the 23 young obtained 
was weak at hatching. 

The condition in the newly hatched 
young which is here called "weakness" 



Effect of adding potassium iodide to the food of pigeons on the vigor of their offspring 

at hatching 





No. OF 

PAIRS 


Total eggs 


Hatched 


Young at hatching 


Group 


Vigorous 


Weak 


Iodized 

Control 


31 
24 


200 
161 


138 (69%) 
103 (64%) 


132 (96%) 
53 (51%) 


6 (4%) 
50 (49%) 



intake was probably about 0.2 mg. Twenty- 
four breeding pairs, caged in the same 
building, served as control; they received 
the regular diet with no KI supplement. 
In each group the usual genetic types of 
pigeons in the colony were represented. 
The favorable effect of the KI supplement 
on the young is indicated in the accom- 
panying table. 

Sample thyroids taken from newly 
hatched young of these two groups showed 
that eggs from iodized parents produced 
young with thyroids ranging from 2 to 5 
mg. Those from the control group were 
much more often enlarged, ranging from 
about 3 to 30 mg. 

Five pairs of parents with exceptional 
records for the production of weakling 
young were selected for special study. The 



consisted not only of evident debility but 
of anemia and defective closure of the 
umbilicus. These several symptoms may 
or may not appear together. In general, 
the affected young are perfectly formed 
and not stunted. 

Histological studies were made by Lahr 
on thyroids of three groups or types of 
day-old young. These groups included 
normal young from normal parents, normal 
young from Kl-treated goitrous parents, 
and weak young from goitrous parents. 
The glands of the normal young contained 
small, round follicles with medium-high 
epithelia and with small amounts of stain- 
able colloid in some follicles. Those from 
Kl-treated goitrous parents had thyroids 
similar to those of the normal young but 
showing greater amounts of a denser col- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



139 



loid. The weak young from goitrous par- 
ents had thyroids with a higher epithelium, 
with some hyperemia of the gland, and 
with no colloid. With a single exception, 
the large thyroids found in Carneau 
pigeons aged 2 to 3 months were simple 
goiters (hyperactive glands). In them the 
epithelia were high and there was either 
no colloid or mere traces of a watery 
colloid. When KI was fed directly lo birds 
of this age and thyroid type, the epithelia 
became very low (resting) and consider- 
able amounts of densely staining colloid 
were present. 

In untreated adult birds approximately 
two-thirds of the large thyroids found 
were similar to those of pigeons aged 2 
months. The other third of adult 
had goiters of colloid type, with 
follicles filled with a diffuse col- 
and with very atrophic epithelia. 
A few marginal follicles scattered among 
the atrophic ones might appear normal 
or even hypertrophied. Regardless of 
their earlier condition, all birds that had 
been treated, even several months be- 
fore, with desiccated thyroid tissue or KI 
were found uniformly to have resting epi- 
thelia and fair quantities of dense colloid. 

The above breeding data and the asso- 
ciated histological study show that, in the 
absence of supplementary iodine, goiter 
has developed frequently; this in turn indi- 
cates that the iodine content of the basic 
diet (and water supply) was too low for 
some pigeons of our colony. Simple goiter 
in the parent birds results in simple goiter 
in their embryos at hatching, and here it 



to 3 
birds 
huge 
loid 



is associated with weakness. Correction of 
the goiter in the parents by iodine therapy 
prevents both goiter and weakness in the 
young. 

Steroid Hormones and Maternal 
Behavior in Doves 

Following the termination of earlier 
studies on the induction of maternal be- 
havior in fowl and rats by various hor- 
mones, Lahr and Riddle have conducted 
a series of tests on the action of certain 
steroid hormones, when administered as 
subcutaneously implanted pellets, in ring 
doves. The pellets were removed after a 
period of 8 to 12 days. In these studies, 
not entirely completed, both immature and 
adult birds of both sexes were subjected 
to brief tests. It has been found that com- 
plete incubation, with subsequent feeding 
of young, can be induced promptly in 
previously unmated adult birds of either 
sex by progesterone or by desoxycortico- 
sterone acetate. Only about half of the 
adolescent males, and none of three im- 
mature females hitherto tested, responded 
to progesterone. Some evidence indicates 
that testosterone propionate induces broodi- 
ness in both adolescent and adult females. 
Unimplanted controls, otherwise similarly 
tested, do not become broody within the 
time limits set for these tests. That the 
effective steroids tend to induce a release of 
prolactin from the bird's own pituitary is 
indicated by a concurrent enlargement of 
the dove's crop sacs and usually by secre- 
tion of crop milk after the normal interval. 



THE GENE 

M. Demerec, B. P. Kaufmann, U. Fano, Eva R. Sansome, and Helen Gay 

Radiation Experiments tutes an industrial hazard of major im- 

E fleets of ultraviolet radiation on mitosis, portance in the present war emergency. 

Injury to the human eye resulting from Adequate protection against ultraviolet can 

exposure to ultraviolet radiation consti- be assured, but through negligence or ac- 



140 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



cident it is not always obtained; and there- 
fore it becomes important to determine 
the minimum dosage which can produce 
detectable changes in the tissues of the eye. 
Dr. Kaufmann and Miss Gay have been 
cooperating with Dr. A. Hollaender, of the 
National Institute of Health, Bethesda, 
Maryland, in a study of the effects of ultra- 
violet radiation on the mitotic cells of the 
corneal epithelium. In the preliminary 
work, eyes of various mammals were used, 
including the mouse, rat, cat, rabbit, and 
monkey. Of these the rabbit cornea proved 
most adaptable for the type of analysis 
undertaken. The corneal epithelium of 
this animal consists of four to five layers 
of cells resting on the underlying connec- 
tive tissue. Under normal conditions mi- 
toses can be found in the basal layer. To 
facilitate identification of the various stages 
of mitosis, a technique was devised for 
stripping the epithelium as a unit from 
the entire cornea, staining in acetic orcein 
(which colors the nuclei without clouding 
the surrounding cytoplasm), flattening, and 
mounting in euparal. Nuclei of the basal 
layer can be recognized clearly despite the 
overlying cells, and the mitotic stages can 
be identified with great accuracy, except 
possibly the earliest prophases and verv 
late telophases. 

Survey of a series of eyes from normal 
or untreated rabbits revealed considerable 
variability in the number of mitoses per 
unit of area. Striking differences were 
found not only between different animals, 
but also between the two eyes of one 
animal, and even within the area of a 
single cornea. For example, inspection of 
the flattened epithelium of an entire cornea 
gave the following numbers of mitoses per 
square millimeter in a series of four arbi- 
trarily determined concentric rings pro- 
ceeding outward from the center: (1) 31.7, 
( 2 ) 3°7> (3) 2 3-4> (4) 9- 2 5- Much greater 



variability is found to exist when smaller 
areas are compared. 

Experiments with ultraviolet have been 
restricted to radiation of wave length 
2537 A. One eye of the animal was treated; 
the other served as a control. Destructive 
and damaging effects of ultraviolet irradia- 
tion on the corneal epithelium had been 
obtained in several earlier experiments, but 
the effect on the dividing cells was less 
well known. Our work has shown that 
an exposure of 5 to 10 minutes, at an in- 
tensity of about 3000 ergs per square centi- 
meter per second, blocks all mitotic activity, 
so that 7 to 8 hours after irradiation no 
metaphases or anaphases are detectable. 
Although the smallest dose necessary to 
produce such a blocking effect can readily 
be determined, it is less easy to measure 
the minimum dose that can upset or alter 
the rate of mitotic activity. One of the 
chief handicaps to this analysis is the con- 
siderable variability in frequency of mitosis 
in the corneal epithelium, as a result of 
which control or standard values are not 
readily obtained. For these reasons, it 
seemed desirable to collect data of the type 
desired from more suitable material; and 
Dr. J. Gordon Carlson, of the University 
of Alabama, was requested by the National 
Institute of Health to lend his services and 
the tissue-culture method that he had per- 
fected in a more direct attack on the 
problem. 

Dr. Carlson spent the summer months 
at the Department of Genetics on a pre- 
liminary study of the effects of ultraviolet 
radiation of wave length 2537 A on the 
neuroblast cells of the grasshopper, Chorto- 
phaga viridifasciata. These cells can be 
grown in artificial culture medium, where 
they can be kept under continuous ob- 
servation with the microscope; they are 
sufficiently large so that all stages of mitosis 
can be recognized and studied; and they 
are situated on the surface of the embryo, 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS j.j 

so that the ultraviolet rays enter them matrix. Evidence from ultraviolet treat- 
without loss through absorption by over- ment supports this concept in two respects, 
lying tissues. During treatment the left First, the well formed chromosomes of 
half of each embryo was shielded to serve late prophase, if irradiated just before 
as the control. Counts were made of the breakdown of the nuclear membrane, are 
numbers of neuroblasts passing through gradually supplanted by groups of small 
metaphase and anaphase in both the con- granules resembling nucleoli. These subse- 
trol and the irradiated side of the embryo quently disappear as the chromatin threads 
during the 6-hour period beginning with re-form. Second, the fully developed chro- 
treatment, and the effects were expressed mosomes, if treated after the breakdown 
as the ratio of the treated to the control of the nuclear membrane, develop many 
numbers. At an intensity of no ergs per small nucleolus-like bodies at telophase 
square centimeter per second this ratio is instead of the two larger nucleoli typical 
0.97, 0.76, 0.61, and 0.58 for exposures of of the untreated cell. These changes sug- 
7.5, 15, 60, and 240 seconds, respectively, gest that the ultraviolet affects the nucleoli 
Experiments on the effects of fractionated indirectly through the matrix of the chro- 
treatment and of treatments at different mosome. If the cell is in interphase or 
intensities are still incomplete; but present prophase, however, at the time of treat- 
results suggest that within certain limits ment, the two nucleoli are gradually trans- 
these factors are less important than the formed from their normal irregular, dif- 
total dosage. fuse, granular form into highly refractile, 

The mitotic effect of ultraviolet radiation regular spherules. This change, which is 

is similar to that of X radiation, in that reversible, reaches a maximum of develop- 

the number of metaphases and anaphases ment less than an hour after a 2-minute 

decreases rapidly after treatment because treatment. 

of a blocking of cells in prophase. It differs Radiation experiments with Neurospora. 

strikingly from the X-ray effect, however, Studies on the effects of ultraviolet and X 

in the absence of a compensatory period radiation in inducing mutations in Neuro- 

after recovery, the number of metaphases spora crassa have been continued by Mrs. 

and anaphases never rising significantly Sansome, Dr. Demerec, and Miss Zimmer, 

above the normal. This result is probably in collaboration with Dr. Hollaender. This 

due to distribution of the effect over a fungus has the disadvantage that, because 

considerable portion of the prophase and of its rapid spreading growth, the number 

possibly even interphase stages, and the of spores that can be isolated in each 

resulting failure of abnormally large num- experiment is limited. It has the great 

bers of cells to accumulate in a limited advantage, however, of being amenable to 

blocked stage. genetical analysis; the variants produced 

Changes are also produced in the nu- may be tested genetically, and the results 
cleoli. These are a pair of nuclear bodies obtained may be used as a check on other 
that develop during the reconstitution of fungi which do not have a sexual stage 
the nucleus at telophase. Normally they and therefore cannot themselves be sub- 
form at a distal constriction on one of the jected to genetical test, 
larger pair of chromosomes. Since they In the ultraviolet work, experiments were 
arise as the matrix of the chromosome continued with the wave length 2650 A, 
disappears, they are often looked upon as which had been shown to be that most 
accumulations of a material from the effective in producing mutations. Two 



142 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



repeat experiments confirmed the low 
effectiveness of wave length 2280. Two 
experiments with 2937 gave results inter- 
mediate between those for 2280 and those 
for 2650. In six out of eight experiments, 
the percentage of mutants reached a peak 
at a certain energy level and dropped with 
increase of energy. The peak occurred at 
approximately the same energy level in 
each experiment, but the height of the 
peak varied from experiment to experi- 
ment. The decline in the mutation rate is 
associated with low survival rate. One 
particular F1+ line consistently gave low 
mutation rates and failed to give the char- 
acteristic curve. It is thought that the shape 
of the mutation curve and the fact that 
spore samples differ in their actual muta- 
tion rate may be caused by the spores' 
being heterogeneous in their response to 
ultraviolet radiation. It is possible that 
spores differ in their capacity to absorb 
ultraviolet radiation, or that the nuclear 
response differs at different stages. A num- 
ber of the ultraviolet-induced mutants are 
being tested to determine the frequency of 
mutants having more than one induced 
change. Preliminary investigations indi- 
cate that 15 out of 39 cases tested may be 
such mutants. This extremely high co- 
incidence of mutations tends to confirm 
the supposition that the spores are hetero- 
geneous in their response to ultraviolet 
radiation. 

Further X-radiation experiments using 
a wave length of 0.3 A were made. There 
was a possibility that mutant spores might 
differ from normal in their times of germi- 
nation or in their survival value, in such 
a way that the proportions of mutants to 
normals might vary according to whether 
early- or late-germinating spores were 
taken. Accordingly, spores isolated on the 
first day of germination were kept sepa- 
rate from those isolated on the second and 
third days, and the mutation rates of the 



two groups were compared. There was 
no significant difference between the per- 
centages of mutants in early- and in late- 
germinating spores. This has considerable 
practical importance, since it means that 
the mutation rate may be established from 
samples of spores taken at any convenient 
time; it is not necessary to isolate all the 
spores that germinate on a particular set 
of plates. 

The results obtained from different dos- 
ages at low intensity (about 240 roentgens 
per minute) are given below. The differ- 
ence in dosage was effected by varying 
the time of exposure. 



Dosage (r) 

° v ' survivors 

Control 810 

2,250 723 

4,500 421 

9,000 677 

13,500 ••••• 592 

18,000 640 

22,500 204 

31,500 325 



Per cent 
mutants 

0.6 
2.8 
5.0 
6.2 

74 
10.6 
16.7 
24.6 



The rise in mutation rate with increased 
dosage approximates a linear increase. 
There is no drop in the rate above a cer- 
tain dosage point, as in the case of ultra- 
violet-irradiated spores. The survival ratio 
is difficult to determine in Neurospora be- 
cause of the rapid growth of the early- 
germinating spores. Moreover, X-radiation 
treatment somewhat accelerates the germi- 
nation of the spores, so that the survival 
ratio cannot be determined by sampling 
the control and irradiated spores at definite 
times; all the spores that germinate on a 
particular plate must be recorded. Never- 
theless it has been established that, even 
at 31,500 r, about half the spores survive 
the treatment as compared with the num- 
ber of control survivors. Since it was de- 
sired to increase the dosage until an appre- 
ciable amount of killing was obtained, still 
higher dosages were given. For these it 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



143 



was necessary to use higher intensity than 
can conveniently be delivered by our in- 
strument; and we are indebted to Mr. L. D. 
Marinelli and Dr. R. S. Anderson, of the 
Biophysics Department of the Memorial 
Hospital, New York, for giving the high- 
intensity treatments. 

The results of the high-intensity (5400 r 
per minute) irradiations are as follows: 

T-. / n Total Per cent 

Dosage (r) 

survivors mutants 

Control 527 0.2 

15,750 657 14.3 

22,500 274 24.8 

31,500 772 31.5 

6 3,ooo 32 53.3 

126,000 51 78.5 

It can be seen that the mutation rate con- 
tinues to increase with increased dosage. 
Moreover, the mutation rate in the high- 
intensity experiments is approximately 
linear, although it is appreciably higher 
than in the low-intensity experiments. At 
63,000 r the survival rate is about 2.5 per 
cent and at 126,000 r about 0.01 per cent of 
that of the control. At these dosages the 
mutation rate continues to increase. There- 
fore, there is no drop in the mutation rate 
associated with a low survival rate, such 
as was observed in the ultraviolet experi- 
ments. 

The results indicate that an increased 
mutation rate may be associated with high 
intensity. It is hoped to test whether this 
is indeed the case or whether the difference 
in results obtained from the treatments 
given at Cold Spring Harbor and at Me- 
morial Hospital is due to some other cause. 

The Lindegrens' observation that crosses 
between X-ray-induced mutants and a 
normal standard line tend to be more 
sterile than control crosses was confirmed 
last year. Further investigation has shown 
that such sterility is found in crosses in- 
volving phenotypically normal cultures 
. from treated spores as well as those involv- 



ing visible mutants, but that the percentage 
of sterile types is much higher in the 
mutants. Since sterility is to a large extent 
caused by chromosomal aberrations, our 
observations indicate a correlation between 
visible mutants and chromosome aberra- 
tions. The percentage of sterile types is 
greater at high than at low intensity, and 
increases with dosage. The correlation be- 
tween visible mutants and sterility appears 
to rise with increases in dosage and in- 
tensity; but further data are needed to test 
this point. The correlation between visible 
mutants and chromosomal aberrations is 
in agreement with the apparent intensity 
effect, since it has been shown in Trades- 
cantia that high intensity increases the 
number of aberrations. 

It is planned to make further experi- 
ments on the correlation between sterility 
and visible mutants, and in particular to 
obtain, if possible, the mutation rate for 
mutants not associated with sterility. It 
seems probable that the apparently simple 
linear X-ray dosage curve is, in reality, 
composed of two curves: one of mutants 
associated with chromosomal aberrations, 
the other of mutants independent of such 
aberrations. 

Neutron experiments. The results of the 
neutron experiment on Drosophila by Dr. 
Fano mentioned in Year Book No. 41 can 
now be discussed, since cytological analysis 
of the salivary-gland preparations has been 
completed by Dr. Sutton. Out of 62 X 
chromosomes that carried sex-linked lethals 
induced by neutron treatment, 25 (i.e., 40 
per cent) had. a rearrangement in the same 
chromosomal region in which the lethal 
was located. None of the lethals had a 
readily detectable deficiency. The fre- 
quency of association of lethals and rear- 
rangements appears to be much higher in 
neutron-treated than in any other material, 
when the various special circumstances of 
this and other experiments are considered. 



Iaa CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

This finding is not unexpected, since there intensities. Extensive experimental and 
is evidence to indicate that neutrons, as a theoretical investigations along this line 
rule, produce fewer gene mutations and have not yet supplied crucial information 
more (or at least not fewer) chromosomal on the course of recovery. While develop- 
rearrangements than energetically similar ing a mathematical formulation of the 
doses of X rays. effect of the time-intensity factor on X- 
The demonstration that the proportion ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in 
of lethals associated with rearrangements Tradescantia, Mr. L. D. Marinelli, of 
can be as high as 40 per cent when the Memorial Hospital, concluded that frac- 
total frequency of lethals is 6 per cent tionation experiments, consisting of two 
increases the difficulty of interpreting an high-intensity irradiations separated by a 
already difficult situation. There are two variable intermission, ought to be better 
types of sex-linked lethal, both of which are suited than continuous irradiations to in- 
detected by the C1B method; namely, gene vestigation of the time factor. Dr. Fano 
mutations and chromosomal rearrange- joined the investigations at this point. Fur- 
ments. It is generally assumed that the ther consideration indicated that Marinelli's 
first of these is induced at a rate propor- suggestion has general significance. The 
tional to the radiation dosage, and the course of recovery may be followed most 
second at a rate approximately propor- easily in fractionation experiments, because 
tional to the square of the dosage. How, radiation can be delivered in a short time 
then, can the sum of the two components during which recovery is negligible, and 
be actually proportional to the radiation recovery takes place during the inter- 
dosage, especially when the quantitative mission without having its effect masked 
contribution of the second component is or interfered with by continuing irradia- 
not negligible? No satisfactory hypothesis tion. A method was developed showing 
has yet been found to explain this dis- how the results of fractionation experi- 
crepancy. ments should be combined to calculate 

an index of recovery, and how special 

Radiation Theory tests can ^ designed to determine the 

The time-intensity factor. In many radio- complexity of the recovery process. Con- 
biological (genetic and nongenetic) re- siderations of this type have led to a more 
actions, the effect of a given dosage of comprehensive point of view with refer- 
radiation depends on the "time-intensity ence to various radiobiological theories 
factor"; that is, it is a direct function of previously proposed. 

the intensity ("intensity effect"), and is Genetic action of X rays by means of 
lower when the treatment is intermittent large ion clusters. It is widely believed 
than when it is continuous, provided the that the absence of any wave-length effect 
intensity remains the same ("fractionation in the genetic action of X rays proves that 
effect"). This phenomenon has been the this action is produced by single ioniza- 
object of considerable attention, inasmuch tions or by small ion clusters, such as com- 
as it might furnish important clues to the monly occur along the paths of photo- or 
process of recovery of the biological mate- Compton electrons in tissue. This belief, 
rial from the action of radiation. The in- however, relies on the assumption that 
tensity effects have been determined by large clusters of ionizations are mainly due 
comparing the results of continuous irra- to the condensation of many small clusters 
diations with constant dose and different occurring by chance at very short distances 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



145 



from one another. This assumption is in- 
correct, because a large cluster is more 
likely to occur as a single unit, owing to 
exceptionally close approach of the path to 
one particular atomic electron. This argu- 
ment has been used recently by Lea and 
Catcheside in an attempt to explain the 
quantitative data on the effects of various 
radiations on Tradescantia chromosomes. 
They calculated that clusters of approxi- 
mately 20 ionizations ought to be most 
effective in breaking chromosomes. Their 
work, however, did not include a quanti- 
tative evaluation of the frequency of oc- 
currence of large ion clusters. An approxi- 
mate evaluation has been provided by Dr. 
Fano through an application of existing 
theories of the impact of fast electrons 
against atoms and molecules. He calcu- 
lated that 1 r of X rays produces approxi- 
mately o.i« clusters (of n or more ioniza- 
tions) per cubic micron. This calculation 
lends additional support to the theory 
proposed by Lea and Catcheside. 

Ionization yield of radiation energy. The 
dosimetry of most radiobiological experi- 
ments rests on the fact that the number 
of ions produced by radiation in an air 
chamber may be taken as an indirect meas- 
ure of the number of ions produced and 
of the total amount of energy spent by 
radiation per unit volume in tissue. This 
method depends largely upon the follow- 
ing experimental result: Calling V the 
amount of radiation energy absorbed by a 
certain volume of a substance, and P the 
number of ionizations produced within it, 
the ratio z — V/P (that is, the average 
energy spent per ion pair produced) is 
generally of the order of magnitude of 30 
electron-volts, whatever the ionizing radia- 
tion used and the substance absorbing it. 
In particular, the values of z found for 
different substances show no general corre- 
lation with the energy / actually required 
to ionize one individual molecule of the 



substance. For instance, z is slightly lower 
for He than for H2, even though / is 50 
per cent greater for He than for H 2 . Pre- 
vious calculations of the physical action of 
ionizing radiations do not account for this 
fact, but on the contrary predict that z 
should be approximately proportional to /. 
Dr. Fano has given a qualitative explana- 
tion of this disagreement. The average 
energy z is always greater than /, because 
a part of the radiation energy is spent for 
other purposes than ionization. Most of 
the energy thus "wasted" goes into excita- 
tion of optical levels. In order to explain 
how / may be especially large for a par- 
ticular substance without bringing about a 
correspondingly large value of c, one must 
show that the "waste" of energy z — I is 
especially small in that substance. This 
end seems to be achieved through the 
following findings : (a) Accurate informa- 
tion available for the three characteristic 
atoms H, He, and Li shows that their 
aptitude for undergoing optical excitation, 
rather than ionization, and hence the prob- 
able "waste" of energy when radiation 
acts upon them, is approximately in inverse 
ratio to the value of /. (b) Qualitative 
discussion of quantum mechanical proper- 
ties of atoms and molecules indicates that 
this correlation between the aptitude for 
undergoing excitation and the value of / 
probably has general significance, and thus 
applies to most, if not all, substances, (c) 
These quantum mechanical properties of 
atoms and molecules have been implicitly 
disregarded in previous calculations of the 
action of ionizing radiations, because of 
certain simplifications made in those cal- 
culations; hence arose the disagreement 
with experimental facts. 

Chromosome Breakage and 
Recombination 

Breaks may be induced in the chromo- 
somes of mature sperm of Drosophila by 



13 



146 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



exposing adult males to X radiation. The biological analysis has been carried out by 
potential breaks so induced are not uti- Dr. Kaufmann; and Dr. Hollaender has 
lized in the formation of new chromosomal supervised the treatment with ultraviolet 
arrangements, such as inversions and re- and near infrared rays, 
ciprocal translocations, until after the sperm As reported in Year Book No. 41, ex- 
has entered the egg (see Year Book No. posure of X-rayed males for extended pe- 
39). Since irradiated males may be kept riods of time to near infrared radiation 
for several days before copulation, a con- results in an appreciable decrease in the 
siderable period of time is available be- frequency of detectable chromosomal re- 
tween irradiation and fertilization for arrangements as compared with the con- 
efforts to alter experimentally the recom- trols. When, however, females were ex- 
bination capacity of the broken ends of the posed to near infrared radiation for periods 
sperm chromosomes. The induced rear- ranging from 72 to 216 hours after in- 
rangements are detected by analysis of the semination by males that had been treated 
salivary glands of the larval progeny of with 4000 r of X rays, there was a much 
the irradiated fathers. The percentage of smaller decrease in break frequency with 
glands showing rearrangements, and the increasing exposure. Further analysis of 
nature of the rearrangements, were deter- data obtained following infrared treatment 
mined in earlier experiments for several of X-rayed males suggests that reduction 
X-ray dosage levels. For instance, at 4000 r in the number of detectable chromosomal 
about 29 per cent of the glands reveal chro- breaks may not be attributable solely to 
mosomal aberrations, and about 83 breaks "healing" or incapacitation of broken ends, 
occur in every 100 treated sperms. Any but that prolonged exposure to the near 
post-irradiation treatment that prevents the infrared rays may accelerate the rate at 
broken ends from forming new combina- which germ cells that were immature and 
tions should give appreciably lower values not affected by X-ray treatment are con- 
than those of the X-ray controls, and any verted into mature sperm. In either case, 
treatment that fosters recombination should the proportion of normal sperms trans- 
produce either a greater proportion of al- ferred in copulation will be increased, and 
tered sperms or more complex rearrange- the frequency of detectable rearrangements 
ments. The first experiments along these found among the Fi salivary-gland chro- 
lines, made by Dr. Kaufmann and Dr. mosomes will be correspondingly lowered. 
Hollaender, were outlined in Year Book Other males were exposed to ultraviolet 
No. 41. radiation of wave length 2537 A after 
In continuation of this work, two types X-ray treatment of 4000 r. Only 10 males 
of experiment were designed. Efforts were could be exposed simultaneously to the 
made, first, to modify the potential breaks ultraviolet, so that small numbers of prog- 
produced by X rays in the quiescent chro- eny were obtained in each experiment and 
mosomes of the sperm by further treat- variability from experiment to experiment 
ment of the adult males containing these was considerable. The over-all effect, ob- 
sperms, and, second, to alter the capacity tained from an analysis of 289 pairs of 
of broken ends to recombine by varying glands, was a slight reduction from the 
the temperature during the period when 4000-r control value in the percentage of 
the male pronucleus is being organized altered sperms (to 23 per cent), and a 
and its chromosomes are presumably of- much greater decrease (to 58 per cent) in 
fered opportunities for establishing new the frequency of breaks. This latter effect 
combinations. In this work the extensive was brought about largely through elimi- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



W 



nation of the more complex rearrange- 
ments. It has been suggested by C. P. 
Swanson that ultraviolet radiation of wave 
length 2537 A has a pronounced effect on 
the matrix materials of the plant chromo- 
some; and some such disturbance may 
occur in Drosophila, although work with 
various other wave lengths will be neces- 
sary to check this hypothesis. 

Efforts to affect the recombination prop- 
erties of broken chromosome ends during 
the time of organization of the male pro- 
nucleus involved exposure of the insemi- 
nated females to incubator temperatures 
of either 18 ° or 28 ° C, or to the heating 
effects of the .near infrared rays. The 
complete data from these experiments have 
not been assembled; but analysis of about 
150 pairs of glands obtained after each 
type of treatment shows that both the 
near infrared and the 28 ° temperature 
give percentages of altered sperms and 
total breaks slightly higher than the con- 
trols, whereas the frequency of breaks at 
the 1 8° temperature is somewhat lower. 
Since all cultures of flies were raised under 
similar conditions following the period of 
egg-laying, it would seem that the higher 
temperatures facilitate those chromosome 
movements that lead to the production of 
contacts between the broken ends of the 
chromosomes. 

The discovery by Dr. Kaufmann, re- 
ported in Year Book No. 41, of an ex- 
ceedingly complex X-ray-induced chromo- 
somal rearrangement involving at least 32 
breaks has led to a revision of previous 
ideas concerning the mechanism of induc- 
tion of complex rearrangements in Dro- 
sophila sperms. This mechanism is known 
to involve two stages: in the first stage, 
at the time of irradiation, sperm chromo- 
somes are broken, actually or potentially; 
but the recombination of broken fragments 
to form a "rearranged" chromosomal com- 
plement occurs as a second stage, at the 
time of fertilization, when the male pro- 



nucleus begins to open up in the egg. For 
the sake of simplicity, it has heretofore 
been assumed that, whereas the first stage 
is characterized by the active influence of 
radiation, recombination is substantially a 
passive phenomenon; specifically, that the 
rejoining of one or more pairs of broken 
ends during recombination does not affect 
the fate of other broken ends except by 
reducing the number of broken ends avail- 
able for further recombination. 

It was pointed out by Dr. Fano at the 
1941 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium that 
the relative frequency of simple and com- 
plex rearrangements cannot easily be recon- 
ciled with this assumption. In his opinion, 
Dr. Kaufmann's discovery now furnishes 
additional and decisive grounds for dis- 
carding the assumption and investigating 
the implications of the existing evidence 
on complex rearrangements. This investi- 
gation cannot proceed through unequivocal 
logical deductions, but the conclusions 
reached indicate that breaks become more 
readily available to take part in a rearrange- 
ment after the rearrangement begins to 
develop from other breaks. The simplest 
possible mechanism that can be postulated 
to explain this circumstance is the follow- 
ing: A large number of potential breaks 
is produced by the usual X-ray treatment; 
each break has a chance of healing that is 
originally large but that can be substan- 
tially lessened by some mechanical per- 
turbation (e.g., a pull along a chromosome) 
arising after fertilization when a rearrange- 
ment happens to be started by two other 
breaks. The possibility that some of the 
breaks involved in complex rearrangements 
are not produced initially by radiation, but 
arise as secondary effects due to recombi- 
nation of other breaks, should also be con- 
sidered, in view of the fact that the relative 
frequency of simple and complex rear- 
rangements changes little with increasing 
radiation dosage. 



148 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



MAIZE GENETICS 

Barbara McClintock 



Studies with Broken Chromosomes 

For several years, the behavior of chro- 
mosomes having a single broken end has 
been investigated. In all cases, the original 
break was induced at meiotic anaphases 
following crossing over between the homo- 
logues of chromosome 9, one of which is 
structurally modified. The primary pur- 
pose of this study was to determine the 
behavior of the broken end in subsequent 
nuclear generations, and this was fulfilled 
in establishing the chromatid type of 
breakage-fusion-bridge cycle in the game- 
tophyte and endosperm tissues and the 
chromosomal type of breakage-fusion- 
bridge cycle in the sporophytic tissues. 
From these studies, material was obtained 
for other investigations, some of which 
were mentioned in last year's report, and 
which have been expanded during the 
year. Several incidental observations aris- 
ing from them will be mentioned. 

To continue these studies, a method of 
producing large numbers of functional 
gametes each containing a chromosome 
with a single, unsaturated broken end 
was desired. This was accomplished by 
partial elimination of the undesirable male 
gametes through differential pollen-tube 
growth which favored grains having a 
chromosome with a broken end. Plants 
that are heterozygous for a normal chro- 
mosome 9 and a chromosome 9 with a 
duplication of the short arm give rise to 
gametes having either a normal chromo- 
some 9, a duplication chromosome 9, or a 
broken chromosome 9 (following a cross- 
over involving the duplicated segment). 
Although cytological observations indicate 
that 18 per cent of the spores carry a broken 
chromosome, only 3.6 per cent are recov- 
ered from the pollen of these plants. Pre- 
sumably because of chromosomal unbal- 



ance, pollen with the duplication does not 
compete well with pollen carrying a normal 
chromosome 9. Consequently, the pollen 
grain that mainly functions carries the 
normal- chromosome 9. If, however, in 
such plants, the normal chromosome 9 
is replaced by a chromosome 9 with a 
non-male-transmissible deficiency, only the 
pollen grains with a duplication or a re- 
cently broken chromosome can function. 
Competitive pollen-tube growth now fa- 
vors those grains which carry a broken 
chromosome 9, because the chromosome 9 
constitution in many of these grains is less 
unbalanced than in those carrying the du- 
plication chromosome. If a large amount 
of pollen from such plants is placed on 
silks, pollen grains carrying broken chro- 
mosomes will function successfully in 75 
to 90 per cent of the cases. This is a 
tremendous increase over the previously 
available 3.6 per cent. These figures are 
based on tests of nearly 30,000 pollen 
grains. 

The chromatid type of breakage-fusion- 
bridge cycle occurring in the gametophyte 
divisions following a meiotic breakage of 
chromosome 9 can result in gametes carry- 
ing various degrees of deficiency and du- 
plication of the short arm of chromosome 
9. Kernels whose embryos have multiple 
duplications of the short arm can be iden- 
tified on a genetic basis. Therefore, many 
individual kernels were isolated and the 
plants arising from them examined. Com- 
parisons of plants that are monosomic, 
disomic, trisomic, tetrasomic, and penta- 
somic for the full short arm of chromo- 
some 9 show no striking changes in growth 
or morphology that could be attributed to 
chromosomal unbalance. 

An unusual type of chromosomal trans- 
location involving chromosome 9, men- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



149 



tioned briefly in last year's report, has con- 
tinued to appear. All such translocations 
were found in plants which had received a 
recently broken chromosome 9 from one 
parent. In all cases, only one translocated 
chromosome was present. It was composed 
of the long arm of chromosome 9 and a 
single arm of another chromosome of the 
complement, united at their centromere 
regions. The short arm of chromosome 9 
and the complementary arm of the second 
chromosome were missing. The frequency 
and complete similarity in all cases of this 
unusual type of translocation suggest a 
particular type of action on the part of the 
chromosome 9 that is undergoing the 
breakage-fusion-bridge cycle. This cycle 
frequently produces a telocentric chromo- 
some composed of the long arm of chro- 
mosome 9. The hypothesis is suggested 
that the newly produced terminal centro- 
mere fuses with a centromere of any one of 
the other chromosomes of the complement. 
This configuration eventually results in the 
elimination of one chromosome arm of the 
tripartite complex. 

In last year's report, the identification of 
kernels that had received a chromosome 
with a single broken end from each gamete 
nucleus was described. Twenty such ker- 
nels were sown, and the seedlings arising 
from half of these showed that fusion had 
occurred between the two broken ends 
contributed by each gamete nucleus. In 
the remaining 10 plants, no evidence of 
such fusions was seen. To interpret more 
adequately the subsequent behavior of 
these two chromosomes, a larger sample 
was desired. Through the improved 
method of obtaining functional male 
gametes whose nuclei contain a chromo- 
some 9 with a single broken end, several 
hundred kernels of the desired type were 
readily obtained. Among 138 such kernels 
selected for testing, 108 produced seedlings. 
The embryos in the remaining 30 were 



morphologically aberrant and were unable 
to grow. Among the 108 viable plants 
arising from these kernels, 72 gave evi- 
dence of fusion between the broken ends 
of the chromosomes 9 contributed by the 
two gametes. No evidence of such fusion 
was obtained from the remaining 36 plants. 
This does not mean that no fusions had oc- 
curred, for the subsequent behavior of 
the dicentric chromosome arising from 
such fusions could quickly nullify all evi- 
dence of fusion in the later nuclear divi- 
sions, which are the ones examined for 
this evidence. The behavior of the dicen- 
tric chromosome follows two main courses. 
During nuclear division, the two centro- 
meres of each dicentric chromatid may 
pass to opposite poles in a spindle figure, 
producing two contiguous chromatin 
bridges stretched between the poles. When 
rupture of these two bridges occurs dur- 
ing late anaphase or early telophase, two 
newly broken ends enter each sister telo- 
phase nucleus. Fusion may then occur 
between these broken ends, re-establishing 
the dicentric chromosome condition and 
the chromosomal type of breakage-fusion- 
bridge cycle. 

The second course that the dicentric 
chromosome may follow results in absence 
of fusion between the two broken ends in 
the nuclei that arise following the forma- 
tion of such anaphase bridges. These two 
broken ends, which are observed in the 
nuclei of later generations, are perma- 
nently healed; for no subsequent fusions 
occur. Observational evidence strongly 
suggests that the healing process may be 
related to the nuclear cycle; that is, if a 
recently broken (unsaturated) end enters 
a telophase nucleus and has no other un- 
saturated end with which it may fuse, it 
will "heal" and become saturated or in- 
capable of fusion during the period from 
telophase to the following prophase or dur- 
ing the reproductive cycle of the chromo- 



150 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



some. The evidence leading to such an 
interpretation derives from the frequent 
observation of sister nuclei that are con- 
nected by a single chromatin bridge dur- 
ing late telophase and interphase. This 
would result if only one of the two con- 
tiguous bridges were ruptured during ana- 
phase or early telophase. In that case, a 
single bridge would connect the two sister 
nuclei, and only one unsaturated broken 
end would have entered each nucleus. It 
is known that in sporophytic tissues such 
a single broken end will heal. If the single 
chromatin bridge connecting the two 
nuclei is not broken until the following 
prophase, the single unsaturated broken 
end within each nucleus may have healed. 
The second broken end, which will enter 
each nucleus following eventual rupture of 
the hitherto persistent bridge, may then 
have no unsaturated end with which it 
may fuse. It, in turn, will heal. The di- 
centric chromosome cycle is terminated 
and each nucleus has two broken ends, 
which, however, are saturated and incapa- 
ble of further fusions. The nature of the 
healing process is not known; if, as this 
evidence suggests, it is related to the 
chromosome division cycle, experiments 
should be focused on this period. 

Tests of the Amount of Crossing Over 

That May Occur within Small 

Segments of a Chromosome 

Previous investigations have placed the 
locus of the mutant yg-2 within the ter- 
minal chromomere of the short arm of 
chromosome 9. Rhoades had determined 
that the mutant Dt is located 7 crossover 
units beyond yg-2. This suggests that a 
relatively high percentage of crossing over 
must occur within a minute distal segment 
of the chromosome. To obtain some evi- 
dence on the amounts of crossing over that 
may occur within specific small regions, 



the following method was used. Plants 
were made heterozygous for terminal defi- 
ciencies of the short arm of chromosome 9. 
The extent of the deficiencies ranged from 
loss of the terminal chromomere to loss of 
four chromomeres. The normal chromo- 
some 9 carried the recessive mutant c, and 
the deficient chromosome the allele C (C, 
colored aleurone; c, colorless aleurone). 
C is located within the fifth or sixth 
chromomere from the end of the short arm 
of chromosome 9. When pollen of such 
plants is placed on silks of plants homozy- 
gous for c, only the pollen grains carrying 
the normal chromosome 9 will function. 
Therefore, any C kernel that appears is the 
result of a crossover in the segment be- 
tween the locus of C and the end of the 
deficient chromosome. The proportion of 
C to c kernels is thus a direct measure of 
the amount of crossing over that occurs 
within this segment. As the deficiency be- 
comes shorter, the proportion of C to c 
kernels increases. The difference may be 
ascribed to the increasing length of the seg- 
ment in which crossing over may occur. 
Since the increase of each segment is 
known, the amount of crossing over as- 
cribable to this increment may be deter- 
mined. The 11 deficiencies tested have 
been placed in five groups of descending 
order of length. Cytological observations 
of the exact position of a break that gives 
rise to a terminal deficiency are extremely 
difficult, because of the minute size of the 
chromomeres. Any one deficiency, placed 
in a particular size group, may be plus or 
minus a small part of a chromomere. 

The table on page 151 shows that as 
the segment in which crossing over is 
measured becomes progressively longer, 
marked increases in crossing over occur. 
Toward the end of the series, an increase 
of half a chromomere may increase the 
crossover units by 10. Thus, if yg-2 is lo- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



151 



cated toward the middle of the terminal 
chromomere, the location of Dt seven cross- 



Deficiency 


Per cent 

crossing 

over 


No. of 

kernels 

examined 


Deficient for 4 chromomeres: 
df 1297A-2 


0.016 

0.052 

0.52 

0.72 

0.94 

1.25 

3.07 

8.33 

17.06 
21.1 


6130 


df 1278A-4 


1923 


df 1501A 


5748 


df 1559B-2 


1333 


df 1463-2 


9743 


Deficient for 3 chromomeres: 
df 1265 


5830 


Deficient for 2 chromomeres: 
df 1533A 


8791 


Deficient for \j4 chromomeres: 
df 1507 


4566 


Deficient for 1 chromomere: 
df 1509 


3826 


df 1512D-2 


1639 







over units beyond yg-2 is not necessarily 
cytologically inconsistent. Since the nor- 
mal amount of crossing over between C and 
yg-2 is only 19 per cent, it is highly probable 
that crossing over toward the tip of this 
arm is considerably more frequent per unit 
physical length than in other parts of the 
arm. 

Deficiency Mutations: Progressive 

Deficiency as a Cause of 

Allelic Series 

During the past year, major emphasis 
has been placed on expanding the studies 
of mutations associated with small ter- 
minal deficiencies of the short arm of 
chromosome 9. All such deficiencies origi- 
nate from chromosomes that are broken 
during meiosis, as was explained earlier in 
this report. The short arm of the normal 
chromosome 9 terminates in a knob. A 
relatively thin chromatic thread connects 
this knob with the first distinct chromo- 
mere of the short arm. If a break occurs 
adjacent to the distal part of this first 
chromomere, a chromosome 9 deficient for 



the "stalk" of the knob results. Gametes 
having this deficiency are completely func- 
tional. Embryos homozygous for this de- 
ficiency are normal; but the seedlings, 
although normal in growth rate and 
morphology, are pale yellow and incapable 
of continued growth because of the defec- 
tive chlorophyll condition. Because newly 
produced broken chromosomes 9 can be 
obtained in large numbers, this deficiency 
mutant has been produced repeatedly and 
independently in unrelated strains when- 
ever the short arm of chromosome 9 is sub- 
jected to breakage, regardless of the method 
that produces this breakage. Seven unre- 
lated and independently produced defi- 
ciency pale-yellow mutants have been 
selected for intensive study. When the 
stalk of the knob and approximately half 
of the terminal chromomere of the short 
arm of chromosome 9 is removed during 
breakage, the male and female gametes 
containing this deficient chromosome are 
functional. In the homozygous condition, 
this deficiency produces not pale-yellow 
but white seedlings. These seedlings are 
dwarfed, although their general morpho- 
logical development appears to be normal. 
As with the pale-yellow mutants, the white- 
seedling mutants have occurred repeatedly 
in the progeny of independently produced 
broken chromosomes. Six of these mutants 
have been isolated for intensive study. 

The allelic relations of all these mutants 
are being tested. Of the 21 possible combi- 
nations of the 7 pale-yellow mutants, 13 
have been tested. Complete allelomorphism 
has been observed with all 13. Although 
tests of all individual combinations have 
not been completed, the types of combina- 
tion that have been tested indicate complete 
allelism of all 7 mutants. These tests indi- 
cate that all pale-yellow deficiency mutants 
are similar in their character expression. 
Combinations to test the allelic relations of 
the white mutants have been made, but the 



152 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



seedling tests have been completed on only 
3 of the 15 possible combinations. In these 
3 cases white seedlings appeared, indicating 
the allelic nature of the whites. The pale- 
yellow mutants have been combined with 
the white mutants. Of the 42 possible com- 
binations, 14 have been tested. All 14 com- 
binations gave rise to pale-yellow seedlings 
identical in appearance with the homozy- 
gous pale-yellow mutant type. The com- 
binations so far tested have established this 
relationship for 5 of the 6 white mutants. 
It may be concluded, therefore, that the 
deficiency pale-yellow mutants are com- 
pletely dominant to the deficiency white 
mutants. 

Previous investigations had suggested 
that the well known and frequently used 
recessive mutant yg-2 (yellow-green plants) 
has its locus within the terminal chromo- 
mere of the short arm of chromosome 9. 
To determine the relation between yg-2 
and these deficiency mutants, crosses have 
been made with all 13 deficiency mutants. 
Combinations of 6 of the 7 pale-yellow 
mutants with yg-2 have been tested. In all 
6 cases, only normal green seedlings were 
produced. The deficiency pale-yellow mu- 
tant and yg-2 are not allelic. Combinations 
of the deficiency white mutants with yg-2 
gave entirely different results. Although 
only 3 of the 6 combinations have been 
tested, all 3 combinations gave rise to yg-2 
plants. This indicates the allelic relations 
of the deficiency white mutants and yg-2. 
Yellow-green-2 is dominant over deficiency 
white. 

The combined results throw an interest- 
ing light on the nature of one form of 
allelism which would be puzzling to in- 
terpret if the cytology were not known. 
The cytological analysis allows a logical 
interpretation to be made. The allelic 



relationships may be represented by two 
series of descending order of dominance: 

1 . Normal green — > pale-yellow — > white 

2. Normal green —> yg-2 — > white 

Although the two series have a mutant in 
common, pale-yellow X yg-2 gives only 
normal green plants. 

The interpretation of progressive defi- 
ciency will explain these results completely. 
Normal green plants have an unmodified 
chromosome 9, carrying Yg-2. This chro- 
mosome will cover any deficiency in a 
homologue and likewise the recessive mu- 
tant yg-2. The deficiency which produces 
pale-yellow is short and does not include 
the locus of Yg-2. Therefore, the chromo- 
some carrying yg-2 covers the pale-yellow 
deficiency, whereas the deficient pale-yel- 
low chromosome carries the dominant 
allele of yg-2. Thus only normal green 
plants result from this combination. It is 
cytologically obvious that the chromosomes 
9 producing the white mutants have a 
longer deficiency than those producing 
the pale-yellow mutants. If it is assumed 
that the deficiency producing the white 
mutants includes the locus of Yg-2, the 
removal of this locus would allow yg-2 to 
be expressed when the yg-2 chromosome 
is combined with the deficient chromo- 
somes 9 producing the white mutants. 
Only yg-2 will appear, for the chromo- 
some carrying yg-2 will cover the defi- 
ciency present in the chromosome pro- 
ducing the white mutant. Progressive 
deficiency, therefore, will completely ex- 
plain the allelic relations which these 
mutants show with each other and with 

Because newly broken chromosomes 9 
give rise to these same mutants over and 
over again, studies are now in progress to 
determine the "mutation" rates. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



153 



POLYPLOIDY INVESTIGATIONS 



H. E. Warmke and Harriet Davidson 



The work of this laboratory continues to 
be devoted largely to projects related to the 
war effort. These for the most part are 
practical and immediate in nature and 
represent work which, because of our facili- 
ties and training, we are especially qualified 
to undertake. They have been initiated at 
the suggestion of the Department of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Plant Industry, and 
carried on with the active cooperation of 
that Bureau. 

Russian Dandelion 

Our original investigation on this species, 
concerning cytology and breeding be- 
havior, was completed and published dur- 
ing the year. In addition to the studies 
reported last year, it has been found that 
fertilization is extremely rapid, occurring 
some 30 minutes after pollination, and that 
it follows the normal sexual pattern, one 
male nucleus uniting with the egg and one 
with the primary endosperm. Chromo- 
some counts of 2/2 = 16 in the developing 
embryo and 3/2 = 24 in the dividing endo- 
sperm cells verify the reality of the entire 
sexual process. 

Studies on self-sterility were continued, 
and have revealed a high degree of "end- 
season fertility." Many of the greenhouse 
plants, which were protected from insects 
and failed to set selfed seed during the 
spring and summer, set abundant seed in 
November and December. 

Distribution of latex in the root. During 
the year new studies on the Russian dande- 
lion were undertaken at the request of the 
Department of Agriculture. These relate 
to the anatomy of the root, and were 
planned as an aid in sampling roots for 
comparative rubber analysis. In making 
rubber analyses in the various selection 
and breeding programs being carried on 



throughout the country, it is important to 
know whether the part of the root used in 
sampling is of any consequence, and if so 
which part should be used. In the past, 
small samples of 100 to 300 mg. in weight 
have been used, and these often have not 
been chosen with particular care as to 
position. 

A technique was developed in this 
laboratory, using osmic acid as a fixing 
and staining agent, by which the rubber- 
containing latex vessels could be sharply 
differentiated from the parenchyma cells 
in root sections, and the whole preserved 
in permanent mounts. Sections prepared 
in this manner and taken at half-inch in- 
tervals between the crown and tip of the 
root were projected on paper; and with a 
planimeter the total latex area and per- 
centage of latex in each section were calcu- 
lated. The graph shown in figure 2 gives 
average latex percentages for different parts 
of the roots of 12 plants studied in this way. 

In all cases there is a definite and regular 
increase in latex percentage with increase 
in distance from the crown. In many in- 
stances the variation in latex content at 
different levels of a single root exceeds the 
variation between plants. In seeking real 
differences between plants for breeding 
purposes, therefore, the part of the root 
used in sampling is obviously of the great- 
est importance. These data have been 
made available to the Department of Agri- 
culture, together with a recommendation 
that larger samples, covering most of the 
length of the root, be used in chemical 
analyses. 

Polyploidy and rubber content. Our 
studies on experimental polyploidy in the 
dandelion, which had just begun at this 
time last year, are progressing satisfactorily. 
Seeds have been obtained from crosses be- 



i54 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



tween colchicine-treated plants, and from 
these a large number of first-generation 
allopolyploids, including both tetraploids 
and triploids, have been grown. The tetra- 
ploids are strikingly more robust than the 
diploids from which they were derived: 



tance, because among the many reported 
natural polyploid species within the genus 
(triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid), sex- 
ual reproduction has been replaced by a 
type of apomictic development, in which 
an unreduced egg starts development with- 



'5285 




0123456789 
DISTANCE BELOW CROWN 

Fig. 2. The relation of position to latex percentage in 12 roots of the Russian dandelion as 
calculated from area measurements of sections. Solid lines indicate greenhouse plants, and broken 
lines indicate field plants. 



leaves are thicker, greener, and broader, 
and thus present more leaf area for photo- 
synthetic activity. The flowers and flower 
stalks show a corresponding increase in 
dimensions; pollen is good, and the set of 
seed is high. The normal self-sterility and 
sexual behavior of the diploid, however, 
apparently are retained in the experimental 
tetraploids. This is of considerable impor- 



out the stimulus of fertilization. Among 
the experimental plants, however, even the 
I triploids, which are largely sterile because 
of irregular chromosome distribution, fail 
to develop apomictic reproduction. 

Samples of 20 diploid and 20 tetraploid 
roots, of the same age and grown under 
similar conditions, have shown the tetra- 
ploid to be significantly heavier. The fresh 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



155 



tetraploid roots weighed on an average 
10.64 ±0.85 grams, and the fresh diploid 
roots 8.17 ±0.70 grams. Since the root is 
the rubber-bearing organ, this increase in 
weight, if borne out by larger samplings 
and if not accompanied by a corresponding 
decrease in rubber concentration, may be 
of importance in the commercial develop- 
ment of the species. The diploid and tetra- 
ploid root samples have been dried and 
sent to the rubber-testing laboratory at 
Beltsville, Maryland, for accurate compara- 
tive rubber determinations. 

Hemp 

Marihuana studies. Our efforts to pro- 
duce a fiber hemp with low marihuana 
content are continuing. It has been possible 
to accelerate the program by growing a 
second generation in the greenhouse in 
winter in addition to the regular summer 
crop. The previous assay method, utilizing 
Fundulus, which is available only in the 
summer, was adapted to the use of the 
water flea, Daphnia, which can be grown 
in the laboratory the year round. Daphnia 
has other advantages: (1) parthenogenetic 
reproduction provides genetically uniform 
offspring, (2) laboratory culture makes it 
possible to control accurately the ages of 
test animals, and (3) their smaller size 
makes testing of smaller leaf samples prac- 
ticable. These studies using Daphnia in 
the assay of marihuana have been carried 
on in cooperation with Dr. A. M. Banta, of 
Brown University. 

In Year Book No. 41 wide differences in 
the marihuana content of individual plants 
were noted; but whether these were largely 
the result of genetic or of environmental 
variables could not be stated. The summer 
tests, which have just been completed, give 
evidence that marihuana content is influ- 
enced by heredity. 

Ten pedigrees of plants were grown 



from parents selected and intercrossed be- 
cause of low marihuana content, and ten 
pedigrees were grown from parents se- 
lected because of high marihuana content. 
The results of drug determinations on 
these two groups of pedigrees are pre- 
sented graphically in figure 3. The 147 
plants tested from high-marihuana parents 
killed an average of 5.82 ±0.14 animals; 
235 plants from among those having low- 
marihuana parents killed an average of 
only 4.99 ±0.12 animals. This is a signifi- 
cant difference after only one generation of 
selection, and further divergence seems 
likely with continued breeding. 

Of equal importance from a practical 
point of view is the fact that among the 
offspring of low-content parents there were 
22 plants that killed no more than 2 ani- 
mals, whereas among the offspring of high- 
content parents only 2 such plants were 
found; correspondingly, the high pedi- 
grees produced 9 plants that killed 9 or 
more animals, whereas the low pedigrees 
produced no individuals so potent as this. 
These extreme low and high types have 
been isolated and intercrossed, and their 
offspring will be tested during the coming 
winter. 

The fact that the marihuana content is 
higher in plants from the same pedigree 
when grown in the greenhouse than when 
grown out pf doors indicates that environ- 
mental factors also play a role in marihuana 
synthesis and storage. 

Polyploidy in hemp. Reports have been 
received from the Department of Agri- 
culture on comparative fiber yields of the 
original diploid and tetraploid strains sub- 
mitted by this laboratory. These show no 
significant superiority of the tetraploid over 
the diploid. It seems, however, that suffi- 
cient consideration was not given, when 
plantings were made, to the greater weight 
of the tetraploid seed. As a result, tetra- 
ploid test plots had fewer plants per square 



156 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



foot than diploid plots, and may therefore 
have been placed at a disadvantage in yield 
comparisons. For this reason, it is planned 
to submit more samples of diploid and 
tetraploid seed for further yield tests. In 
addition to our original strain, we now 
have three other tetraploid stocks, which 
have been derived from superior fiber 
stocks furnished us by the Department of 
Agriculture. 



diploid offspring from such crosses killed 
an average of 5.53 ±0.27 animals; 10 trip- 
loid offspring killed an average of 6.20 ± 
0.90 animals; and 69 tetraploid offspring 
killed an average of 7.57 ±0.31 animals. 
These results, obtained with substantially 
improved techniques, confirm the greater 
marihuana potency of the polyploid types 
over the diploids, reported in a preliminary 
fashion last year. 



30- 



20 



en 

< 

_l 
Q- 

U. 
O 



a: 
w 10 

CD 

z 



3.0 



6.4 



<*,. 



m° 



1.4 



23.8 



22.1 



10.6 

V/. 



4.7 



17.0 



16.2 

I 



21.1 



20.0 

I 






<& 



n.9 

VTTV 



12.2 



13.6 



9.8 






4.8 



1.4 
£JZL 



3 4 5 6 7 

NUMBER OF ANIMALS KILLED 



10 



Fig. 3. The effect of heredity on marihuana content in hemp, as revealed after one generation 
of selection. Crosshatched bars show distribution of marihuana potencies among 235 offspring of 
selected low-content parents; open bars show marihuana potencies of 147 offspring of selected high- 
content parents. Plants that kill a small number of animals have low potency; those that kill a 
large number of animals have high potency. 



Tests begun last year on the relative 
marihuana content of polyploids of differ- 
ent degree have been continued. Genie 
differences have been reduced to a mini- 
mum by testing diploid, triploid, and tetra- 
ploid plants from the same male and 
female parents. Such stocks were secured 
by intercrossing colchicine-treated plants in 
pairs. Some of these pairs proved to have 
mixed in and 472 germinal tissues, and 
produced the three polyploid types. Ninety 



Polyploidy and Pore Number in 
Microspores 

In the routine examination of the large 
numbers of tetraploid forms produced in 
this laboratory, it has been observed that 
pollen of tetraploids tends to have a larger 
number of germ pores than the pollen of 
corresponding diploids, the increase from 
three to four germ pores being especially 
common. A few four-pored grains are 
normally found in the pollen of diploids, 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



157 



and it has been the opinion of various 
workers that this increase in pore number 
results from a different arrangement of 
the four microspores within the wall of 
the microspore mother cell. It has been 
postulated that the three germ pores result 
from a tetrahedral arrangement of the 
spores in the tetrad, and that the four- 
pored condition results from a square or 
rhomboidal arrangement. 

It seemed of interest — in this polyploid 
material, where the diploid may have as 
little as 1 per cent four-pored pollen and 
the tetraploid as high as 90 per cent, as in 



Nicotiana langsdorffii — to observe the ar- 
rangement of microspores in the tetrad, 
and to determine whether the increase 
in pore number is accompanied by a corre- 
sponding increase in the number of square 
and rhomboidal tetrad arrangements. Pre- 
liminary studies by Dr. Kaeiser indicate 
that there is not sufficient difference in the 
arrangement of spores within the tetrads 
of the tetraploid to account for more than 
a fraction of the four-pored pollen grains 
observed, and suggest that factors other 
than tetrad arrangement are of importance 
in determining germ-pore number. 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND HUMAN GENETICS 

Morris Steggerda and Hilda H. Wheeler 



Anthropometry 

Navajo Indians: adults. Measurements 
of body dimensions were taken on 150 
adult male and 100 adult female Navajo 
Indians living on the reservation in Arizona 
and New Mexico. These are compared 
with measurements on Maya Indians of 
Yucatan, Negroes of the British West In- 
dies, and Dutch whites of Holland, Michi- 
gan, all groups on which Dr. Steggerda 
has made similar studies. The average age 
of the Navajos studied is 24.5 years for the 
males, with a range from 18 to 60, and 22 
years for the females, who ranged from 18 
to 50. Most of the individuals were young 
adults, but all had attained full stature. 
The results are given in the accompanying 
table. 

The means for stature are close to a 
weighted average for Athapascans in gen- 
eral (a linguistic group to which the Nava- 
jos belong; see Steggerda, Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington Publication 434), 
namely, 169.7 cm. and 156.6 cm. for males 
and females respectively. Hrdlicka, in his 
study on Indians of the southwestern 
United States and northern Mexico, gives 



Means and probable errors for six dimensions 
of adult Navajo Indians 



Dimension 


Males 


Females 


Stature (cm.) 


168.04±0.28 


155.50±0.31 


Weight (kg.) 


59.51±0.39 


53.66±0.42 


Relative chest 






girth (%) 


53.04±0.16 


53.24±0.20 


Relative sitting 






height (%) 


52.75±0.06 


53.31±0.08 


Relative span (%) . 


103.98±0.13 


102.85±0.13 


Cephalic index (%) 


85.31±0.22 


85.32±0.32 



means of 168.6 and 156.8 for a small num- 
ber of Apaches and Navajos grouped to- 
gether. Navajos are not among the tallest 
Indians (170— 174.9 cm -) ( see Pub. 434), 
but rather in the next lower category, 
165— 169.9 cm. The Jamaica Negroes aver- 
aged 170.6 cm., and the Dutch whites of 
Michigan 173.6 cm. The female-male index 
for Navajo stature is 0.925; this index for 
Negroes and whites is 0.928 and 0.935 
respectively. 

Relatively few studies have been made 
of the weights of racial groups, but those 
that are available show the Navajos to be 
rather light in weight. For example, the 



i58 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Choctaws as described by Collins are only 
2 cm. taller than the Navajos but weigh 
8 kg. more. The Jamaica Negroes, who 
average 2.6 cm. more than the Navajos in 
height and are well known to be slender, 
average 6.5 kg. more in weight. 

The Navajos are of a medium body 
build, similar to that of the Dutch whites 
in Michigan; both these groups have a 
relative chest girth of 53 per cent, as com- 
pared with the 49.9 per cent found for 
Negroes. The short Maya Indian males 
have a relative, chest girth of 56 per cent. 
The sitting height of the Navajo males is 
52.8 per cent of their stature, of Maya 
males 53.0 per cent, of Negro males 51.5 
per cent, and of Dutch white males 52.3 
per cent. The arms of the Navajo males 
are relatively long, with a mean relative 
span of 104 per cent; the span for Dutch 
whites is 103 per cent, for the Maya 104.6 
per cent, and for the Negroes 106 per cent. 
The Navajo heads are brachycephalic, with 
an index of 85 per cent for the males; this 
is equal to that of the Maya males; the 
Dutch whites have an average index of 
79 per cent and the Jamaica Negroes 
77 per cent. 

Navajo Indians: children. Individual 
curves of growth for approximately 75 
Navajo females and 100 Navajo males have 
been plotted over a 10-year period. Devia- 
tions of these individuals from the average 
curves of growth based on hundreds of 
Navajos are being made. The rates of 
growth at various stages in their develop- 
ment are also being considered, and com- 
parisons are being made with the growth 
and development of the three other racial 
groups studied by the author. 

A detailed study of Navajo anthropom- 
etry is being made, considering 60 or more 
body dimensions of both adults and chil- 
dren, with comparisons of all available 
data. 



Anthropology 

Maya Indians: milpa experiment. The 
Maya Indians of Yucatan plant corn in 
the same field for only two or, at the most, 
three years in succession, then abandon 
that field and choose a new one for plant- 
ing. The yield for each successive year in 
any field is smaller than for the preceding 
year. The . reasons advanced to explain 
this decrease are: weed competition and 
the encroachment of grass, soil deteriora- 
tion, and insect pests. The data collected 
by Steggerda over a 10-year period in Yuca- 
tan throw light on each one of these 
factors. 

In January 1933, 15 mecates (1 mecate = 
400 sq. m.) were selected for corn planting. 
The center mecate, number 8, was used 
as the experimental plot, and records were 
kept of its yield for each year. The entire 
15 mecates were planted in corn, the 14 
mecates surrounding mecate 8 serving as 
a possible protection against insects, birds, 
and mammals, which are believed to work 
in from the surrounding forests. Weeding 
was done at first by the Maya method 
alone, which consists of cutting ofr the 
weeds with a machete. The first two years, 
the field was weeded once each year; the 
next two years, it was necessary to weed 
twice each season. During these first four 
years of production, the yield of shelled 
corn from mecate 8 showed a progressive 
decline, as follows: 32, 28, 16, and 7 kg. 
Because of this decrease it was decided to 
weed mecate 8 more thoroughly in 1937, 
by pulling up the weeds instead of cutting 
them off. Beginning with this fifth year, 
the 7 mecates south and east of number 8 
were kept relatively clear of weeds by pull- 
ing them out, and the 7 mecates to the 
north and west were weeded by the Maya 
method. From 1937 to 1942 the yields were 
recorded for all 15 mecates. 

The records indicate that the yield of 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



159 



mecate 8 fluctuated greatly. It may be Department of Agriculture and the Uni- 
significant that in the first year after the versity of Illinois show nitrate and phos- 
improved weeding method was introduced phate deficiencies which would definitely 
the yield was greater than it was in 1933. limit production. The Maya Indians do 
In the following year (1938), however, not apply fertilizer to their crops, although 
the yield was again decreased. It rose the ashes resulting from the burning of 
slightly in 1939; and, owing chiefly to a felled trees and cleared underbrush take 
plague of grasshoppers, it fell to practically its place to some extent. The fact, how- 
nothing in 1940. In 1941 the entire field ever, that no significant difference was 
had to be abandoned because of a grass- found in the soil chemistry of samples from 
hopper plague. In 1942 the yield was the continually cultivated fields and from 
slightly less than for 1938. uncultivated plots indicates that soil de- 

The yields for the 14 mecates surround- terioration may be discounted as a factor 

ing plot 8 during the years 1937-1942 in crop decline. Insects, no doubt, cause a 

show similar fluctuations. The fact that in considerable decrease in yield, since corn 

1937 and 1938 the 7 western mecates yielded borers and leaf-cutting ants increase in 

more corn than the 7 eastern ones, even numbers as a cornfield gets progressively 

though they were weeded by the more older. 

primitive and less efficient method, may Obviously it is easier for the Indians to 

be due to better drainage or other environ- move their cornfields to a new location 

mental factors. In 1939 and 1940, however, every two or three years than to combat 

the thoroughly weeded mecates 1 to 7 pro- weeds and insects in the old one. Since 

duced slightly more than mecates 9 to 15. their present-day agricultural methods seem 

A record of the time and money expended to be the same as those used in ancient 

on the weeding of the fields shows that times, the various factors discussed above 

both increased as the experiment was may help explain why the ancient Maya 

prolonged. abandoned their sites and migrated to new 

In March 1941 a detailed survey was areas, 

made of each mecate to show the amount "Enciclopedia yucateca." During the year 

and kinds of grass present. Samples of the a 30-page report was written on the topic 

grasses found were identified by Dr. P. C. "Physical and physiological characteristics 

Standley, of the Field Museum in Chicago, of the Maya Indians of Yucatan, Mexico." 

and include witch grass (Panicum) , crab This was done at the request of Dr. Carlos 

grass (Digitaria), millet grass and foxtail A. Echanove, who has been put in charge 

(Setaria), and the common sandbur (Cen- of the compilation and publication of the 

chrus). During the first few years grasses "Encyclopedia of Yucatan" by the Gov- 

were not present, but as the field continued ernor of the State. The report prepared 

in production it was gradually taken over for this publication includes the anthro- 

by grass; and now after 10 years several pometry of Maya children and adults, and 

of the mecates are completely covered morphological and physiological observa- 

with a heavy stand of grass. This cannot tions such as eye color, hair color and 

be controlled by the Maya, because it is form, blood pressure, blood groups, dental 

impossible to use modern farming tools caries, and tooth-eruption time. 

on account of the shallowness of the soil South American Indians. In 1940 Steg- 

and the abundance of rocks. gerda began a survey of the anthropometry 

Analyses of Yucatan soils by the U. S. and physical features of the South Ameri- 



i6o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



can Indians as recorded in the literature, 
for a forthcoming Handbook to be pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution. The 
work has been concluded and summarized 
in three separate articles : "Anthropometry 
of South American Indians"; "Pigmenta- 
tion and hair of South American Indians"; 
and "Mestizos of South America." A total 
of about 200 books on the anthropology 
of South American Indians has been re- 
viewed, and information covering the 
physical characteristics and body measure- 
ments of 90 different tribes has been ob- 
tained. Abstracts of these books and 



pamphlets, together with a complete list 
of anthropological papers on South Ameri- 
can Indians, will form a separate publica- 
tion. Though various writers have studied 
these Indians from the ethnological point 
of view, relatively few have carried out 
anthropometrical investigations. The data 
collected have been reproduced in tables, 
grouping the tribes according to regional 
areas and also according to height classes. 
Contour maps have been prepared to show 
graphically the distribution of the stature 
groups, and a similar map shows the dis- 
tribution of cephalic index. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Bates, R. W. See Lahr, E. L. 

Brehme, K. S., and M. Demerec. A survey of 
Malpighian tube color in the eye color mu- 
tants of Drosophila melanogaster. Growth, 
vol. 6, pp. 351-355 (1942). 

Demerec, M. See Brehme, K. S.; Kaufmann, 
B. P.; Zamenhof, S. 

Fano, U. On the interpretation of radiation 
experiments in genetics. Quart. Rev. Biol., 
vol. 17, pp. 244-252 (1942). 

Neutron-induced lethals in Drosophila. 

(Abstract) Genetics, vol. 28, p. 74 (1943). 

Mechanism of induction of gross chro- 
mosomal rearrangements in Drosophila 
sperms. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 
12-18 (1943). 

Ionization yield of radiation energy. 

(Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 63, p. 222 (1943). 

Production of ion clusters by X-rays. Na- 
ture, vol. 151, p. 698 (1943). 

and L. D. Marinelli. Note on the time- 



intensity factor in radiobiology. Proc. Nat. 
Acad. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 59-66 (1943). 
Hollander, W. F. A possible case of directed 
mutation in the pigeon. (Abstract) Genetics, 
vol. 28, pp. 76-77 (1942). 

See Riddle, O. 

Kaufmann, B. P. An exceedingly complex 
chromosomal rearrangement. (Abstract) 
Genetics, vol. 28, p. 79 (1943). 

A complex induced rearrangement of 

Drosophila chromosomes and its bearing on 
the problem of chromosome rearrangement. 
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 8-18 
(i943)- 



and M. Demerec. Utilization of sperm 

by the female Drosophila melanogaster. 
Amer. Naturalist, vol. 76, pp. 445—469 
(1942). 

Korsch, B. See Steggerda, M. 

Laanes, T. See MacDowell, E. C. 

Lahr, E. L., R. W. Bates, and O. Riddle. Non- 
specific results obtained with the micro- 
method for assay of prolactin. Endocri- 
nology, vol. 32, pp. 251-259 (1943). 

McClintock, B. The fusion of broken ends 
of chromosomes following nuclear fusion. 
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 28, pp. 458-463 
(1942). 

MacDowell, E. C., J. S. Potter, T. Laanes, 
and E. N. Ward. The manifold effects of 
the screw tail mouse mutation. Jour. Hered., 
vol. 33, pp. 439-449 (1942). 

Marinelli, L. D. See Fano, U. 

Marvin, H. N., and G. C. Smith. Technique 
for thyroidectomy in the pigeon and the 
early effect of thyroid removal on heat 
production. Endocrinology, vol. 32, pp. 87- 

9i ( r 943)- 
Miller, R. A. Effects of anterior pituitary prepa- 
rations and insulin on islet cells of the pigeon 
pancreas. Endocrinology, vol. 31, pp. 535- 

544 (i94 2 )- 

and O. Riddle. The cytology of the 

pigeon adrenal cortex in experimentally in- 
duced atrophy and hyperactivity. Amer. 
Jour. Anat., vol. 71, pp. 311-335 (1942). 

Effects of adrenal cortical hor- 
mones alone and in combination with pro- 
lactin on body and visceral weights in hypo- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



161 



physectomized pigeons. (Abstract) Anat. 
Rec, vol. 84, p. 40 (1942). 
Ability of adrenal cortical hor- 
mones, prolactin and thyroxin to maintain 
weight of body and viscera of hypophysec- 
tomized pigeons. Endocrinology, vol. 32, 

pp. 463-474 (i943)- 

Effects of prolactin and cortical 



hormones on body weight and food intake 
of adrenalectomized pigeons. Proc. Soc. Ex- 
per. Biol, and Med., vol. 52, pp. 231-233 

(i943)- 
Potter, J. S. See MacDowell, E. C. 

Riddle, O. Cyclic changes in blood calcium and 

phosphorus in relation to egg laying and 

estrogen production. Endocrinology, vol. 31, 

pp. 498-506 (1942). 

General relationships of hormones to 

growth and development. Cold Spring Har- 
bor Symp. Quant. Biol., vol. 10, pp. 7-14 
(1942). 

The preparation of high school science 

teachers. Amer. Biol. Teacher, vol. 5, pp. 

63-65 (1942). 

Hormone therapy viewed by the research 

physiologist. Proc. Amer. Pharmaceut. Man- 
ufacturers' Assoc, pp. 82-89 ( r 94 2 )- 

and W. F. Hollander. The inheritance 

of "scraggly" plumage and of ataxia in the 
pigeon. Jour. Hered., vol. 34, pp. 167-172 

(i943)- 

See Lahr, E. L.; Miller, R. A. 



Seibert, H. C. See Steggerda, M. 
Smith, G. C. See Marvin, H. N. 
Steggerda, M. Significance of racial factors in 
physical measurements of normal and de- 



fective children. Amer. Jour. Ment. Defi- 
ciency, vol. 46, no. 4 (1942). 

— Anthropometry of the living. A study 
on checking of techniques. Anthropol. 
Briefs No. 2, Amer. Assoc. Phys. Anthropolo- 
gists, pp. 7-15 (1942). 

— Body measurements on 100 Negro males 
from Tuskegee Institute. Res. Quart., vol. 
13, pp. 275-279 (1942). 

— Stature of South American Indians 
Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthropol., vol. 1, pp 
5-20 (1943). 

— and B. Korsch. Remedies for diseases as 
prescribed by Maya Indian herb-doctors 
Bull. Hist. Med., vol. 13, pp. 54-82 (1943) 

— and H. C. Seibert. The size and shape 
of human head hair along its shaft. Jour. 
Hered., vol. 33, pp. 302-304 (1942). 

— and G. Wolff. Female-male index of 



body build in Negroes and whites: an in- 
terpretation of anatomical sex differences. 
Human Biol., vol. 15, pp. 127-152 (1943). 

Ward, E. N. See MacDowell, E. C. 

Warmke, H. E. The cytology and breeding 
behavior of the Russian dandelion, Taraxa- 
cum kokjsaghyz. (Abstract) Amer. Jour. 
Bot., suppl. to vol. 29, p. 19s (1942). 

Microsporogenesis, fertilization, and 

early embryology of Taraxacum \o\-saghyz. 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 70, pp. 164-173 

(i943)- 
Wolff, G. See Steggerda, M. 
Zamenhof, S., and M. Demerec. Heavy water 

and mutations. (Abstract) Genetics, vol. 28, 

p. 96 (1943). 



14 



NUTRITION LABORATORY 

Boston, Massachusetts 
THORNE M. CARPENTER, Director 

The activities of the Nutrition Labora- Root, of the New England Deaconess 

tory during the year have been restricted Hospital. Eighty-eight diabetic patients 

almost entirely to the war research projects had their metabolism measured on 138 

that are being carried on in cooperation days. In addition, 10 nondiabetic patients 

with the Harvard School of Public Health, were studied on 13 days for comparative 

The investigation which started on Janu- purposes. The measurements included ob- 

ary 1, 1942 is still in progress. Apparatus servations on the basal metabolism and on 

have been devised and data have been ac- the metabolic effect of ingestion of 50 

cumulated that deal with important aspects grams of dextrose or of levulose, with or 

of human physiology. When and if re- without insulin simultaneously adminis- 

leased for publication, these methods and tered. Since about the first of December 

physiological results will prove of value to 1942, blood samples have been taken from 

all other workers in the same fields, as it most of the patients under basal conditions 

will be possible to obtain data not pre- and again approximately \ hour, 1 hour, 

viously accessible. It is fortunate that war and 2 hours after administration of the 

emergency requirements have resulted in sugar, and these have been analyzed for 

such real scientific advancement in human their sugar, pyruvic acid, and lactic acid 

physiology. contents. Dr. Elmer Stotz, of the McLean 

In addition to the defense activities of Hospital, Waverley, Massachusetts, has co- 

the staff itself, a special project in connec- operated in making these blood analyses, 

tion with the war is in progress in space Comparisons have been made of the basal 

made available to Dr. J. H. Mueller, of metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism 

the Department of Bacteriology and Im- of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals as 

munology of the Harvard Medical School, affected by hyperthyroidism. Studies have 

Since December 1942, two laboratory rooms likewise been made of diabetics having 

have been occupied exclusively by Dr. such complications as acidosis, coma, ade- 

Mueller and his staff, and the Carnegie noma of the thyroid, pituitary tumor, and 

Institution of Washington has supplied the hypoglycemia. On November 29, 1942, 

necessary utilities such as gas, water, heat, with the cooperation of Dr. Robley D. 

and electrical power for the carrying on Evans, of the Massachusetts Institute of 

of his work. This project is entirely inde- Technology, observations were made on 10 

pendent of the regular activities of the diabetic patients and 5 normal controls, to 

Nutrition Laboratory. stuc ly tne rate f absorption of 25 units 

of radioactive insulin with respect to dif- 

Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus £erent types o£ patient The respiratory 

The investigation on the gaseous ex- exchange measurements were made by 

change in diabetes has continued this year Jeannette F. Rayner on a full-time basis 

under a special grant from the Carnegie from July 1, 1942 to March 1, 1943, and 

Institution, with the active cooperation of thereafter on a half-time basis until June 

Dr. Elliott P. Joslin and Dr. Howard F. 30, 1943. 



164 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



STAFF NOTES 



On January 15, 1943, Dr. Carpenter was 
appointed an official investigator of Section 
1 1.2 of Division 11 of the National Defense 
Research Committee. On February 1, 1943, 
he was appointed Special Research Asso- 
ciate of Harvard University. On Novem- 
ber 20, 1942, he gave his annual lecture 
on basal metabolism to the first-year class 
of the Harvard Medical School. 

Robert C. Lee, having completed the 
academic requirements, was given the 
degree of Master of Arts by Boston Uni- 
versity at its annual commencement exer- 
cises on May 24, 1942. 

Mrs. Mary F. Schroader was appointed 



laboratory technician on a part-time basis, 
on March 11, 1943. 

Throughout the year Robert C. Lee, 
George Lee, and V. Coropatchinsky have 
devoted their entire time to war research 
projects, and Dr. Carpenter has given 
about half his time to these activities. Miss 
Elsie A. Wilson has used about one and 
one-half months of her time on the prepa- 
ration and editing of reports to the Office 
of Scientific Research and Development. 

The number of scientists and especially 
men in the service who have visited the 
Nutrition Laboratory for consultation and 
in connection with war research has been 
larger this year than in past years. 



LITERARY WORK 



Definitions have been prepared by Dr. 
Carpenter for a "Dictionary of dietetics" 
that is to be published by the Philosophical 
Library, Inc., New York City. These 
definitions include terms that are in com- 
mon use in reports on energy transforma- 
tion and intermediary metabolism. 

The following articles have been com- 
pleted for publication in scientific journals: 

"Partial pressures of carbon dioxide and 
oxygen in expired air and alveolar air 
when oxygen is breathed at different at- 
mospheric pressures," by Thorne M. Car- 
penter and Robert C. Lee. (Accepted for 
publication in the Journal of Aviation 
Medicine)) 



"Human respiratory quotients in rela- 
tion to alveolar carbon dioxide and blood 
lactic acid after ingestion of glucose, fruc- 
tose, or galactose," by H. T. Edwards, 
E. H. Bensley, D. B. Dill, and T. M. 
Carpenter. 

"The absorption of radioactive insulin 
in human diabetes," by H. F. Root, J. W. 
Irvine, Jr., R. D. Evans, T. M. Carpenter, 
and L. Reiner. 

Miss Elsie A. Wilson has had an effi- 
cient and active part in the calculations 
and editorial preparation both of these 
manuscripts and of the publications listed 
below. 



PUBLICATIONS 



(1) An apparatus for measuring air flow during 
inspiration. Robert C. Lee and Leslie Sil- 
verman. Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 14, pp. 174- 
181 (1943). 

For measurement of the rate of flow of 
air during inspiration, an instrument offering 
no appreciable resistance to air flow has been 
devised, in cooperation with the Harvard 
School of Public Health. In principle, this 



instrument employs as a measure of flow the 
displacement of a fine wire in an air stream 
with a uniform velocity profile. A micro- 
scopic platinum wire, suspended on a metal 
frame, is connected at one end with a small, 
light tension spring and is attached at the 
other end to a fixed point. The upper and 
lower parts of the wire are enclosed in metal 
ducts. The middle part passes through a 



NUTRITION LABORATORY 



165 



metal tube, fastened horizontally to the frame, 
and is visible through holes in this tube. The 
displacement of the wire by flow of air 
through the tube is magnified optically and 
recorded photographically by a moving paper 
camera. The deflection of the wire is linear 
with air flow, and its inertia, lag, and fre- 
quency of vibration do not interfere with 
respiratory measurements. Two specially de- 
signed low-resistance tubular valves and a 
metabolism mask complete the apparatus. 
Flow records and gasometer measurements 
obtained simultaneously with three subjects 
at rest and while riding a bicycle ergometer 
at different rates showed close agreement, the 
average deviation of flow record from gasome- 
ter record being 2.1 per cent. 

(2) Methods of stating dosage of alcohol and 

concentration of alcohol in tissues. Thorne 
M. Carpenter. Quart. Jour. Studies on 
Alcohol, vol. 3, pp. 165-167 (1942). 

This is an editorial, which emphasizes the 
importance of exactness in statements re- 
garding dosage and concentration of alcohol 
in tissues and fluids, to avoid confusion when 
comparisons are made between the results 
of different experimental findings. 

(3) The effect of glucose administration in dia- 

betic acidosis. Howard F. Root and 
Thorne M. Carpenter. Amer. Jour. Med. 
Sci., vol. 206, pp. 234-243 (1943). 

According to observations on the respira- 
tory quotient, the carbohydrate combustion of 



patients in diabetic coma is not increased by 
administration of glucose either intravenously 
or by mouth. The use of insulin alone in 
early diabetic acidosis increases carbohydrate 
combustion. Even with insulin administra- 
tion, however, not more than 10 grams of 
carbohydrate can be or need be oxidized 
per hour to reduce the rate of fat metabolism 
and hence to check the formation of ketone 
bodies. Administration of large amounts of 
glucose is ineffective in diabetic acidosis and 
may be harmful in that the rise in blood 
sugar produced by glucose will make it diffi- 
cult to determine from changes in blood sugar 
the required insulin dosages, such excessive 
hyperglycemia is harmful to the pancreas, 
excessive glucose concentration in blood and 
tissues may result in anuria, and excessive 
glucose administration may lead to damage 
to the liver. These harmful effects may be 
concealed in early diabetic coma by the fa- 
vorable effects of insulin simultaneously given. 
Moderate coma may be converted by glucose 
administration into severe coma requiring 
excessive insulin dosage. In advanced coma, 
glucose administration may precipitate the 
final stage of anuria. The object of treatment 
in diabetic coma is to restore normal utiliza- 
tion of carbohydrate by administration of the 
requisite amount of insulin. By this means 
the excessive amounts of glucose in blood and 
tissue fluids are oxidized or stored, liver 
glycogen is replenished, and excessive ketosis 
is reduced by the decrease in rate of total 
metabolism and in rate of fat metabolism. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Carpenter, Thorne M. Methods of stating 
dosage of alcohol and concentration of al- 
cohol in tissues. Quart. Jour. Studies on 
Alcohol, vol. 3, pp. 165-167 (1942). / 

See Root, Howard F. 

Lee, Robert C, and Leslie Silverman. An 
apparatus for measuring air flow during 



inspiration. Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 14, pp. 174- 
181 (1943). 

Root, Howard F., and Thorne M. Carpenter. 
The effect of glucose administration in dia- 
betic acidosis. Amer. Jour. Med. Sci., vol. 
206, pp. 234-243 (1943). 

Silverman, Leslie. See Lee, Robert C. 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

W. E. Castle, University of California, Berkeley, California. Experimental studies of 
heredity in small mammals. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 3 to 38, 
40, and 41.) 

Investigations of genetic linkage in the ance but carrying the two genes in the 
rat carried on in collaboration with Dr. repulsion relation k^/ st. Such an individual 
Helen Dean King, of the Wistar Institute, when outcrossed to normal animals pro- 
have in the past year yielded two positive duces four classes of young, all alike and 
results. The order of the four mutant normal in appearance but different in fact, 
genes located in chromosome II has been as can be demonstrated by mating them 



found to be 



Cu an in b 



4 8 45 

and the map distances approximately as 
shown. This is a correction and more 
precise determination of the finding re- 
ported last year. The mutant genes con- 
cerned are Curly, a dominant hair-modify- 
ing gene; anemia, a lethal resulting from a 



to Fi animals which carry both genes. 
Such matings show the animals under 
test to be (1) carriers of \ but not of st, 
(2) carriers of st but not of ^, these two 
classes being non-crossovers; or (3) carriers 
of both \ and st, or (4) carriers of neither, 
these two classes being crossovers. In 81 
completed tests the indicated classes are 
12 and 14 (crossovers) and 29 and 26 (non- 
crossovers). The totals are thus 26 cross- 



deficiency of red blood corpuscles; incisor 

less, complete absence of the important overs to 55 non-crossovers, a crossover per- 

gnawing teeth; and brown, replacing black centa § e o£ V- ± 6 '9- Further tests are being 



pigment in the hair. 

The other positive finding is a demon- 
stration of linkage between two genes, 
kinky and stub, which constitute a fourth 



made to give this figure greater precision. 
To summarize our present knowledge 
of linkage in the rat, we have four demon- 
strated linkage groups with map distances 



(IV) linkage system for the rat. Kinky as follows: 
is a hair-modifying gene similar in its 
effects to Curly and Curly-, which also I- 

result in shortened curly hair, but kinky 
is a recessive in heredity, whereas the curly 
genes are dominants. Stub is a lethal when 
homozygous, which shortens the tail and 
produces other abnormalities particularly 
in the posterior half of the body, though 
it also results frequently in microphthal- 
mia, especially in the left eye. 

A cross between kinky and stub pro- 
duces Fi individuals normal in appear- 



I c r 


p w 


3-3 3- 8 


23.3 58.6 


TT Cu an 


in b 


11. 

4 


8 45 


III kr 


wo 


111. 




4°-3 


IV. k 


st 



3 2 



Other tests for linkage are in progress but 
with results as yet inconclusive. 



167 



x 68 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

Paul S. Conger, United States National Museum, Washington, District of Columbia. 
Investigations and preparation for publication of results of studies on Diatomaceae. 
(For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 18 to 41.) 

Activities of the laboratory during the was furnished to an entomologist for use 
year consisted mainly of a continuation of as a "tagging" method, or marker, in dust- 
studies of the distribution and ecology of ing the bodies of aphids, in experiments 
Atlantic coast diatoms in particular, with to determine their course and rate of geo- 
some work on antarctic materials and graphic distribution from a given center 
other collections from smaller localized of growth. This is supplementary to a 
areas. The former is of special interest method using aniline dye powders for the 
because of the great diversity of the coast same purpose, and has some advantages 
line as a favorable region for abundant over the latter. The rate of dispersal is 
diatom growth, because of the economic quite rapid and often follows a definite 
aspects of the subject in relation to fisheries, course. The obvious importance of these 
and because of the prevalence of marine studies lies in their bearing not only on 
laboratories, where the related studies of measures for the prevention of the spread 
marine biologists and oceanographers find of these pests, but also on the control of 
increasing need for information regarding plant diseases transmitted by them, 
the diatoms. Many requests for such in- Samples of diatomaceous materials of 
formation were answered, including a various composition were furnished to 
number from members of the armed two laboratories for use in studies with 
services regarding application to the war the electron microscope, and this work 
effort. led to the development in our own labora- 

The comprehensive abstract bibliography tory of experiments on a new method for 
of diatom literature, which has been in the orientation of particular specimens of 
process of accumulation over many years, such material, which should be of con- 
was greatly extended during this past year, siderable benefit in their study under the 
This mine of information is still, however, electron microscope. Such examinations 
much in arrears, because of lack of per- have been made heretofore on random ma- 
sonnel to cover the vast amount of litera- terial chancing to fall in suitable position, 
ture dealing with the many phases of rather than on definitely selected and 
diatoms and their importance. The value oriented specimens. This possibility of 
of this great amount of time-consuming orientation has evidently many advan- 
work can only be appreciated when one tages, but the method is unfortunately 
considers the flexibility that will be afforded not applicable to other than diatomaceous 
by its use. materials. 

Identifications of diatoms were again Two months during the summer were 

made for the Carnegie Institution Division again devoted to field research at the 

of Plant Biology, in connection with studies Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, during 

on diatom pigments and their special pho- which time investigations, both qualitative 

tosynthesis. Many other identifications and quantitative, were carried out on the 

were also made for various workers in production of marsh gas from diatoma- 

diverse fields' of investigation. ceous lake-bottom sediments. Several new 

A new and interesting application of pieces of apparatus were devised for the 

diatoms came in the field of entomology, work. These, the results obtained, and 

Selected diatom material of several types the general aspects of the whole problem 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES x 5q 

of marsh-gas formation from bottom sedi- fouling materials on the bottoms of ships 

ments were summed up in an article pre- and other floating objects, 

pared during the year, and now in the This varied information is being gath- 

hands of the printer. ered and organized toward the prepara- 

Some observations were also made while tion, already under way, of a general treat- 

at the Chesapeake Laboratory on the rate ment of the whole subject of the diatoms 

of growth of diatoms on submerged sur- and their importance, 
faces, as a factor in the accumulation of 

Arthur T. Hertig and John Rock, Boston Lying-in Hospital, Boston, and Free Hos- 
pital for Women, Brookline, Massachusetts. Research in embryology, embryological 

pathology, and reproductive physiology. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 
361041.) 

The studies on these various aspects of figure constitutes, therefore, an index of 

human reproduction have had continued human fertility within a group of known 

financial support through the Carnegie fertile patients who had recorded coital 

Institution of Washington's Department of dates during the estimated period of ovu- 

Embryology. As in the past, additional lation preceding operation. These data, 

funds from the William F. Milton Fund together with those pertaining to the time 

of Harvard University have helped to of ovulation, time of implantation, and 

defray the technical and secretarial ex- location of the implanted ovum have re- 

penses involved in these joint researches. 1 cently been published by the authors. 

Since the last report, 2 additional normal, Using these data on the time of ovulation 

recently implanted human ova have been together with those obtained in the recovery 

found in surgically removed uteri at the of two unfertilized tubal ova, the authors 

Free Hospital for Women. The patients participated in a conference on "Biology of 

from whom these uteri were removed con- Fertility," held under the auspices of the 

stitute a special study group, the charac- National Committee on Maternal Health 

teristics of which have recently been pub- in New York City, in January 1943. 

lished by the authors (see bibliography). Using the series of 7 normal ova and 5 

Eleven such patients have been operated abnormal ova available up to the present 

upon in the past report year, bringing the re port year, a paper was prepared on the 

total number to 72 for the past 5 years, development of the early human ovum 

From this group of patients there have w i tn special reference to the trophoblast 

been recovered 14 recently implanted ova, f tne pre-villous stage. This paper was 

9 of which have been normal and 5 ab- read be f ore the Chicago Gynecological 

normal. Thus the incidence of pregnancy Society, in December 1942. A summary 

in these rigidly selected patients continues o£ thls paper has appeared in the l iterature , 

to be approximately 20 per cent. This and the entjre paper wlU appear SQon {q 

1 The Milton Fund largely supports Dr. Rock's the American Journal of Obstetrics and 

researches on ovarian and tubal ova, whereas Gynecology. 

the Carnegie funds are used mainly in the The American Association of Anatomists 



search for early fertilized human ova. Inasmuch i-j «. u u v 1 

y . „ . . , , did not hold its annual meeting in 104^ 

as the two authors collaborate in both these r 111 r 

studies, credit is given to each Fund in reporting because of the war, but the abstracts of 

the results of the authors' past year's work. the papers thus canceled were published 



170 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



in the Anatomical Record. The significant 
features of the 72-day ovum (Carnegie 
8020) and the 92-day ovum (Carnegie 
8004) whose recovery was recorded in Year 
Book No. 41 have thus been published 
during the past year. 

The two recently implanted ova most 
lately acquired are estimated to be ap- 
proximately 7 and 8 days of age, and were 
recovered on the 22d and 23d days of the 
menstrual cycle respectively. In some re- 
spects the younger one (Carnegie 8155) 
appears younger than the 72-day specimen 
(Carnegie 8020) recovered last year, and 
in others it appears more developed. It is 
smaller in its significant measurements and 
has a trophoblast that is less mature al- 
though the amniotic cavity is in a more 
advanced state of development. The ovum 
had probably been implanted approxi- 
mately 24 to 36 hours at the time of its 
recovery. Thus the human ovum appears 
to implant when it is about 5 or 6 days 
of age; that is, on the 19th or 20th day 
of the standard menstrual cycle. 

The trophoblastic shell of the ovum is 
very indifferently developed and is com- 
posed of the two main types of trophoblast, 
namely, syncytio- and cytotrophoblast. The 
former is actively engaged in invading 
the maternal tissue and engulfing portions 
thereof, to be subsequently digested and 
used as food for the growing ovum. 

The embryonic or germ disk is of bi- 
laminar form, consisting of the primitive 
ecto- and entoderm. The amniotic cavity 
has begun to develop as a cleft or space 
dorsal to the germ disk and is more or 
less continuous with the chorionic (or 
segmentation) cavity of the ovum. The 
amniogenic cells have not yet started to 
delaminate from the adjacent trophoblast. 



Thus the specimen furnishes valuable data 
as to the time and manner of formation 
of the amniotic cavity. 

The second specimen (Carnegie 8171), 
approximately 8 days of age, lies between 
the yi- and the 92-day specimens, but 
approaches the latter in its development. 
It is smaller than the 92-day stage, and its 
chief anatomical features are: (1) its rela- 
tively small size; (2) its relatively deep 
implantation; and (3) the early develop- 
ment of the syncytiotrophoblastic lacunae, 
elaborated for the reception of maternal 
blood. Little of the latter is present, as 
yet, in the spaces. This fact, together with 
its deep implantation, accounted for our 
inability to detect the ovum prior to fixa- 
tion of the endometrium. 

An additional significant feature is the 
developing amniotic cavity. It is quite 
similar to that of the 7-day specimen 
described above. Thus the two ova re- 
cently acquired elucidate a critical phase 
in the development of a structure, the 
amnion, whose early stages in man have 
heretofore been little understood. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Hertig, Arthur T., and John Rock. Develop- 
ment of the early human ovum with special 
reference to the trophoblast of the pre- 
villous stage. (Abstract) Proc. Inst. Med. 
Chicago, vol. 14, p. 639 (1943). 

On the seven and one-half day 

human ovum (Carnegie no. 8020). (Ab- 
stract) Anat. Rec, vol. 85, p. 317 (1943). 

On the nine and one-half day 



human ovum (Carnegie no. 8004). (Ab- 
stract) Anat. Rec, vol. 85, pp. 317-318 

(i943)- 
Rock, John, and Arthur T. Hertig. Some as- 
pects of early human development. Amer. 
Jour. Obstet. and Gynecol., vol. 44, pp. 973- 
983 (1942). 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



I 7 I 



T. H. Morgan, Helen Redfield, and L. V. Morgan, California Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Pasadena, California. Maintenance of a Drosophila stoc\ center, in connec- 
tion with investigations on the constitution of the germinal material in relation 
to heredity. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 15 to 41.) 

An inventory of the stocks of Drosophila sex may be affected. All eosin triploids of 

melanogaster at the California Institute this strain gave mosaic intersexes, 

of Technology is as follows: An unrelated strain of triploids with two 

Mutants. Chromosome (1), 183; (2), attached X chromosomes and a third free 

223; (3), 179; (4), 21; multi-chromosomal, X was then crossed to males of the eosin 

n. Attached-X, 3. Deficiencies: X, 14; stock. The first eosin attached-X triploids 

(2), 29; (3), 2; (4), 1. Duplications, 18. obtained did not give mosaic intersexes, 

Inversions: X, 32; (2), 5; (3), 11. Trans- but further backcrossing to eosin produced 

locations: (152), 13; (153), 16; (154), n; triploids which did. The results were then 

(Y;2), 2; (Y;3), 1; (253), 25; (254), 6; substantially as they had been in the free-X 

(354), 10. Haplo-4, Triplo-4, and 3N, 5. strain. This would suggest that something 

Total mutants, 821. in the eosin stock, not the eosin gene itself, 

Wild stocks. Canton-S; Lausanne-S; was responsible. 

Oregon-R-c; Swedish-c; Urbana-S. These Free-X eosin triploids were then crossed 

stocks are available for research students, to apricot. In this allele of eosin the color 

The work of Helen Redfield for the differences are not so great as for eosin, 
past year falls under two heads: first, the and the color relations of the sex types are 
study in Drosophila melanogaster of mosaic reversed; that is, apricot males are darker 
eyes in intersex offspring of triploids, and, than apricot females, and apricot inter- 
second, the completion of the studies in sexes show the slightly darker color of the 
the same species of the effects of the 2N apricot males. When apricot triploids 
presence of inversions on crossing over in were obtained they gave mosaic intersexes 
other chromosomes. For summaries of the as did the eosin triploids; but the patches 
previous studies of Schultz and Redfield were lighter than the surrounding area, 
on this second topic see Carnegie Institu- instead of darker, as in the eosin mosaic 
tion Year Books Nos. 29 to 34 (1930- eyes. Thus the mosaic patches in either 
1935) . case take on the color of the female eye. 

It; has long been known that the eyes It was thought, since not all intersex 

of eosin intersexes of all sex grades show offspring showed the mosaicism, that the 

the lighter color of eosin males rather latter might be immediately correlated 

than the somewhat darker color of eosin with the presence of the Y chromosome; 

females. A heritable mosaic eye appeared for intersexes (2X3A) may or may not 

in the intersex progeny of free-X eosin contain a Y. Accordingly a stock of yel- 

triploids; a definite proportion of the light low, Hairy wing, eosin was derived and 

eyes of these intersexes (25 per cent) was crossed to eosin triploids. The Hairy 

show patches of a darker color like that wing intersex offspring probably contain 

of the 2N eosin females. A dark patch no Y, but the non-Hairy wing intersexes 

ordinarily includes about a quarter of the have received their father's Y. The classi- 

eye area; it may be smaller than this or fication of Hairy wing is not satisfactory 

larger, in extreme cases being so large as in these intersexes (even the appearance 

to include an entire eye. One eye, both of the extra occipital bristles is irregular), 

eyes, or neither eye of an individual inter- but it is definite enough to show that 



172 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



both Hairy wing intersexes and non- 
Hairy wing intersexes may be mosaics. 
Hence the mosaicism is not a direct Y 
effect unless Y chromosomes are intro- 
duced from the mother. It may in any 
case depend indirectly on the presence in 
the triploid mother of one or more Y 
chromosomes. It is possible that an addi; 
tional effect of another type is involved — 
autosomal chromosome elimination, for 
example, giving 2X2A patches, or somatic 
crossing over. It is not known whether 
the mosaicism appears only with sex- 
linked sex-limited characters, or is found 
also with other sex-linked mutants (as 
singed), and with autosomal mutants of 
various types. All these matters can be 
tested. 

This year's studies on inversion effects 
on crossing over were undertaken to con- 
firm the peculiar results shown by the 



the Curly inversions in the second chro- 
mosome and of the C1B inversion in the 
first chromosome, either together or alone, 
increased crossing over for most regions 
of the third chromosome, but not so mark- 
edly as did ClB and Payne for (2) ; in cer- 
tain regions of (3), unlike (2), the effect 
was apparently a decrease rather than an 
increase. We believed that these differ- 
ences were correlated with differences in 
distribution of heterochromatin in the two 
large autosomes. It was thought desirable 
to test in further detail the right limb 
of (3). Two types of mother were used: 
ri Sb H/p p to test the central region of 
this chromosome, and e k ro/bv to test 
the extreme right end. XX Y mothers, 
which occur with appreciable frequency 
in ClB strains, were excluded. The sum- 
marized results are shown in the accom- 
panying table. 



Inversions 


N 


Crossover values 


Per cent increase 


Mothers ri Sb H/p?: 




ri-pP 


pv-Sb 


Sb-H 


ri-p p 


pp-Sb 


Sb-H 


Control 


2096 


0.76 


7.1 


11.2 








ClB 


2245 


1.07 


9.5 


11.7 


40.8 


33.8 


4.5 


Cy 


3103 


0.52 


12.2 


14.5 


-31.6 


71.8 


29.5 


ClB, Cy 


2698 


1.08 


19.0 


15.6 


42.1 


168.0 


39.3 


Mothers e 4 ro/bv: 




e 4 -ro 


ro-bv 




e A -ro 


ro-bv 




Control 


2551 


19.4 


14.9 










ClB 


2216 


23.2 


16.3 




19.6 


9.4 




Cy 


2491 


21.0 


14.3 




8.2 


-4.0 




Clb, Cy 


2564 


24.2 


18.1 




24.8 


21.5 





third chromosome as compared with the 
second, as previously found by Schultz and 
Redfield. It was desired also to extend 
the analysis to the first chromosome, for, 
excepting the work of Steinberg (1936, 
1937), there are no extensive data on the 
effects of inversions in (2) and (3) on 
crossing over in (1), and Steinberg's crosses 
do not include the critical spindle-fiber 
region. 
It had been found that the presence of 



The percentage increases found in the 
table are obtained by dividing the actual 
increases by the respective control cross- 
over values. It is clear that the first-chro- 
mosome inversion produces an increase in 
crossing over throughout this right limb of 
(3). The second-chromosome inversions 
also produce increases with the apparent 
exception of the ri-p v and ro-bv regions, 
in which there are decreases; these de- 
creases are in themselves not of statistical 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ^ 

significance, but are like those found in The fragment extends from the centro- 
the earlier crosses. The combination of mere of chromosome (4) to the distal range 
inversions of (1) and (2) produces marked of the bands of section 102C of the salivary 
increases in all regions, particularly in the chromosome. In preparations of salivary 
middle of this right limb. The first- glands, chromosome (4) when it carries 
chromosome C1B inversion is thus more spa shows a pale area proximal to the dark 
effective in increasing crossing over at the band 102D1. The two lines of evidence 
center and at the extreme right end of (3) combined place the locus of spa in the 
than the second-chromosome Cy inver- distal ranges of the section 102C. 
sions, but for the intermediate regions Cy Sparkling is an allelomorph of Cataract 
has more effect than ClB. The results are (Belgovsky), which is a dominant char- 
in essential agreement with the results acter manifested by roughness of the eye, 
previously obtained for (3). more particularly of the posterior edge. 

Extensive tests were made of crossing When Cataract is heterozygous for spa, 
over in the first chromosome, using the the anterior part of the eye is rougher than 
second-chromosome Cy inversions and the in Cataract over wild type, 
third-chromosome Payne inversions. The Sparkling shows characteristics of a 
mothers were of the composition y 2 cv variegation. It is affected by the proper- 
s' f/ec car bb. The data are not yet all tabu- tion of heterochromatin to euchromatin 
lated, but the results so far may be given present in the nucleus. For example, in 
briefly. The increases in crossing over di- homozygous spa flies, sparkling is regu- 
vided by the control values, i.e. the per- larly seen in XX females, but not in XXY 
centage increases, for the various regions females, or in males (XY). It is exag- 
are as follows: for y 2 -ec: Cy = 85.2; Payne gerated in XO males. Sparkling is sensitive 
= 68.7; Cy, Payne = 198.0. For ec-cv: Cy= also to other proportions of heterochro- 
106.0; Payne = 47.8; Cy, Payne = 176.4. For matin and euchromatin. It not infre- 
cv—v: Cy = 5i.5; Payne = 29.0; Cy, Payne quently shows exceptional grades of mani- 
= 69.6. For v—j: Cy = 27.o; Payne = 42.9; festation due presumably to modifiers. It 
Cy, Payne = 77.2. For f-car: Cy = 8«3; is of a higher grade when flies are raised 
Payne = 69.4; Cy, Payne = 120.8. For car— at low temperatures. 

bb: Cy = 2.2; Payne = 17.8; Cy, Payne = Regular smooth-eyed homozygous spa 

132.8. Further analysis of the results of males were X-rayed, and mated to homo- 

these crossover studies and the discussion zygous spa females. Among the offspring 

of the theoretical implications are better a number of variants of spa were found 

left for the detailed presentation. and have produced lines which have not 

L. V. Morgan reports observations on yet been cytologically studied in salivary 

two characters heretofore undescribed. A chromosomes. 

rough eye character called sparkling (spa) Among these lines there are 15 to 20, 

in Drosophila melanogaster is associated eac b derived from a smooth-eyed daughter 

with some alteration in chromosome (4). of a treated male, in which females as 

Homozygous spa flies carrying a fragment well as males are smooth-eyed when homo- 

of chromosome (4) derived from translo- zygous for the treated chromosome or 

cation T(2;4)b showed exaggerated spar- heterozygous for spa. In a few of the 

kling, indicating that the locus in (4) lines flies homozygous for the treated chro- 

which is responsible for spa is not within mosome are more or less inviable. Those 

the limits of the duplicating fragment, lines are balanced with a fourth chromo- 



i74 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



some carrying ci D (cubitus-interruptus 
dominant) and the normal allelomorph 
of spa, showing that it is chromosome (4) 
that has been altered by the X-ray treat- 
ment. 

Thirty of the treated males mated to 
sparkling females each produced a high- 
grade rough-eyed son heterozygous for 
the treated chromosome and for spa. Most 
of them were sterile, but three gave rise to 
lines which show that in them the ex- 
cessively rough character is recessive to the 
wild-type allelomorph of spa (in a ci D 
chromosome). In one of the lines the 
altered chromosome is lethal when homo- 
zygous. 

The translocation T(2;4)b was used to 
determine more closely than heretofore the 
loci of shaven-naked (sv n ) and of recessive 
eyeless (ey 2 ). Both were found to be 
distal to the break in T (2 54)0, i.e., distal 
to the proximal bands of section 102C of 
the salivary chromosome. 

Diploid intersexes have been found in 



Drosophila melanogaster due to a recessive 
gene (ix) located at 60.5 ± in chromosome 
(2). Flies carrying two X's which are 
heterozygous for ix are entirely female in 
appearance and are fertile females; 2X indi- 
viduals homozygous for ix are sterile in- 
tersexes. They have no sex combs, but 
show in varying degrees both male and 
female characteristics in regard to shape 
and pigmentation of the abdomen and the 
presence of male and female genitalia 
and gonads. 

Flies carrying one X are fertile whether 
heterozygous or homozygous for ix. The 
two genotypes have been so far indis- 
tinguishable in appearance, and both are 
fertile as males. Intersexes are intermedi- 
ate in size between females and males. The 
weights of 31 etherized females (hetero- 
zygous for ix), 31 intersexes, and 31 males 
(heterozygous or homozygous for ix) of a 
sample from one culture were respectively 
0.037, °-°34> an d 0.024 grams. 



G. Oscar Russell, Washington, District of Columbia. Researches in the physiological 
cause of voice quality differences. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 28—33, 

35> 37, 38.) 



Equipment was conditioned and recon- 
structed for a final check on the validity 
of our previous analysis and classification 
of voice disorders apparently caused by 
deafness. For that purpose, we returned to 
Columbus, Ohio, where the first check had 
been made, and carried through a new 
group of entering children in the Ohio 
State School for the Deaf. All these are 
so young that they represent those usually 
designated as congenitally deaf, since their 
hearing was impaired before normal speech 
and voice habits had been established, and 
it is difficult to determine with any de- 
gree of accuracy just when the impair- 
ment occurred. Where they are all below 
age six, and the deafness is profound, the 



experiments show that the voice quality 
and manifestations are never normal. That 
is due undoubtedly to two factors: first, 
the transient nature, and difficulty of per- 
manent fixation, of any habits acquired 
in that period; and, second, the consequent 
lack of acoustic engrams, or auditory con- 
trol patterns. We now know that over 
40 per cent of the meaning of speech is 
conveyed by intonation or voice differen- 
tiations rather than by the words them- 
selves. The experiments show definitely, 
therefore, that it is this voice factor which 
accounts for a large part of the difficulty 
one has in understanding the speech of 
the congenitally deaf. If means of training 
a substitution for the acoustic engrams 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



175 



could be devised, a profound improvement ing the voice; the phonetic classification; 
might well be expected. the classification of physiological and con- 
Three major studies bearing on this prob- genital anomalies affecting voice; the psy- 
lem have been published since the last chiatric; the neurological and cortical lesion 
report, all being monographs of the Utah effects; the psychological in its abnormal 
State Research Laboratories : The language manifestations; and the mnemonic. They 
of the deaf; The language of the blind, a are being published in the form of classi- 
comparative study; and The organization fixation tables, analysis articles, and defini- 
for a training program. tions, in a Cyclopedic medical dictionary 
The following have been completed : the of speech, voice, and hearing disorder 
pathological classification, on diseases affect- terms, now in press. 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



Cambridge, Massachusetts 
A. V. KIDDER, Chairman 



During the past year the Division has 
undertaken no archaeological exploration 
or excavation, nor is it probable that ac- 
tivities of this sort can be resumed for 
some years to come. Not only has field 
work been suspended, but many members 
of the staflf — archaeologists, ethnologists, 
historians — are now, or soon will be, in the 
armed forces or engaged in other activities 
connected with the war. Hence no fresh 
archaeological data are coming in. More- 
over, the men in service are of course 
unable to complete reports on investiga- 



tions in progress at the outbreak of hos- 
tilities. Among them are several of par- 
ticular importance: H. E. D. Pollock's 
architectural survey of Yucatan; G. W. 
Brainerd's and J. M. Longyear's studies 
of the pottery of Yucatan and Copan; 
G. Stromsvik's excavations at Copan; 
and A. L. and R. E. Smith's work at 
Uaxactun. The research of A. M. Hal- 
pern on the Maya languages has also been 
interrupted, as have the studies by R. S. 
Chamberlain on the history of the con- 
quest of Yucatan. 



ACTIVITIES 1942-1943 

During the period under review several various aspects of Yucatecan history. S. L. 

members of the staflf and associates have Bradshaw has continued preparation for 

entered war service. H. E. D. Pollock is the press of the exhaustive study of Maya 

an officer of the Army Air Corps on duty grammar left unfinished at the death of 

in North Africa. K. Ruppert is overseas M. J. Andrade. 

with the American Field Service. R. E. Before entering service, Mr. Stromsvik 



Smith is working with the United States 
military attache in Guatemala. G. Stroms- 
vik is in the Norwegian Navy; G. W. 
Brainerd and E. W. Andrews are in that 
of the United States. R. S. Chamberlain 
is Senior Cultural Assistant in the United 
States Embassy in Guatemala. A. M. Hal- 



returned to Copan to make arrangements 
for storage of Institution equipment and 
for supervision of the ruins and museum 
by the Government of Honduras. Mr. 
Shook, who is temporarily remaining in 
Guatemala, has had opportunity to carry 
out certain minor explorations. He has 



pern is giving instruction in Japanese at also studied local museum and private 
the University of Chicago. Others have collections and has investigated several 
been engaged in the writing of reports: finds of archaeological material made in 
S. G. Morley on the hieroglyphic inscrip- the course of road and airfield construc- 
tions, A. L. Smith on the excavations at tion and by private individuals. Most 
Uaxactun, J. E. S. Thompson on those notable of the latter was a cache of plum- 
at El Baul, E. M. Shook and A. V. Kidder bate vessels and a gold plaque unearthed 
on those at Kaminaljuyu, Anna O. Shep- near Quezaltenango by Sr. Vitalino Robles, 
ard on plumbate pottery, Tatiana Pros- who most generously made these very 
kouriakoflf on Maya architecture and sculp- important specimens available for study, 
ture, E. H. Morris on excavations in Colo- F. B. Richardson was obliged, for rea- 
rado, F. V. Scholes and R. L. Roys on sons of health, to postpone further work 
15 l 77 



178 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



S. G. MORLEY 



on the problem of the deeply buried human Secretaria de Education Publica, the Cam- 
footprints near Managua, Nicaragua. He peche Museum has been excavating the 
is now in South America, making obser- ruins of Etzna, an extremely important 
vations on monumental stone sculpture site in central Campeche which has close 
for comparison with that of the Maya affiliations not only with the Old Empire 
area. S. H. Boggs completed the photo- but also with the Puuc Period of the 
graphing of several large collections of New Empire. Three new Initial Series 
pottery in Salvador and has also been were discovered, as follows: Stela 18, 
preparing a final report on the excavations 9.12.0.0.0 10 Ahau 8 Yaxkin; Stela 19, 
at Campana San Andres, which were 9.13.0.0.0 8 Ahau 8 Uo (?); and a third, 
financed and carried out by Mr. John a fragmentary one, inscribed on the risers 
Dimick under the auspices of Carnegie of the hieroglyphic stairway leading to the 
Institution. principal temple. 

More detailed reports on certain activi- Mr. Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, of the Insti- 

ties follow. tuto Nacional de' Antropologia e Historia, 

who was in charge of the excavation at 

Hieroglyphic Research Etzna assisted by Mr. Raul Pavon Abreu, 

Director of the Campeche Museum, spent 
a week studying the Institution's ceramic 

Dr. Morley spent the summer of 1942 sherd collections in Merida toward the 

in Santa Fe, New Mexico, with offices at end of May. 
the Laboratory of Anthropology, where 

on June 1 he began the writing of a popu- Ceramic Technology 
lar book on the Maya civilization, The 
ancient Maya. He returned to Merida, 

Yucatan, September 1 and has since been The study of plumbate ware, outlined 

devoting his time to the completion of in Year Book No. 41, has been continued 

the book, which he finished early in June through the current year. In the summer 

1943. During the fall, winter, and spring of 1942 collections in Mexico, Guatemala, 

he made a number of trips to Uxmal, and and Salvador were examined, and with the 

early in May visited the newly founded assistance of Miss Janice Snow in tabu- 

Museo Arqueologico, Etnografico e His- lating and sketching, a complete descrip- 

torico del Estado de Campeche, at Cam- tive and photographic record was made 

peche, a splendid local institution. of plumbate vessels in the national mu- 

Work on the hieroglyphic dictionary seums of the countries visited and in ten 
has gone forward. All Initial Series intro- large private collections. The most gener- 
ducing glyphs at 39 sites (Copan and the ous cooperation was received from museum 
38 sites covered in Dr. Morley's study officials and owners of collections. The 
The inscriptions of Peten) have been file on plumbate ware has thus been ex- 
drawn to scale, each on a separate card, tended by 344 vessels and now furnishes 
Work has been commenced on another an adequate basis for defining plumbate 
section of the dictionary, that presenting style and workmanship, a task necessary 
all known examples of Glyph C of the in order to determine the relationships of 
Supplementary Series. this important ware. 

In cooperation with the Instituto Na- While in Guatemala Miss Shepard 

cional de Antropologia e Historia of the visited the site of Tajumulco in company 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



179 



with Mr. Shook, and short reconnaissance 
trips were made to several near-by sites. 
The frequency of occurrence of plumbate 
in this area, as well as indications of the 
population which the region supported, 
are of particular interest because of the 
large collection of plumbate vessels exca- 
vated from Tajumulco under the auspices 
of the Museum of New Mexico. 

Several weeks in Guatemala City were 
spent in microscopic examination of sherds 
from the 1942 excavations of Mr. Thomp- 
son at El Baul and Mr. Shook at Ka- 
minaljuyu. Subsequently plumbate ware 
from both sites and other wares from 
El Baul, particularly that called Tiqui- 
sate, which is associated with plumbate 
and bears some resemblance to it in oxi- 
dized surface colors, were thin-sectioned 
in the laboratory and analyzed petro- 
graphically. When the paste and slip of 
plumbate from El Baul and Kaminaljuyu 
were compared with those of typical plum- 
bate, Miss Shepard noted minor differ- 
ences, which may be significant in view 
of the distinct vessel shapes characteristic 
of these two sites. 

The remainder of the year has been de- 
voted to the preparation of the plumbate 
report. 

Southwestern Archaeology 
E. H. Morris 

The entire year ending June 30, 1943 
was spent by Mr. Morris in office work. 
A minor but time-consuming part of the 
latter consisted of the revision of archaeo- 
logical manuscripts submitted to him for 
criticism. 

Early in September, Robert F. Burgh, 
who had been a collaborator in the South- 
west Project for several years, joined the 
armed forces. His many drawings for the 
report on Basket Maker sites near Du- 
rango, Colorado, excavated during 1938, 



1939, and 1940, were in various stages of 
completion at the time of his departure. 
By March, with the assistance of Miss 
Jean Zeigler, these had been brought to 
what is believed to be the finished stage. 
Captions were prepared to document the 
more complicated of the drawings, and 
considerable progress was made in the 
study and photographing of specimens 
from the Durango sites. 

In order to utilize the technical skill of 
Miss Zeigler, after the Durango drawings 
were finished, the analysis and graphic 
depiction of the weaves of Basket Maker 
sandals was begun. For this study a large 
body of material is in hand — some 300 
sandals from dry caves in northeastern 
Arizona excavated by Carnegie Institution 
under the direction of Mr. Morris in 1931. 
In the fabrication of Basket Maker sandals 
the Anasazi reached their highest attain- 
ment in textile art. Although the sandals 
are of a number of varieties, in the finer 
types customarily the upper side bears 
zones of delicate patterns in color and the 
under side is decorated with patterns in 
relief, usually more involved than the col- 
ored ones on the opposite surface. These 
hand-woven relief patterns were produced 
by manipulations of the weft strands so 
devious that only by most careful dissection 
and the drawing of each stitch as it is 
unraveled can the construction of the 
fabric be determined. Only one Basket 
Maker sandal has hitherto been thoroughly 
reported upon, that described by A. V. Kid- 
der in the American Anthropologist, n. s., 
vol. 28, pp. 618-632 (1926). In view of the 
several styles evident among the sandals 
and of the wide variation in layout and 
visual effect within the styles, a complete 
study of the highly complicated technique 
evolved and practiced by the Anasazi has 
for years been called for. Such a study will 
be a long undertaking, but it is the inten- 
tion of Mr. Morris to continue with it 



Robert Redfield and Associates 



!8o CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

until the results can be presented in a Dr. Tax, while in Mexico, was in con- 
publication comparable in thoroughness tact with the group of linguistic mis- 
and detail with Anasazi basketry, which sionaries of the Summer Institute of 
came from the press in 1941. Linguistics. This organization has trained 

linguists stationed in many Indian com- 

Social Anthropology munities in the country, including some 

in outlying Maya communities on which 
there is almost no ethnological informa- 
Dr. Tax spent most of the year in tion. Finding them eager to be of as- 
Mexico. From July through November he sistance, Dr. Tax took time to instruct 
taught at the Escuela Nacional de Antro- many of them in methods of obtaining 
pologia; December and January he spent reliable ethnographic data, 
with nine students in the Tzotzil com- The expedition to Zinacantan, although 
munity of Zinacantan, Chiapas, instructing primarily a training enterprise for students 
them in techniques of ethnographic field of the Mexican Institute of Anthropology, 
work. February he also devoted to this furnished a considerable body of data on 
work, assisting the students in preparing this hitherto unknown community. The 
a report on the work of the expedition, whole Tzotzil group has been almost un- 
The next months, to the middle of June, touched by scientific research. In conjunc- 
were devoted chiefly to making last re- tion with the results of Sr. Villa's work 
visions of his manuscript on The economy among the Tzeltal, the results of the ex- 
of the Indians of Panajachel, Guatemala, pedition give us a good start in under- 
While in Mexico, Dr. Tax began, with standing the ethnology and sociology of 
the cooperation of the Escuela Nacional the Maya groups in Chiapas. The report 
de Antropologia and the collaboration of of the expedition is still incomplete, but 
its cartographer, Sta. Rita Lopez de Llergo, will probably be published in Mexico 
a large-scale language-density map of the within a year. As a further result of this 
Maya area. This map makes use of data expedition and of Dr. Tax's teaching pro- 
from the original schedules of the 1940 gram in Mexico, a new research project, in 
Census of Mexico, furnished through the which three of the students will return tc 
courtesy of the Department of Statistics the same region of Chiapas for six months 
of the Mexican Government, to spot the each to work on problems of social anthro- 
population, classified by language reported pological interest, is under serious con- 
spoken, as accurately as possible. When sideration. As planned, it will be financed 
the Mexican part is completed, it is hoped cooperatively by the Institute Nacional de 
to extend the localization on the map to Antropologia e Historia, the State of Chia- 
Guatemala, British Honduras, and the pas, and the University of Chicago, and 
Republic of Honduras. As projected and will get under way in the autumn of 1943. 
begun, this map will be an improvement Sr. Rosales remained in Chicago until 
not only over previous linguistic maps of January, when he returned to Guatemala 
the area, but over population-density maps to continue the writing of his report on 
as well, since the population is spotted by San Pedro la Laguna. Plans for publica- 
the smallest local units. Sta. Lopez de tion of the first volume, on the technology, 
Llergo has adapted to cartographic pur- in Guatemala are going forward while he 
poses a decimal system of indicating the is working on the chapters on the economy, 
numbers of people. Sr. Alfonso Villa R. spent about ten 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH jgj 

months studying Tzeltal communities under a cooperative arrangement with 

(Dzajalchen, Yaxanal, and Tzuib). His Duke University, engaged in a preliminary 

wife accompanied him, and a field resi- study of San Luis Jilotepeque, a Pokoman 

dence and "branch office" of the Institution community of eastern Guatemala. Mr. 

was built in Dzajalchen. In spite of dim- Melvin Tumin then spent about nine 

culties — the absence of Indian men for months in the same community working 

periods of work on fincas, poor food, sick- especially on problems of acculturation 

ness, and the hostility of the Indians toward and the relations of Indians and Ladinos. 

whites — Sr. Villa recorded excellent and Supported by the Social Science Research 

abundant material. The institutions of Council, with collaboration of the Institu- 

these Indians include exogamous patri- tion, he did his work under the direction 

linear groups, cross-cousin marriage, a dual of Drs. Redfield, Gillin, and Tax. 
division with ritual functions, and a re- 
markable form of witchcraft in which the History of the Maya Area 

sorcerer (in many cases) causes illness as 

., r • j i i F. V. Scholes, R. L. Roys 

a punishment tor a sin committed by the 

sick person or a relative, and in which During the past year Mr. Scholes has 

cure follows confession and lustrative devoted a large part of his time to prepara- 

whipping of the sinner, after divination, tion of chapters for the volume on the 

or diagnosis, by "pulse-takers." Villa will history of the cacicazgo of Acalan-Tixchel 

devote the summer and autumn to prepa- to the early seventeenth century. In the 

ration of a report, and to giving a course spring of 1943 Mr. Roys, who is col- 

in ethnological field method in the Escuela laborating in this work, spent four weeks 

Nacional. His manuscript on The Maya in Albuquerque with Mr. Scholes, during 

of east central Quintana Roo has been which time various problems connected 

submitted for publication. with preparation of the manuscript were 

During the year plans to undertake a ironed out. The volume will be ready for 

study of nutrition in Guatemala, to begin the press not later than the autumn of 1943. 
this summer, matured. Dr. Tax will direct From time to time during the past year 

the project, and the field work will be documentary materials relating to other 

done by Srs. Antonio Goubaud Carrera topics have been studied and extracted, 

and Juan Rosales. Sr. Goubaud, like Sr. Papers based on these sources will eventu- 

Rosales, is a Guatemalan; this will be his ally be prepared for publication, but cer- 

first official connection with the Institu- tain points should be noted at this time 

tion's program, although relations between because of their obvious interest for spe- 

him and members of the stafT have been cialists in Maya studies, 
close since 1934 and he has spent the past One series of documents contains data 

years at the University of Chicago working concerning native ruling families in the 

partly under Dr. Redfield. In 1942 he par- Chancenote area, or cacicazgo of Tazees. 

ticipated in a nutrition study, jointly spoil- We learn that a certain Ahau Chan was 

sored by the Office of Indian Affairs and lord of eight towns in this region prior to 

the University of Chicago, in New Mexico, the conquest and for some years after the 

Plans call for study of the diet of both arrival of the Spaniards. He was succeeded 

Indian and Ladino communities in every by his son, Don Juan Chan, and the latter, 

region of Guatemala. in turn, by Don Juan Chan the Younger, 

During the summer of 1942 Dr. Gillin, who was cacique and governor of Chance- 



j8 2 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

note for about thirty years during the Maya. In later years Sanchez de Aguilar 
latter part o£ the sixteenth century and wrote the well known treatise Informe 
the early years of the seventeenth. Chan contra idolorum cultores del obispado de 
the Younger married Dona Isabel Tzeh, Yucatan, thus emulating in another re- 
daughter of Don Fernando Tzeh, who spect the example of Bishop Landa, author 
was natural lord of other towns in the of the famous Relacion de las cosas de 
Chancenote area and "descended from the Yucatan. 

ancient lords of Mayapan." Thus we have Another series of documents describes 
record of other Maya families which, like the serious disorders which occurred in 
the Xiu, the Pech, and the ruling house of the. pueblo of Sahcabchen, southeast of 
Acalan-Tixchel, were able to retain a meas- Champoton, and in adjacent areas in the 
ure of power after the conquest, and we 1660's and 1670's. Although the major 
learn of another line of rulers which traced causes of unrest were abuses committed 
its ancestry back to chieftains resident in by provincial authorities and raids by Eng- 
Mayapan prior to the disruption of the lish ships along the Gulf coast, we are 
confederacy and the abandonment of the also told that one source of trouble was 
city. The name Tzeh suggests that the the activity of certain Indians, including a 
cacicazgo of Tazees derived its name from native priest, who went about preaching 
this family. that according to prophecies the time had 
During his term of office as governor of come for the Indians to abandon their 
Chancenote, Don Juan Chan the Younger settlements and take refuge in the bush 
received various commissions from the gov- and forest regions of the interior. Inter- 
ernors of Yucatan and performed numer- pretation of these data will require con- 
ous services which contributed to the ad- siderable study, for the information is by 
vancement of the missionary program. He no means explicit. The testimony may 
took an active part in the resettlement of refer to one of the year prophecies, but it 
fugitive and heathen Indians in the eastern seems more likely that a katun prophecy, 
and coastal areas of the province, and on such as we find described in the books of 
one occasion collaborated with Dr. Pedro Chilam Balam, is indicated. These docu- 
Sanchez de Aguilar, cura of Chancenote, ments and the idolatry episode mentioned 
in the extirpation of idolatry. The Chan in the preceding paragraph serve to illus- 
papers are supplemented by the probanzas, trate the survival of Maya religion and 
or proofs of services, of Sanchez de Aguilar, the influence of the native priesthood, 
which also mention the idolatry incident. From the Sahcabchen papers and the 
Although the two sets of papers do not documents which comprise part of the 
contain much detail concerning this epi- source for the Acalan-Tixchel volume we 
sode, it is recorded in one place that during are able to glean interesting data concern- 
the affair, which occurred about 1604, ing settlements of fugitive and apostate 
Sanchez de Aguilar destroyed more than Indians in the central and southern part of 
twenty idols and "three books of heathen- the peninsula in the seventeenth century, 
ism and idolatry written on the bark of Some of these settlements were located in 
trees, with the figures of devils which they the Matamoros— Cilvituk— Chan Laguna re- 
worshiped." So it appears that Sanchez de gion, and chapter 9 of the Acalan-Tixchel 
Aguilar must share with Landa and others volume will deal with missionary enter- 
responsibility for the destruction of many prise in this area from 1604 to 1615. 
of the ancient hieroglyphic writings of the Perhaps most interesting, in view of the 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



183 



growing interest in the archaeology of 
southern and southwestern Campeche, are 
references to the site called Bolonpeten. 
Maler was the first person in modern 
times to mention this place. In his Ex- 
plorations in the Department of Peten, 
Guatemala, and adjacent regions (Memoirs 
of the Peabody Museum, vol. 4, p. 146), 
he described his journey through central 
Yucatan, and in connection with his ac- 
count of the Cilvituk ruins he wrote : 

Incidentally, . . . about the middle of the 
nineteenth century, many free Maya families 
still dwelt in the precincts of Chanlaguna and 
Silbituk. Their principal settlement is said to 
have been at Bolonpeten, some two leagues 
west of Chanlaguna. This is a swampy region 
containing islands, hence the name, "Nine 
Islands." Many pottery sherds are said still 
to lie around there, but the people themselves 
have totally disappeared. 

Andrews, in his Archaeology of south- 
western Campeche (Carnegie Institution 
of Washington Publication 546, p. 37), 
gives additional information concerning 
this swampy area. He states that it is called 
Isla Pac, which "means in Spanish-Maya 
'island with walls,' or 'island with ruins.' ' 
Continuing the discussion, he notes that 
the ruins at Isla Cilvituk and Las Ruinas 
north of Isla Pac are "among the last 
products of indigenous architecture," and 
states the belief that the ruins in Isla Pac, 
or Bolonpeten, if found, "might well 
bridge the gap between our knowledge 
of late pre-Spanish archaeology and early 
historical information. Or they might 
prove that the two overlap." 

From the documentary sources we learn 
certain facts concerning this place. A docu- 
ment of 1605 refers to it as an old site 
(asiento antiguo). The exact meaning of 
this phrase is not clear, but the context 
implies that the place was not occupied 
in 1605. The Sahcabchen papers describe 



it as a place "surrounded by nine small 
islands (islotes)" from which it was pos- 
sible to go by canoe to Popola, located on 
or near the lower course of the Mamantel 
River. It was inhabited at this time (1670) 
and its cacique was one of the leaders of 
the malcontent Indians of the interior. We 
have no positive record that the place was 
occupied at the time of the conquest, but 
there is some evidence that when the Span- 
iards arrived some of the Cehache settle- 
ments may have extended as far north 
as the Cilvituk region. Data on this point 
will be presented in the Acalan-Tixchel 
volume. 

During the year Mr. Scholes and Miss 
Adams published a paper on "Books in 
New Mexico, 1 598-1 680," a contribution 
to the intellectual history of colonial Span- 
ish America. They have also made prog- 
ress on a volume entitled Don Juan 
Dominguez de Mendoza, soldier and fron- 
tiersman of the Southwest, to be published 
in the Coronado Historical Series spon- 
sored by the University of New Mexico. 

Dr. Chamberlain, who is on leave of 
absence, continued to serve as Senior Cul- 
tural Assistant of the United States Em- 
bassy in Guatemala City. 

United States History 
L. F. Stock, J. J. Meng 

Dr. Stock's sixth volume of Proceedings 
and debates of the British Parliaments re- 
specting North America in its final editing 
has not progressed beyond 1758. But if 
war restrictions, especially those found 
necessary by the Library of Congress, have 
thus retarded the editorial progress of the 
work, the process of assembling and pre- 
paring for the printer the selected text 
for the volume has gone steadily forward, 
so that its publication should not be unduly 
delayed. It has also been possible, because 
of this editorial interruption, to examine 



184 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



collections outside Washington for perti- 
nent materials. Especially profitable was 
a visit to the William L. Clements Library, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, whose rich collec- 
tions yielded much for both text and anno- 
tation. For the period beyond that cov- 
ered by the fifth volume the materials 
become more plentiful for each succeeding 
year. This is especially true of reports of 
parliamentary debates. This abundant 
mass may make necessary in future vol- 
umes some departure from the plan of 
inclusion and exclusion which has hereto- 
fore been followed. Whatever decision 
may be reached will, it is hoped, result in 
no sacrifice of the utility of the series, 
which reviewers without exception have 
generously acknowledged. 

During the year Dr. Stock has continued 
to put in order the old files of the Division, 
which have considerable value to the his- 
torian and biographer. He has answered 
many queries of historical nature sent to 
the Institution, and he has given assistance 
in many ways to several investigators. He 
again served as chairman of the Committee 
on Publications of the American Catholic 
Historical Association, and on the Execu- 
tive Council of that organization as one of 
its past presidents. He lectured twice be- 
fore the Charles Carroll Forum on "The 
diplomatic relations between the United 
States and the Vatican" — in Washington 
April ii, and in Chicago April 18, 1943. 

The general dislocation of the Institu- 
tion's activities caused by the war has been 
reflected in the progress toward publication 
of the Guide to materials for American 
history in the libraries and archives of 
Paris. Volume II, devoted to the French 
Foreign Office archives, was not published 
as anticipated during 1942. It is hoped that 
it will appear before the end of 1943. All 
that prevents its appearance are the tech- 
nical difficulties of printing and binding 
a very large volume under wartime con- 



ditions. Volume III, comprising notes on 
the archives and libraries of the War Office, 
the Ministry of Marine, the Comite de 
l'Artillerie, the Comite Technique du 
Genie, and the Service Hydrographique, 
is complete in manuscript form. Publica- 
tion must wait upon the prior demands 
of other projects considered of more im- 
mediate importance. 

Although publication of this work has 
been delayed, research for the remaining 
volumes is continuing. Dr. Waldo G. 
Leland, the general editor, is supervising 
the work of Dr. John }. Meng on the 
materials which have not yet been collated 
and prepared for publication. The manu- 
script of volume IV, which will list and 
describe the various Actes du Pouvoir 
Souverain relating to America, as well as 
materials from the Archives Nationales 
and a number of minor depositories, is 
virtually complete. The plan of treatment 
for volume V, the last, and one of the 
most important volumes of the series, has 
been decided upon, and preparation of the 
manuscript will be well under way before 
the end of the year. That volume will deal 
with the centrally important Archives des 
Colonies. 

History of Science 
George Sarton 

Introduction to the history of science. 
In the previous report the completion of 
the first half of volume III was announced. 
The second half (dealing with the second 
half of the fourteenth century) is now 
almost completed. Twenty-five chapters 
out of twenty-eight are written, and the 
manuscript of volume III will probably 
be ready for submission to the Carnegie 
Institution in September. 

Editing of Isis. Volume 34 is in course 
of publication. It is now printed in two 
columns for the sake of economy. It has 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



185 



not yet been possible to renew the publica- 
tion of Osiris, for which much material 
has accumulated. 

The proofreading and editing of his 
are taken care of by Dr. Pogo, who also 
conducts many minor investigations en- 
tailed by the editing and by the Intro- 
duction. 

Publications 
Margaret W. Harrison 

In December 1942 the Institution pub- 
lished Archaeological researches in the 
northern Great Basin (Publication 538), 
by L. S. Cressman, of the University of 
Oregon, and others. Specialists in anthro- 
pology, archaeology, paleontology, geology, 
and climatology cooperated in this study 
of the history of early man in south-central 
Oregon. 

Archaeological reconnaissance in Cam- 
peche, Quintana Roo, and Peten (Publica- 
tion 543) came from press in April 1943. 
A detailed account of the work of four 
expeditions — 1932, 1933, 1934, and 1938 — 
the book is illustrated by 126 line-cut 
drawings, 60 gravure plates, and 15 maps. 
To facilitate cross reference, the subject 
matter is arranged by structure under 
each site. Karl Ruppert wrote the intro- 
duction, summary, and description of 
the ruins; the late John H. Denison, Jr. 
recorded the epigraphy, which Mrs. 
Harrison subsequently reorganized under 
schematized headings for each stela in 
numerical order at every site. A number of 
Mr. Denison's photographs of the monu- 
ments and rubbings were not published, 
but they are available upon request to 
the Peabody Museum of Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

In process of being printed is Ralph L. 
Roys' The Indian background of colonial 
Yucatan. Part I describes the country, the 
people, and their way of life as the Span- 



iards found them. Mr. Roys has adapted 
much of the material from his manuscript 
on the Xiu Chronicle (now deposited in 
Peabody Museum), and presents it as part 
II, a discussion of the cacique system in 
Yucatan. This volume is the first in a 
proposed series of historical studies on the 
Maya area. The second, now ready for 
press, has been produced jointly by Mr. 
Roys and France V. Scholes. It considers 
the history, ethnology, and linguistics of 
the Chontal Indians of the Acalan-Tixchel 
region in southwestern Campeche. The 
Chontal text, the only known existing 
document written in the Chontal lan- 
guage, will be reproduced in facsimile, for 
it is one of the most important sources for 
Maya history and ethnology that has been 
found in many years. 

From the eighth volume of "Contribu- 
tions to American Anthropology and 
History," the first paper (no. 40), The 
archaeology of southwestern Campeche, by 
E. Wyllys Andrews, was preprinted in 
February 1943. Explorations in the Mo- 
tagua valley (no. 41), by A. L. Smith and 
A. V. Kidder, and The astronomical tables 
of the Maya (no. 42), by Maud W. 
Makemson, of Vassar College, are ready 
for final printing. The last report, Karl 
Ruppert's The Mercado, Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan (no. 43), is now being typed for 
offset. The whole volume will be dis- 
tributed in the fall of 1943. 

Mrs. Harrison has edited most of the 
manuscript submitted by Alfonso Villa R. 
on The Maya of east central Quintana Roo. 

Tatiana ProskouriakofiF is assembling her 
drawings for an album of Maya architec- 
ture and sculpture. The volume, to be 
ready for publication by the end of 1943, 
will contain a short introduction and 34 
mechanically plotted perspective drawings 
rendered in black-and-white wash. Each 
plate is accompanied by a descriptive com- 
ment and a pen-and-ink sketch showing 



1 86 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the degree o£ certainty in the restoration. 
Sculptural details are represented in scratch 
drawings on Rossboard. 

The collection o£ "Notes on Middle 
American Archaeology and Ethnology" 
has been increased by fifteen numbers 
during the year. The editor of the series, 
J. Eric S. Thompson, contributed six 
papers, Dr. Kidder three, and Dr. Halpern 
one, all listed in the bibliography at the 
end of this report. The remainder came 
from specialists outside the Institution: 
A new pottery style from the Department 
of Piura, Peru (no. 8), by John Howland 
Rowe, of the National University of Cuzco, 
Peru; The payment of tribute in the Codex 
Mendoza (no. 10) and A note on Aztec 
chronology (no. n), by R. C. E. Long, of 
Portarlington, Ireland; A reconnaissance 
on I si a de Sacrificios, Veracruz, Mexico 
(no. 14), by Wilfrido du Solier, of the 
National Institute of Anthropology and 
History, Mexico; and Notes on sculpture 
and architecture at Tonala, Chiapas (no. 
21), by Linton Satterthwaite, Jr., of Uni- 
versity Museum, Philadelphia. An index 



will be issued when enough papers have 
been gathered to form a volume, but a list 
of contents is supplied from time to time 
while the volume is in progress. 

Preparation of the typescript of volume 
II of the Guide to materials for American 
history in the libraries and archives of Paris 
(Publication 392) is finished. Of its 1080 
pages, "about half have been printed (by 
offset) ; the rest will follow within a few 
months. The compiler and editor, John J. 
Meng, has concluded work on the manu- 
script for volumes III and IV and is well 
advanced in that for volume V, the last. 
Volume I of the Guide (libraries) is sepa- 
rately indexed. This and the remaining 
volumes (archives) will be cumulatively 
indexed when publication is completed. 

In addition to editing and seeing through 
press the afore-mentioned publications, 
Mrs. Harrison has advised members of the 
staff on details of presentation relative to 
the text and illustrations of their forth- 
coming reports, and has made minor re- 
searches connected with the preparation 
of their material. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

July i, 1942 — June 30, 1943 



Adams, Eleanor B., and F. V. Scholes. Books 
in New Mexico, 1598-1680. New Mexico 
Hist. Rev., vol. 17, pp. 226-270 (1942). 

Halpern, A. A theory of Maya ts-sounds. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical Research, 
Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. and 
Ethnol., no. 13 (1942). 

Kidder, A. V. Archaeological specimens from 
Yucatan and Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Div. Historical Research, Notes on 
Middle Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 9 
(1942). 

Pottery from the Pacific slope of Guate- 
mala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical 
Research, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 
and Ethnol., no. 15 (1943). 

Spindle whorls from Chichen Itza, Yu- 
catan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical 



Research, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 
and Ethnol., no. 16 (1943). 
Meng, J. J. Notes and reviews. Catholic Hist. 
Rev. 

Reviews in Thought. Fordham Univ. 

Quar. 

Morley, S. G. Archaeological investigations of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 
the Maya area of Middle America, during the 
past twenty-eight years. Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. 86, pp. 205-219 (1943). 

Pogo, Alexander. Remarks on the lunar eclipse 
of 1943 February 20. Texas Observers' Bull., 
no. 136, pp. 1-3 (1943). 

Early and late Easter dates. Science, 

vol. 97, p. 354 (1943). 

— Uncommon Easter dates. Pop. Astron., 



vol. 51, pp. 254-256 (1943)- 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



187 



Ruppert, Karl. Archaeological reconnaissance 
in Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Peten. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 543 (1943). 

Sarton, George. Preface to volume XXXIV. O 
columns! Isis, vol. 34, pp. 3-4 (1942). 

The sources of Joos van Ghistele's Voy- 
age to the East (1481-85; princeps, Ghent, 
1557). Isis, vol. 34, pp. 25-27 (1942). 

Was Jeanne Barre the first woman who 

travelled around the world (c. 1773) ? Isis, 
vol. 34, p. 27 (1942). 

The discovery of the circulation of the 

blood. Isis, vol. 34, p. 29 (1942). 

Sixty-second critical bibliography of the 

history and philosophy of science (to April, 
1942). Isis, vol. 34, pp. 49-94 (1942). 

Second preface to volume XXXIV. Les- 

quereux (1806-89). Isis, vol. 34, pp. 97-108 
(1942). 

Third preface to volume XXXIV. The 

years "forty-three." Isis, vol. 34, pp. 193— 

195 (i943)- 

Remarks on the theory of temperaments. 

With a German "temperament" text of c. 
1480, edited by Erika von Erhardt-Siebold. 
Isis, vol. 34, pp. 205-208 (1943). 

Sixty-third critical bibliography of the 



history and philosophy of science (to Octo- 
ber, 1942). Isis, vol. 34, pp. 238-286 

(i943)- 

L'avenir de la science. Renaissance, vol. 



1, pp. 218-237 (1943), 
Scholes, F. V. See Adams, Eleanor B. 
Stock, L. F. Notes and reviews. Catholic Hist. 

Rev. 
Tax, Sol. Ethnic relations in Guatemala. Amer- 



ica indigena, vol. 2, pp. 43-48. Mexico 
(1942). 
Thompson, J. E. S. A coordination of the his- 
tory of Chichen Itza with ceramic sequences 
in central Mexico. Rev. mexicana de estudios 
antropologicos, vol. 5, pp. 97-1 11. Mexico 
(1941). 

Las llamadas fachadas de Quetzalcouatl. 

Proc. 27th Internat. Cong. Americanists 
( x 939) 5 PP- 39 I ~400- Mexico (1943). 

Observations on Glyph G of the lunar 

series. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical 
Research, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 
and Ethnol., no. 7 (1942). 

Representations of Tezcatlipoca at Chi- 
chen Itza. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. His- 
torical Research, Notes on Middle Amer. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 12 (1942). 

Some sculptures from southeastern Que- 

zaltenango, Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Div. .Historical Research, Notes on Middle 
Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 17 (1943). 

The initial series of Stela 14, Piedras 

Negras, Guatemala, and a date on Stela 19, 
Naranjo, Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Div. Historical Research, Notes on Middle 
Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 18 (1943). 

Representations of Tlalchitonatiuh at 

Chichen Itza, Yucatan, and at El Baul, Es- 
cuintla. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical 
Research, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 
and Ethnol., no. 19 (1943). 

Maya epigraphy: directional glyphs in 

counting. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. His- 
torical Research, Notes on Middle Amer. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 20 (1943). 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

Marion E. Blake, Bradford, Vermont. Preparation of a monograph on ancient 
Roman construction based on the material accumulated by the late Dr. Esther B. 
Van Deman. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 38 to 41.) 

Various demands due to war conditions in chapters 3, "Stone walls," and 5, "Arches 

have delayed somewhat the completion of and vaults," which deal with many of the 

the monograph dealing with ancient Roman same buildings. The enormous task of 

construction. The work has advanced checking references throughout the entire 

considerably, however, and the end is in study is well under way, and a bibliog- 

sight. Chapter 1, "Introduction," has been raphy of authorities and abbreviations has 

written; chapter 2, "Materials," has been been started. An index of places has been 

completely reorganized to eliminate refer- compiled on cards, which will serve even- 

ences to buildings later than Augustus tually as the basis of an analytical index 

and shortened by cross references to later designed to make the monograph a means 

chapters. Chapters 3, "Stone walls," and 6, of ready reference. 

"Opus incertum, quasi-reticulatum, and Only three tasks remain virtually un- 

reticulatum," have been expanded to give touched : the preface, the concluding chap- 

a general survey of these types of construe- ter, and the illustrations, to which should 

tion throughout Italy. Substantial progress perhaps be added the time-consuming task 

has been made in eliminating repetition of retyping much of the manuscript. 



189 



PALEONTOLOGY, EARLY MAN, AND HISTORICAL GEOLOGY 

John C. Merriam, President Emeritus, Carnegie Institution of Washington. (For pre- 
vious reports see Year Books Nos. 20 to 41.) 

The President Emeritus research report been included, so far as it is expressed in 
for 1943 is organized on the plan used this region. 

for previous reports from 1938— 1939 to The group of investigators concerned 
1942, but differs from them in that a greater with work in the John Day area has corn- 
percentage of the larger projects have been prised representatives from many of the 
brought to the stage of final discussion, or principal institutions of the west coast 
have been so organized that the work may region, and a number of students from 
proceed satisfactorily under other auspices, leading agencies concerned with geological 
The outstanding example of this type of and paleontological work in the eastern 
treatment of materials appears in considera- universities and museums. With develop- 
tion of problems relating to studies on ment of cooperative work among the in- 
paleontological and geological history of dividuals and institutions represented, there 
the John Day region of eastern Oregon, exists an important complex of researches 

involving very many points of view, all of 
Researches on the John Day Region of which are important individually, and es- 
Oregon; with Discussion of Program pecially significant when considered in re- 
lation to one another. 

Results of the work of the writer in the 
John Day region are recorded in the Pub- 
lished papers and addresses of John Camp- 
bell Merriam, being volumes I to IV in 
Carnegie Institution Publication 500. 

In the past year, specific attention has 
been given to the desirability of either 
bringing to conclusion certain phases of 
work relating to technical researches which 
can be taken up at any time, or planning 
such a program as will make it possible to 
carry these investigations forward through 
the medium of other students now at work, 
or who may desire to enter this field in the 
future. 

It has been assumed that there is still, in 
the John Day region, a great wealth of 
material for studies of large advantage to 
science and to humanity broadly. Certain 
of the technical studies may perhaps be 



to Meet Future Needs of Research 
and Educational Activities 

In previous reports, beginning with 
1938— 1939, there has been discussion of 
the extensive series of correlated researches 
directed toward attainment of an under- 
standing of the story of geology and of the 
history of life in the John Day region of 
Oregon. The work of the writer devoted 
to interpretation of the John Day region 
began with an expedition into that area 
in 1899, and has been carried on continu- 
ously from that time until the present, 
both through field expeditions and through 
laboratory investigation. Beginning with 
an effort to learn something of the spec- 
tacular story of evolution of higher animals 
in that region, the studies were extended 
to include groups of lower animals without 
backbones, as also the flora, the general 



geology of the region, and certain aspects completed within a short time; others will 

of petrography and mineralogy. In some interlock with investigations involving de- 

of the later work, beginning investigation tailed work which should be carried on 

of the story of early man in America has over extended periods. It is recognized 



190 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



191 



that, though it is often possible to continue 
a technical study indefinitely by accumula- 
tion of additional materials, and though 
such work has the definite value attach- 
ing to fundamental realities of science, it 
is also true that such material may be only 
the bricks by use of which major structures 
can be erected. On the other hand, since 
general or philosophical studies represent in 
large measure the conclusions toward 
which scientific studies are directed, there 
is presumably a responsibility resting upon 
the writer of this report to make an effort 
so to develop the values that are now 
evident as to open the way for the largest 
constructive use of the outstanding fea- 
tures in this region. 

The major factors relating to the John 
Day program of the future may be con- 
sidered under three heads: 

1. The effort to safeguard continuance 
of research activities in the John Day re- 
gion, through setting up of an informal 
organization to be known as John Day 
Associates. 

2. Activities relating to use of features of 
the John Day region which may contrib- 
ute materially toward education of the 
people of the state in thinking on major 
questions concerning the character and 
significance of natural phenomena, and 
which may also advance development of 
thought on the meaning of these phe- 
nomena in their relation to understanding 
of human problems in the future. Of par- 
ticular importance in this plan is the 
preparation of clearly written publications 
relating to features of special human 
interest. 

3. The setting up of a program by which 
the natural features of principal interest 
in the John Day region may be protected 
for their highest use in development of 
research and in education of the people, 
through establishing a series of reservations 
under the State Parks Office. 



Commonly, research appears to move in 
cycles, which tend to correspond rather 
closely to the life periods of investigators 
concerned. But it is believed that advance 
in studies within the John Day region may 
go forward through a period of not less 
than one hundred years, and possibly reach 
much farther. The planning of an in- 
formal organization, to continue thinking 
in the fields of research for which favor- 
able materials are found in the John Day 
region, is designed to promote continuity 
of effort and to make more effective the 
studies which may be undertaken. The 
invitation includes those who have already 
been concerned with these investigations 
and are most familiar with the subjects 
available for study. It is believed that the 
method, which has been approved by the 
Oregon State Board of Higher Education, 
will aid in development of research in 
many fields, and will facilitate synthesis 
of materials. It is hoped that the collective 
thinking of the group of investigators 
known as John Day Associates may not 
become so formal as to limit development 
of research in any of the directions in 
which work can be conducted to advantage. 

The activities designed especially to ad- 
vance education of the people are planned 
to aid in bringing about contact with the 
realities of nature in a manner tending to 
stimulate self-education. It is believed that 
this contact will promote initiation of 
thought on the part of visitors such as may 
lead to recognition of the power and move- 
ment illustrated in the natural world, the 
laws in accordance with which it develops, 
and the principle of unity which holds the 
features of nature together. It is hoped 
that contact with the phenomena of nature 
will lead to recognition of the fact that 
we live in a dependable, or law-controlled, 
universe in which advance or development 
is a normal mode of action. 

It is assumed, also, that there will ulti- 



192 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



mately be appreciation of the fact that what 
we know of history in the human group 
shows that basic principles dominant in 
development of other groups of organisms 
have had in general a corresponding influ- 
ence in our own history. It is also con- 
sidered possible that evidence of the extent 
to which so-called natural law has had an 
important place in early human historical 
development may lead to recognition of 
influence of these principles in peculiarly 
human relations, such as those involved in 
social and political problems in the present 
and future of mankind. 

Preparation of a simple, carefully written 
book calling attention to the things of 
greatest interest in the John Day area 
would have large value in interpreting to 
the public the principal phases of reality 
which we consider important. It is pos- 
sible that, in preparation for actual use 
or study of the area by visitors, a more 
technical publication in the nature of a 
guidebook might also be helpful. 

Plans for safeguarding certain areas and 
features in the John Day region most im- 
portant in providing materials for research, 
and opportunity for education, have been 
under consideration for a number of years, 
as noted in previous reports. Through the 
careful thinking of Samuel H. Boardman, 
Superintendent of State Parks, of Oregon, 
effort has been made to see how the things 
of greatest value could be protected and, at 
the same time, made available for research 
and educational use with a minimum 
of disturbance of what would be considered 
the natural activities for life in that region. 
The Highway Commission of the State 
of Oregon, the agency to which the state 
parks organization is responsible, has ap- 
proached discussion of this subject in a 
sympathetic manner, and has proceeded in 
an orderly fashion to secure the data needed 
for carrying out such a program for state 



park use as would fit into activities of these 
organizations. 

History and evolution of floras in 
John Day formations, Ralph W. Chaney. 
Among the researches concerning history 
of life in the John Day region, one of the 
most consistently constructive is that of 
Dr. Ralph W. Chaney on the history of 
plant life in its relation to the geological 
story. The studies, carried on through 
many years, have contributed a great 
amount of information regarding types of 
plants in these formations, their variation, 
and their history through the formations 
in which they occur. The story of life as 
represented by plants has aided markedly 
in our interpretation of geological succes- 
sion and correlation, and in forming opin- 
ion regarding changes of climate and other 
physical conditions which have taken place 
through the ages. 

Dr. Chaney reports: . 

"Continuing study of Tertiary floras 
from the John Day Basin emphasizes their 
significance as guides to understanding of 
vegetation, both past and present. In no 
other part of the continent does the record 
so closely approximate completeness, for 
recurrent volcanism during much of the 
time provided ideal conditions for preser- 
vation of plant materials in fine-textured 
volcanic sediments, and flows of lava pro- 
tected them from subsequent erosion. 
Varied climate and topography favored 
the development of rich and diversified 
vegetation, changing from epoch to epoch 
with a progressive trend toward wider 
extremes of temperature and lessening rain- 
fall. From the subtropical rain forests of 
the Eocene and the temperate forests of the 
Oligocene and Miocene, there have been 
derived not only the hardy trees now 
scattered along the John Day valley, but 
many vegetation types spread widely over 
North America. The impact of changing 
topography and climate has brought new 



PALEONTOLOGY, EARLY MAN, AND HISTORICAL GEOLOGY ^ 

plant populations to eastern Oregon, and Eustace L. Furlong. Through a period of 

has scattered the rich elements of its earlier several years extensive studies have been 

forests widely across the continent. made by Chester Stock and Eustace L. 

"Current studies of the Mascall flora Furlong on the succession of life forms 

are tending to confirm our earlier opinion in the John Day region, especially in the 

that the Upper Miocene forest of the John John Day, the Mascall, and the Rattlesnake 

Day Basin was made up of floral elements formation. The purpose of these investiga- 

now widely distributed over the northern tions has been determination of the vertical 

hemisphere. In the Blue Mountains of or time range of different types of life, with 

Oregon and the Cascades to the west, a view to learning the extent to which 

there are a number of trees whose Mio- genera and species have disappeared or have 

cene ancestors lived in the areas now ren- changed into other forms by some process 

dered semiarid by their rain shadows. The of evolution. The fact that these sedi- 

present-day forest of valleys in the Coast ments may include many hundreds of feet 

Ranges of California contains redwood, of strata, in which the lines of demarcation 

alder, several species of oak, and numerous of layers or divisions are clearly marked, 

other modern equivalents of Mascall spe- has suggested the possibility that careful 

cies. Southward in the highlands of Mexico collecting would show the vertical as well 

and Guatemala, whence they appear to as the horizontal or geographic range of 

have migrated along the Cordillera in post- organic types. 

Miocene time, there are trees which show Where careful collecting has been done 
resemblances to Mascall species, mingled on a ser ies of well exposed formations by 
with others which appear to have had an experienced collectors, it is not easy sub- 
origin in the south. As has been men- sequently to increase the amount of mate- 
tioned in previous reports, living forests r ial available unless new localities can be 
of the Allegheny Plateau (Year Book No. discovered, since the formations weather 
40, p. 183), in the lower drainage of the rather s i owly an ^ up to the present time, 
Ohio River (Year Book No. 41, p. 142), f ew localities have been found at which 
and elsewhere in the eastern United States f ossils were sufficiently abundant to war- 
include a large number of trees whose mnt digging or mining for specimens, 
ancestry seems readily traceable to the Under the circumstances, it has been neces- 
Upper Miocene. sar y t0 awa i t tne accumulation of mate- 

"In northeastern Asia, where the climate r ; a i s over a considerable period before 
also is characterized by summer rainfall, attempting to draw final conclusions as 
there are many points of similarity with t o the meaning of distribution as deter- 
the composition of the Mascall flora. Our mined by field work, 
study of this Miocene forest involves anal- j n or d er to bring together at this time 
ysis of living conditions in these widely a s clear a statement as possible of the 
separated areas, in an attempt to reach materials available for study on vertical dis- 
an approximate understanding of the cli- tribution of organic types in the John Day 
matic and topographic factors which con- section, Dr. Stock and Mr. Furlong have 
trolled Tertiary vegetation, and which have carried out a review of the available mate- 
been responsible for wide forest migrations rials as a matter of record. Mr. Furlong 
in later geologic time." examined especially the collections at the 

Significance of faunal zones represented University of California, where the mate- 

by higher animals, Chester Stoc\ and rials accumulated in the first studies of 
16 



jp^ CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

this subject were deposited. He has com- upper Horsetown of California and in- 
piled a list of sixty-nine collecting localities eludes species ranging more widely within 
of the University of California Museum the Indio-Pacific province, 
and thirty-five localities of the California "This fauna, which is confined to the 
Institute of Technology, together with lower shale member of the Mitchell beds 
names of the genera and species that have (for which the term Mitchell formation 
thus far been recovered. It is to be as- will later be proposed), also includes a 
sumed that, with time, other collectors and limited pelecypod and gastropod fauna, 
other institutions will work over the region the former characterized by species of Tri- 
which has been studied by the University gonia and Pholadomya. 
of California, California Institute, and the "The Mitchell beds also include three 
University of Oregon, so that the number other distinctive stratigraphic members, 
of genera and species represented in these two being massive conglomerates sepa- 
sections will be enlarged. The advance of rated by a shale, not unlike the lower or 
knowledge in this particular subject has 'Meyers' shale member. These three upper- 
great importance for general studies on most members have not yielded fossils, 
evolution of organic types, as, also, for although extensive search has been made 
interpretation of geological sequences and for them. 

for correlation of deposits in regions so "The conglomerate members are not 

sharply or widely separated that continuity distinguishable from the barren conglom- 

of strata through mapping is not possible, erates outcropping along the John Day 

Studies on the history and evolution of River at the base of the John Day forma- 

lower animals in formations of the John tion below Picture Gorge. 
Day area, E. L. Packard. The work of "Somewhat similar conglomerates occur 

Dr. E. L. Packard concerning the history at Antone, but they contain, as do the as- 

of lower animals without backbones has sociated sandstones and shales, a distinctive 

contributed important data bearing on Upper Cretaceous fauna, comprising well 

problems of geological interpretation, on known gastropods and pelecypods. That 

questions touching changes of physical con- fauna occurs in restricted areas along the 

ditions or environment, and on steps in northern face of the Ochoco fault scarp as 

evolution of lower animals which have far east as South Fork of John Day, and 

gone forward approximately parallel with along Beaver Creek on the southern slope 

those of higher animals and of plants. of the Ochoco structural block." 

Dr. Packard has now in process of final Studies on general geology of the John 

organization manuscripts recording results Day region, John P. Buwalda. Circum- 

of his work in recent years. The following stances incident to the war situation have 

notes present certain details relating to the delayed publication of extensive reports 

work which he has under way : on the geology of the John Day country 

"During the past year the Cretaceous which have been worked out with great 

invertebrate faunas from the Mitchell beds care and fine vision by Dr. Buwalda. It 

of upper Horsetown age in the John Day is clearly desirable to take such a course 

area have been checked again, and the as will lead to the best possible presenta- 

descriptions rewritten. Over fifty species of tion of these results, rather than to allow, 

ammonites are recognized, among which through hasty publication, the possibility 

are a number of new forms. The am- of omissions which could be covered ade- 

monite fauna has definite affinities with the quately later only by more or less frag- 



PALEONTOLOGY, EARLY MAN, AND HISTORICAL GEOLOGY jq 5 

mentary publications. Though continuous development of the great opportunity for 

field researches are impossible at this time, studies in the history of life afforded by 

cooperative thinking on the problems rep- collections obtained at Rancho La Brea in 

resented has been carried on with other Los Angeles. These researches have in- 

students. eluded consideration of classification and 

Problem of early man in the John Day organization of the splendid collections at 
region. The present world-wide disturb- the Los Angeles County Museum. One 
ance has eliminated a large part of all of the most important advances has in- 
research concerning fundamental prob- volved development of the collection of 
lems relating to evolution of man over the mounted skeletons of Pleistocene birds 
earth. With conclusion of the present from the asphalt deposits. These mount- 
world war, however, some of the most ings show particularly well the size and 
important problems to be faced will con- proportions of some of the most striking 
cern interpretation of relations among raptorial birds, as well as of the extinct 
nations, for understanding of which it is stork and wild turkey. Never before have 
important to have a knowledge of the so many extinct birds been made available 
evolutionary development and relation- in mounted form; thereby it is possible to 
ships of human groups. increase the knowledge of these creatures 

Researches on the history of early man, beyond the details of morphology acquired 

carried out by Dr. L. S. Cressman of the through study of individual parts of the 

University of Oregon in recent years, have skeleton. The success of this type of prepa- 

made valuable contribution to our knowl- ration is due largely to the painstaking 

edge of this subject. Especially significant efforts of the museum preparator, Eugene 

is his paper on Archaeological researches J. Fischer. The materials for the mounted 

in the northern Great Basin, recently pub- specimens were selected from the large col- 

lished by the Carnegie Institution of Wash- lection by Dr. Hildegarde Howard. It is 

ington. As this paper deals with important hoped that it may be possible to prepare 

occurrences of remains in south-central a restoration of the large condor-like vul- 

Oregon, there is inevitably inquiry as to ture (Teratornis merriamt). 

whether the region of special interest con- Mr. Fischer has also just completed an 

tributing data relating to early man in excellent mounted specimen of the extinct 

Oregon might be expected to include at bison (Bison antiquus) from Rancho La 

least some part of the John Day area. Up Brea. This represents one of the largest 

to the present time little attention has been individuals of the Bovidae to be recorded 

given to this possibility, but Dr. Cressman from the asphalt. A paper describing this 

has carried out reconnaissance studies specimen is now being prepared by Dr. 

which gave very favorable results and is Stock. 

of the opinion that the John Day region 

• *. r ■ i 4 «. -„i c • «- «. a Researches on Animals Contributing 

might furnish materials or interest and 

■ . _ Especially Important Data Bearing 
importance. 

upon the Significance of 

Development of Research on the Evolution 

Deposits of Fossil Remains Through all the reports which have been 

at Rancho La Brea published on this series of paleontological 

During the past year Dr. Chester Stock and historical researches there has been 

has given continued attention to further emphasis upon significance of certain 



I9 6 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

phases of the paleontological record which velopment of characters which have im- 
have made particularly important contri- portance for life in this particular group, 
bution toward understanding the mode of and that there is much information bear- 
operation of evolution. Attention has been ing upon the whole problem of method 
called especially to work done upon a few and ultimate result of evolution which 
groups in which evidences of evolution must be studied if we are to learn the real 
not only are strongly marked, but have nature of this process, and also ultimately 
been interpreted more easily than is true to know whether changes of this sort may 
in certain other divisions of the organic be induced through influence of human 
world. In the study of two widely differ- intelligence. 

ent groups of higher animals, data relat- The work of Mr. Furlong on the ante- 

ing to history and development have been lopes deals with a type of life in which the 

accumulated which seem to have excep- specialization is totally different from that 

tional interest and importance. One of in the whales, and in which it is perhaps 

these phases of work involves the study true that the aspects of specialization are 

by Dr. Remington Kellogg, of the U. S. more sharply localized in the body. At the 

National Museum, on evolution or speciali- same time, one must recognize that there 

zation of the members of the whale group, is a high degree of correlation among the 

The other series of studies is that by Mr. various aspects of the specialization. 
Eustace L. Furlong, of the California In- 

stitute of Technology, on the history of Investigation of Major Problems in 
certain groups of antelopes. The fact that Geology and Paleontology of 
both the whales and the antelopes are THE Grand Canyon 
known as highly specialized animals has In planning a program of interpreta- 
relation to the kind of evidence of evolu- tion covering major features of the Grand 
tion furnished. Whatever significance there Canyon National Park some years ago, 
be in other important aspects of the story effort was made to select those questions 
of life, there can be no doubt that scientific which seemed of exceptional importance, 
interest stresses the evidence of contin- and regarding which relatively little had 
ued changes through the ages by means been known. Investigation of certain of 
of which more highly specialized and, in these problems was carried out in con- 
some cases, more highly effective types of siderable part by Edwin D. McKee, then 
life come into being. naturalist at the Grand Canyon on the 
The work of Dr. Kellogg on the whales staff of the National Park Service. Not 
presents one of the most spectacular series only has the material obtained in his studies 
of changes that we know in the whole contributed much toward understanding 
range of history of organisms. The fact the broader outlines of history in this area, 
that these changes have led toward the but, in general, it has appeared that the 
development of animals specialized for investigation of each of these problems has 
aquatic life does not mean that the result related itself in some measure to work on 
of the changes is less important than would other subjects, so that his researches have 
be the case if they were leading toward presented a connected story of great im- 
very high development of a brain system portance in interpretation of major values 
or of intelligence. A point of great sig- at the Grand Canyon, 
nificance is that the series of steps moves One phase of Mr. McKee's work having 
rapidly and quite directly toward the de- exceptional interest involves studies made 



PALEONTOLOGY, EARLY MAN, AND HISTORICAL GEOLOGY 



197 



on conditions and forces now operating, that great importance attaches to effort 

with a view to interpreting major phe- directed toward study of methods and con- 

nomena represented in geological history elusions of science which contribute toward 

of the Grand Canyon region. For example, understanding the rapidly growing num- 

to attain understanding of certain aspects ber of complicated problems that have to 

of what appeared to be a delta formation, do with world questions. 

he made studies on the delta of the Colo- Recent publication of a book on the 

rado River; these have thrown light on influence of nature in human experience 

the Grand Canyon formation, giving ad- has emphasized certain aspects of natural 

ditional evidence of its vast antiquity. law the interpretation of which has had 

A further illustration of this method is important place in the thought of the 
found in recent studies by Mr. McKee writer. These ideas have been expressed 
at the Museum of Northern Arizona, re- to some extent in all the President Emeritus 
garding the formation of sand dunes. He research reports up to the present time, 
has been able, by use of wind tunnels and So, in the report of 1 938-1 939 attention 
a fan, to reproduce types of sand dunes, was called to the importance of examining 
including the minor structures which seem evidence suggesting that contributions of 
to be represented in the geological forma- science may come to have large value in 
tions. By comparing these results with formulation of a philosophy with wide- 
study of the Coconino formation in the reaching implications for human life. At 
Grand Canyon, it has been possible to that time there was suggested for con- 
explain many features that have heretofore sideration the possibility that a philosophy 
been very puzzling. More than this, Mr. based upon expression of natural law might 
McKee has been making studies on various furnish principles of value in a restate- 
types of lizard footprints found in the ment of religion or ethics, such as would 
dune sand in the Grand Canyon forma- be acceptable to a large percentage of 
tions. thinking people. It was also noted that 

A monograph on the Grand Canyon re-study of materials available might indi- 
Cambrian, by Mr. McKee and Charles E. cate that possibly the greatest contribution 
Resser, of the U. S. National Museum, of science concerns its influence in de- 
has been approved for publication by the termining our attitudes of mind and our 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. aspirations. Reference was also made to 

the idea that materials of research which 

Expression of Natural Law as Founda- haye been tested sufficiently to establish 

tion of .belief t j ie | r rea Ji t y furnish exceptionally valuable 

Assuming that objectives of President foundations for the building of human 

Emeritus research may have largest im- beliefs, and that, to the extent to which 

portance in those phases of study involv- science demands a basis of reality for what 

ing attainment of conclusions relating to is used in development of ideas, its meth- 

fundamental ideas, it is natural that ods may properly serve as pattern in study 

through this period of work there has of specifically human problems, 

been continuous interest in contributions An interesting aspect of the relation be- 

of science having special significance in tween study of nature and development in 

consideration of human problems. With beliefs presents itself in the possible influ- 

accumulation of data bearing upon this ence of certain points of view upon the rela- 

subject, it has seemed increasingly clear tion between science and philosophic or re- 



198 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ligious beliefs. If it be demonstrated that 
with increasing knowledge of the nature 
of the world about us we may develop 
better-founded and humanly more clearly 
adequate ideas regarding fundamental be- 
liefs, then there would be reason for press- 
ing our fundamental study of nature by 
more intensive scientific research. So, it 
may appear that, although for a consider- 
able period science was assumed to exert a 
destructive influence upon religious and 
other fundamental beliefs, the real situa- 
tion would be one in which the highest 
advance of science would be recognized as 
contributing toward improvement of our 
point of view or of our beliefs. There 
would thus be attained a stage at which 
the advance of science, philosophy, and 
fundamental beliefs would be closely 
linked, and so intimately related that they 
should go forward as one great movement. 

Addresses by Dr. Merriam 

"Man's place in nature," address before 
class in anthropology, University of Ore- 
gon, Eugene, Oregon, October 12, 1942. 



"Human values of the redwoods," Audu- 
bon Society, Los Angeles, California, 
March 1943. 

"Relation between objectives of Phi Beta 
Kappa and Sigma Xi," joint meeting of 
Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, University 
of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, May 15, 1943. 

"Our widening view of nature apprecia- 
tion," Geological Society of Salem, Salem, 
Oregon, May 20, 1943. 

"Human meaning of earth history as 
illustrated by striking features of Oregon," 
Geologists of the Oregon Country, Port- 
land, Oregon, May 28, 1943. 

"Major conceptions of research on mean- 
ing of the redwoods," message of the Presi- 
dent to the Save-the-Redwoods League, 
San Francisco, California, August 24, 1943. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Merriam, John Campbell. The garment of God: 

influence of nature in human experience. 

xii+162 pp. New York, Charles Scribner's 

Sons (1943). 
The redwoods and the war. Living 

Wilderness, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 15-18 (1943). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

November i, 1942 — October 31, 1943 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTION 

Year Book No. 41, 1941-1942. Octavo, xxxii+9 
+309 pages, 7 text figures. 

524. Papers from Tortugas Laboratory, volume 
XXXIII. Octavo, iii+195 pages, 7 plates, 
73 text figures. 

I— III. See Year Book No. 39 (1939-1940). 

IV, V. See Year Book No. 41 (1941-1942). 

VI. Davis, John H., Jr. The ecology of the 

vegetation and topography of the Sand 

Keys of Florida. Pages 1 13-195, 7 

plates, 13 text figures. 

527. Gentry, Howard Scott. Rio Mayo plants: 
a study of the flora and vegetation of the 
valley of the Rio Mayo, Sonora. Octavo, 
vii+328 pages, 29 plates, 6 text figures. 

538. Cressman, L. S., with the collaboration of 
Frank C. Baker, Paul S. Conger, Henry 
P. Hansen, Robert F. Heizer. Archaeologi- 
cal researches in the northern Great Basin. 
Quarto, xvii+158 pages, frontispiece, 102 
figures. 

541. Contributions to Embryology, volume XXX. 
Quarto, v+245 pages, frontispiece, 53 plates 
(2 colored), 73 text figures. 

187. George, W. C. A presomite human 
embryo with chorda canal and pro- 
chordal plate. Pages 1-7, 3 plates. 

188. Forbes, Thomas R. On the fate of the 
medullary cords of the human ovary. 
Pages 9-15, 1 plate, 1 text figure. 

189. Martinez-Esteve, Pedro. Observations 
on the histology of the opossum ovary. 
Pages 17-26, 7 plates. 

190. Lynn, W. Gardner. The embryology 
of Ele'utherodactylus nubicola, an 
anuran which has no tadpole stage. 
Pages 27-62, 5 plates, 40 text figures. 

191. Burns, Robert K., Jr. The origin and 
differentiation of the epithelium of the 
urinogenital sinus in the opossum, with 
a study of the modifications induced 
by estrogens. Pages 63-83, 10 plates 
(1 colored), 2 text figures. 

192. Corner, George W. The fate of the 
corpora lutea and the nature of the 
corpora aberrantia in the rhesus mon- 
key. Pages 85-96, 7 plates, 5 text 
figures. 



193. Rossman, I. On the lipin and pigment 
in the corpus luteum of the rhesus mon- 
key. Pages 97-109, 3 plates (1 colored). 

194. Hartman, Carl G. Further attempts 
to cause ovulation by means of gonado- 
tropes in the adult rhesus monkey. 
Pages 111-126, 2 plates. 

195. Cuajunco, Fidel. Development of the 
human motor end plate. Pages 127- 
152, 6 plates. 

196. Hines, Marion. The development and 
regression of reflexes, postures, and pro- 
gression in the young macaque. Pages 
153-209, 4 plates, 9 text figures. 

197. Streeter, George L. Developmental 
horizons in human embryos. Descrip- 
tion of age group XI, 13 to 20 somites, 
and age group XII, 21 to 29 somites. 
Pages 211-245, 5 plates, 16 text figures. 

543. Ruppert, Karl, and John H. Denison, Jr. 
Archaeological reconnaissance in Campeche, 
Quintana Roo, and Peten. Quarto, vii+156 
pages, frontispiece, 75 plates, 126 figures. 

544. Jacobs, Woodrow C, and Katherine B. 
Clarke. Meteorological results of cruise VII 
of the Carnegie, \Qi < &-\op.Q). Quarto, v+168 
pages, 62 figures. (Department of Terres- 
trial Magnetism, J. A. Fleming, Director. 
Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the Car- 
negie during 1928-1929, under Command 
of Captain J. P. Ault. Meteorology — I.) 

546. Contributions to American Anthropology 
and History, volume VIII. Quarto. 

40. Andrews, E. Wyllys. The archaeology 

of southwestern Campeche. Pages 1- 
100, frontispiece, 1 map, 1 diagram, 28 
figures. 

41. Smith, A. L., and A. V. Kidder. Ex- 

plorations in the Motagua Valley, Guate- 
mala. Pages 101-182, 64 figures. 

42. Makemson, Maud Worcester. The 

astronomical tables of the Maya. Pages 
183-221, 1 figure. 
Another paper will be added to this volume. 

547. Thomson, Andrew. Upper-wind observa- 
tions and results obtained on cruise VII of 
the Carnegie. Quarto, vii+93 pages, 1 map, 
46 figures. (Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, J. A. Fleming, Director. Scientific 



199 



200 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie dur- 
ing 1928-1929, under Command of Captain 
J. P. Ault. Meteorology — II.) 

550. Martin, Emmett. Studies of evaporation 
and transpiration under controlled condi- 
tions. Octavo, iii+48 pages, 17 figures. 

551. Contributions to Paleontology. Octavo. 

I. Furlong, E. L. The Pleistocene antelope, 
Stoc\oceros con\lingi, from San Josecito 
Cave, New Mexico. Pages 1-8, 5 plates. 
Other papers will be added to this volume. 
555. Biological results of the last cruise of the 
Carnegie. Quarto, vii+92 pages, 5 maps, 
69 figures. (Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, J. A. Fleming, Director. Scientific 
Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie dur- 
ing 1928-1929, under Command of Cap- 
tain J. P. Ault. Biology — IV.) 
Preface. Pages iii-v, 1 map. 
Graham, Herbert W. The phytoplankton. 

Pages 1-13, 5 figures. 
Setchell, William Albert. Marine algae. 
Pages 15-27, 12 figures. 



Treadwell, Aaron L. Polychaetous anne- 
lids. Pages 29-59, 46 figures, 4 maps. 

Tattersall, W. M. The mysids. Pages 61- 
72, 5 figures. 

Maloney, James O. The isopods. Pages 

73-75- 
Barber, Harry G. The Halobates. Pages 

77-84, 1 figure. 
Wetmore, Alexander. List of birds. Pages 

85-87. 
Miscellaneous determinations. Pages 89-92. 

de Laubenfels, M. W., The sponge. 

Clark, Austin H., The echinoderms. 

Chapin, E. A., and others, The insects 

and mites. Hopkins, Hoyt S., The 

pyrosomids. Cochran, Doris M., The 

lizard. 

PUBLICATION BY THE PRESIDENT OF 
THE INSTITUTION 

Bush, Vannevar. Research and the war effort. 
Electrical Engineering, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 
96-102 (1943)- 



INDEX 



Abelson, Philip H., studies in atomic physics, vii, 42 
Aboriginal American History, Section of, viii. See also 

archaeology; social anthropology 
Abreu, Raul Pavon, studies in archaeology, 178 
Adams, Eleanor B., studies in post-Columbian Ameri- 
can history, viii, 183 

publication by, 186 
Adams, Leason H., studies in geophysics, vii, 4, 7 

report of Director of Geophysical Laboratory, 27-29 
Adams, R. V., Jr., publication by, 68 
Adams, Walter S., studies in stellar spectroscopy, vii, 

7, 3> M> 15 
publications by, 19-20, 56 

report of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations, 61-62 
report of Director of Mount Wilson Observatory, 

3-22 
administration, offices of, x 
Agassiz, Alexander, vi, xii 
anatomy, comparative, studies in, 11 6-1 18. See also 

embryology 
Anderson, Carl D., studies on cosmic rays, 66-68 
Anderson, John A., laboratory investigations (Mount 

Wilson), vii, 3 
Andrews, E. Wyllys, studies in archaeology, 177, 183 

publication by, 185, 199 
anthropology, studies in, 126, 157-160, 1 80-1 81. See 

also archaeology; paleontology 
archaeology, studies in, 8, 177-180, 189. See also 

paleontology 
Aronson, Casper J., studies in terrestrial magnetism, vii 
astronomy, vii, xi, 7, 3-25. See also Mount Wilson 

Observatory 
Committee on, v 
Atkinson, R. d'E., studies in astronomy, 4 
atomic physics, studies in, 33, 42 
Atomic -Physics Observatory, 42 
Auditing Committee, v, xxii 

report of, xix 
Auditors, Report of, xix, xxi, xxvi— xxxii 
Ault, J. P., studies in oceanography, 54 
Axelrod, Daniel I., studies in paleobotany, 103 

B 

Baade, Walter, studies in stellar and nebular photom- 
etry and spectroscopy, vii, 3, 8, 16, 17 

publications by, 20 
Babcock, Ernest B., studies in genetics, ix 
Babcock, Harold D., studies in solar physics, vii, 3, 7, 
8, 18 

publications by, 20 
Baker, Frank C, publication by, 199 
Baldwin, George J., vi 
Banta, A. M., studies in genetics, 155 
Barber, Harry G., publication by, 54, 200 
Barbour, Thomas, v, xix 
Barksdale, Julian D., studies in geophysics, 28 

publication by, 29 



Bartels, J., publication by, 56 
Bates, R. W., publication by, 160 
Bauer, Ailene J., x 
Bauer, Louis A., vii 
Bell, James F., v, xix 

Benedetto, F. A., studies on cosmic rays, 63 
Benedict, Francis G., viii 
Bensley, E. H., studies in nutrition, 164 
Berkner, Lloyd V., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 
vii, 42 
publication by, 56 
Berry, Edward B., studies on cosmic rays, 63 

publication by, 64 
Biesecker, Earle B., x 
Billings, John S., vi, xii, xiii 
biochemical investigations, 7, 72-73, 75-91. See also 

cyclotron; embryology; genetics 
biological sciences, viii, xi, 6-y, 8, 71-175. See also 
paleontology 
Committee on, v 
biophysical investigations, 123-124. See also cyclotron; 

gene 
Blake, Marion E., studies in archaeology, ix, 189 
Blakeslee, Albert F., studies in genetics, viii, ix 
Bliss, Robert Woods, v, xix 
Boggs, S. H., studies in archaeology, 178 
Boricius, William, studies in astronomy, 4 
Botanical Research, Department of, viii. See also 

Plant Biology, Division of 
botany, see plant biology; maize genetics; polyploidy 

investigations 
Bowles, Edward L., studies in physics, ix 
Boyce, Joseph C, studies in physics, ix 
Bradford, Lindsay, v, xix 
Bradshaw, S. L., studies in linguistics, 177 
Brainerd, G. W., studies in archaeology, 177 
Bramhall, E. H., studies in terrestrial magnetism, ix, 

52 
Brayton, Ada M., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 3 
Brehme, K. S., publication by, 160 
Breit, G., studies in physics, ix 
Brode, R. B., studies in physics, 61 
Brookings, Robert S., vi 

Brouwer, Dirk, studies in astronomy, ix, 23 
Bryson, V., studies in mouse genetics, 125, 126-129 
Burd, Sylvia, studies in stellar and nebular spectros- 
copy, 3 
Burgh, Robert F., studies in archaeology, 179 
Burlew, John S., studies in geophysics, vii 
Burns, Robert K., Jr., studies in embryology, viii, 
109, no, III 
publications by, 120, 199 
Bursar, Office of the, x 

Burwell, Cora G., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 3, 12 
Bush, Vannevar, v, x, xix, xxii 
publication by, 200 
Report of the President, 1-10 
Buwalda, John P., studies in geology and paleontology, 
ix, 194 



201 



202 



INDEX 



Cadwalader, John L., vi, xii 
Callaway, Samuel, x 

Campbell, Arthur Shackleton, publication by, 54, 59 
Campbell, William W., vi 

Carlson, J. Gordon, studies on the gene, 123, 140 
Carnegie, the, 54, 59, 199, 200 
Carnegie, Andrew, xi, xiii 

Carnegie Corporation of New York, xi, 5, 6, 108 
Carpenter, Thorne M., studies in nutrition, viii, 8, 
164, 165 

publications by, 165 

report of Director of Nutrition Laboratory, 163-165 
Carty, John J., vi 

Castle, W. E., studies in biology, ix, 167 
Chamberlain, Robert S., studies in post-Columbian 

American history, viii, 177, 183 
Chaney, Ralph W., studies in paleobotany, ix, 74, 103, 

192 
Chapin, E. A., publication by, 54, 200 
Chapman, S., publications by, 57 
chemistry, see biochemical investigations; geophysics 
Chernosky, Edwin J., observatory work (terrestrial 

magnetism), 50 
Christie, William H., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 
vii, 3 

publication by, 20 
Clark, Austin H., publication by, 54, 200 
Clarke, Katherine B., publication by, 54, 59, 199 
Clausen, Jens C, studies in experimental taxonomy, 

viii, 91-100 
Cochran, Doris M., publication by, 54, 200 
Coffeen, Mary F., studies in solar physics, 3, 7, 18 

publication by, 20 
Cole, Whitefoord R., vi 
College (Alaska) Observatory, 31, 33, 41, 44, 45, 

51-52 
Compton, A. H., studies in physics, ix, 61, 62, 63 
Conger, Paul S., studies in biology, ix, 168-169 

publication by, 199 
Connor, Elizabeth, 3 

publication by, 20 
Corner, George W., studies in embryology, viii, 6, 
112, 113, 114 

publications by, 1 20-1 21, 199 

report of Director of Department of Embryology, 
105-122 
Coropatchinsky, V., studies in nutrition, viii, 164 
Cosmic-Ray Investigations, Committee on Coordina- 
tion of, 61-62 
cosmic rays, studies on, 61—69. See also terrestrial 

magnetism 
Cowie, D. B., biophysical investigations, 33, 42 

publications by, 57, 58 
Cressman, L. S., studies in archaeology, 195 

publication by, 185, 199 
Cuajunco, Fidel, studies on the nervous system, 119 

publication by, 121, 199 
cyclotron, 6, 33, 42 

cytology, studies in, 116. See also experimental 
taxonomy; genetics 

D 

Davenport, Charles B., viii 

Davidson, Harriet, polyploidy investigations, 153-157 

Davis, Dorothy N., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 3, 

13, 14 
publication by, 20 



Davis, John H., Jr., publication by, 199 

Day, Arthur L., vii 

de Benedetti, Sergio, studies on cosmic rays, 64 

publications by, 64 
Deeds, W. E., publication by, 68 
Delano, Frederic A., v, xix, xxii, 4 
de Laubenfels, M. W., publication by, 54, 200 
Demerec, Milislav, studies on the gene, viii, 7, 123, 
124, I39-M7 

publications by, 160, 161 

report of Director of Department of Genetics, 123- 
161 
Denison, John H., Jr., publication by, 185, 199 
desert investigations, 74, 100-103 
Desert Laboratory, viii. See also Plant Biology, 

Division of 
diatoms, studies on, 7, 72, 75-82, 168-169 
Dill, D. B., studies in nutrition, 164 
Dillon, Theodore H., x, 5 
Dimick, John, studies in archaeology, 178 
Dobzhansky, Th., studies in genetics, ix 
Dodge, Cleveland H., vi, xii 
Dodge, William E., vi 
Dorf, Erling, studies in paleobotany, 103 

publication by, 104 
Dowdy, A. H., publication by, 57 
Drury, Newton B., study of primitive areas, ix 
DuBillier, B., publication by, 57 
Duncan, John C, studies in astronomy, 4 
Dunham, Theodore, Jr., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 
vii, 3 



early man, see archaeology; paleontology 

ecology, viii. See also desert investigations; experi- 
mental taxonomy 

Edwards, H. T., studies in nutrition, 164 

Elton, Charles, studies in climatology, ix 

Embryology, Department of, viii, 6, 105-122, 169 
report of Director of Department of, 105-122 

embryology, studies in, 6, 105-122, 169-170 

Emerson, Robert, publication by, 104 

endocrine studies, 7, 125-126, 129-139. See also 
reproductive organs and their hormones 

England, Joseph L., studies in geophysics, vii 

Ennis, C. C, studies in physical oceanography, 54 

ethnology, see social anthropology 

Eugenics Record Office, viii. See also Genetics, 
Department of 

Evans, Robley D., studies in nutrition, 163, 164 

Executive Committee, v, xi, 3 
Report of the, xix, xxi-xxv 

Experimental Evolution, Station for, viii. See also 
Genetics, Department of 

experimental taxonomy, studies in, 7, 72, 73-74, 91- 
100 



Fano, Ugo, studies on the gene, viii, 123, 125, 139- 

147 
publications by, 160 

Farrell, M. W., publication by, 57 

Fenner, Charles P., vi 

Ferguson, Homer L., v, xix 

Finance Committee, v, xxi, xxii, 6 

report of, xix 

Fitzsimmons, Roy G., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 

34> 56 



INDEX 



203 



Fleming, John A., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 
vii, 7, 34, 37, 45, 54 
publications by, 56, 57 

report of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic - 
• Ray Investigations, 61-62 
report of Director of Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, 31-59 
Flexner, Louis B., physicochemical studies (embryol- 
ogy), viii, 105 
Flexner, Simon, vi 

Forbes, Thomas R., studies on reproductive organs 
and their hormones, in, 114, 115 
publications by, 121, 199 
Forbes, W. Cameron, v, xix, xxii 
Forbush, Scott E., studies on cosmic rays, vii, 61, 
62-63 
publication by, 63 
Frew, William N., vi, xii 

Furlong, Eustace L., studies in paleontology, 193, 196 
publication by, 200 



Gage, Lyman J., vi, xii 

Gamow, G., studies in physics, ix 

Gay, Helen, studies on the gene, 139-147 

Gellhorn, Alfred, physicochemical studies (embryol- 
ogy), 105 

gene, studies on, 7, 124-125, 139-147 

Genetics, Department of, viii, 7, 1 23-1 61 
report of Director of Department of, 1 23-1 61 

genetics, studies in, 7, 1 23-1 61, 167, 1 71-174. See 
also experimental taxonomy 

Gentry, Howard Scott, desert investigations, 103 
publication by, 104, 199 

geology, see geophysics; paleobotany; paleontology 

geomagnetic investigations, 31-32, 34-37. See also 
terrestrial magnetism 

Geophysical Laboratory, vii, 3, 7, 27-29 
report of Director of, 27-29 

geophysics, studies in, 7, 27-29. See also terrestrial 
magnetism 

George, W. C, studies in embryology, 109 
publication by, 121, 199 

Gibson, Ralph E., studies in geophysics, vii 

Giesecke, Albert A., Jr., observatory work (terrestrial 
magnetism), 50 

GifTord, Walter S., v, xix, xxii 

Gilbert, Cass, vi 

Gilbert, Walter M., x 

Gillett, Frederick H., vi 

Gillin, John P., studies in social anthropology, 181 

Gilman, Daniel Coit, vi, xii, xiii 

Ginsburg, N., studies on reproductive organs and 
their hormones, 114 
publication by, 121 

Gish, Oliver H., studies in terrestrial electricity, vii, 
37, 38, 40, 64 
publication by, 57 

Goranson, Roy W., studies in geophysics, vii 

Goubaud Carrera, Antonio, studies in social anthropol- 
ogy, 181 

Graham, Herbert W., publications by, 54, 59, 200 

Green, George K., studies in atomic physics, vii, 42 

Green, J. W., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 33, 34, 

43, 56 
Greig, Joseph W., studies in geophysics, vii 
Gucker, Frank T., Jr., studies in chemistry, ix 
Gunn, Ross, studies in terrestrial magnetism, ix 



H 

Hafstad, Lawrence R., studies in atomic physics, vii, 

42 
Hale, George E., vii 
Halpern, A. M., studies in linguistics, 177 

publication by, 186 
Hansen, Henry P., publication by, 199 
Hardin, Garrett J., biochemical investigations, viii, 
75-91 

publication by, 104 
Harradon, H. D., 55, 56 

publications by, 57, 58 
Harrison, Margaret W., 185-186 
Hartman, Carl G., studies on reproductive organs and 
their hormones, 112, 116, 118 

publications by, 121, 199 
Hartung, Marguerite, studies in experimental taxon- 
omy, 99 
Hay, John, vi, xii, xiii 
Heard, O. O., 119 

publication by, 121 
Heizer, Robert F., publication by, 199 
Hendrix, W. C, studies in physical oceanography, 54, 

56 
Herrick, Myron T., vi 
Hertig, Arthur T., studies in embryology, ix, 105, 

108, 120, 169-170 
publications by, 170 

Hess, Victor F., studies in physics, ix, 37, 61, 63-64 

publications by, 64 
Heuser, Chester H., studies in embryology, viii, 108, 

109, 119 
publication by, 121 

Hewitt, Abram S., vi 

Heydenburg, Norman P., studies in atomic physics, 

vii, 42 
Hickox, Joseph, studies in solar physics, vii, 3, 5 
Hiesey, William M., studies in experimental taxonomy, 

viii, 91-100 
Higginson, Henry L., vi, xii 
Hinckley, L. C, desert investigations, 100 
Hines, Marion, studies on the nervous system, 118, 

119 

publication by, 121, 199 

historical research, viii, xi, 8, 177-198 

Committee on, v 
Historical Research, Department of, viii. See also 

Historical Research, Division of 
Historical Research, Division of, viii, 4, 5, 8, 177- 
187 

report of Chairman of Division of, 177-187 
history of the Maya area, studies in, 8, 1 81-183 
History of Science, Section of the, viii 
history of science, studies in, 184-185 
Hitchcock, Ethan A., vi, xii 
Hitchcock, Henry, vi 

Hoge, Edison, studies in solar physics, vii, 3, 5 
Hollaender, A., studies in genetics, ix, 123, 124, 125, 

140, 141, 146 
Hollander, W. F., endocrine studies, 125, 129-139 

publications by, 160, 161 
Holmberg, Erik, publications by, 25 
Hoover, Herbert, v, xix 
Hopkins, Hoyt S., publication by, 54, 200 
hormones, see endocrine studies; reproductive organs 

and their hormones 
Howe, William Wirt, vi, xii 



204 



INDEX 



Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38, 

41, 44, 45, 48-51, 61, 62, 63 
Hubble, Edwin P., studies in nebular photography, 

photometry, and spectroscopy, vii, 3, 17 
publications by, 20 
Huff, Ruth, studies in astronomy, 23 
Humason, Milton L., studies in stellar and nebular 

spectroscopy, vii, 3, 13, 16, 17 
publications by, 20 
Hutchinson, Charles L., vi, xii 



Ingerson, Earl, studies in geophysics, vii, 28-29 

publications by, 29 
Investment Office, x 

ionosphere, studies on, 31-32, 33, 41-42 
Irvine, J. W., Jr., studies in nutrition, 164 

J 

Jacobs, Woodrow C, publication by, 54, 59, 199 

Jameson, J. Franklin, viii 

Janssen, Edith M., studies in astronomy, 24 

Jeans, James, studies in astronomy, 4 

Jessup, Walter A., v, xxii 

Jewett, Frank B., v, xix, 4 

Johnson, Ellis A., studies in terrestrial magnetism, vii 

Johnson, Thomas H., studies in physics, ix, 62, 64-65 

publications by, 65 
Johnston, Henry F., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 

vh, 34, 35, 36, 44 
publications by, 57 
Johnston, I. M., desert investigations, 100, 101 

publication by, 104 
Jones, Mark W., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), vii, 50 
publication by, 57 
Josephs, Devereux, x 

Joslin, Elliott P., studies in nutrition, ix, 163 
Joy, Alfred H., studies in stellar spectroscopy, vii, 3, 
12, 13 
publications by, 20 
Joyner, Mary, see Seares, Mary Joyner 

K 

Karr, Earl, publication by, 21 

Katz, Leon, studies on cosmic rays, 68 

publication by, 68 
Kaufmann, Berwind P., studies on the gene, viii, 
123, 125, 139-147 
publications by, 160 
Keck, David D., studies in experimental taxonomy, 

viii, 91—100 
Keenan, P. C, studies in astronomy, 25 
Kellogg, Remington, studies in paleontology, ix, 196 
Kidder, Alfred V., studies in archaeology, viii, 8, 177 
publications by, 185, 186, 199 
report of Chairman of Division of Historical Re- 
search, 177-187 
King, Arthur S., laboratory investigations (Mount 
Wilson), vii, 3, 4, 18 
publications by, 20 
King, Helen Dean, studies in genetics, 167 
King, Robert B., laboratory investigations (Mount 

Wilson), vii, 3 
Kistiakowski, George B., studies in chemistry, ix 
Korff, S. A., studies in physics, ix, 62, 65-66 



Korsch, B., publication by, 161 
Kracek, Frank C, studies in geophysics, vii 
Kupferberg, K., studies on cosmic rays, 66 
Kupferberg, M., studies on cosmic rays, 66 



Laanes, T., studies in mouse genetics, 126-129 

publication by, 160 
Lahr, E. L., endocrine studies, 129-139 

publication by, 160 
Land, Gustav, studies in astronomy, 23 
Land Magnetic Survey, 43—44 

Lange, Isabelle, studies in terrestrial magnetism, 34, 
35, 61, 62-63 

publication by, 63 
Langley, Samuel P., vi, xii 

Lawrence, William E., studies in ecology, 99-100 
Ledig, Paul G., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), vii, 50, 62 

publications by, 57, 58 
Lee, George, studies in nutrition, 164 
Lee, Robert C, studies in nutrition, viii, 164-165 

publication by, 165 
Leland, Waldo G., studies in United States history, 184 
leukemia, see mouse genetics 
Lewis, Charlton M., publication by, 104 
Lewis, Margaret R., studies in embryology, viii 
Lewis, Warren H., studies in cytology, 116 

publication by, 121 
Lhuillier, Alberto Ruz, studies in archaeology, 178 
Lindbergh, Charles A., vi 
Lindsay, William, vi, xii 
Lingebach, J. Stanley, x 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, vi 
Loeffler, Orville H., studies in geophysics, vii 
Long, R. C. E., publication by, 186 
Longyear, J. M., studies in archaeology, 177 
Loomis, Alfred L., v, 4 
Lopez de Llergo, Rita, studies in social anthropology, 

180 
Lorimier, A. A. de, publications by, 58 
Low, Seth, vi, xii 

Lowe, E. A., studies in paleography, ix 
Lowen, A. Louise, studies on stellar motions and 

spectroscopy, 3 
Lynn, W. Gardner, studies in embryology, 109 

publication by, 121, 199 

M 

McClintock, Barbara, studies in maize genetics, viii, 
7, 124, 148-152 
publication by, 160 
MacDowell, Edwin C, studies in mouse genetics, 
viii, 7, 123, 125, 126-129 
publication by, 160 
MacGinitie, Harry D., studies in paleobotany, 103 
McKee, Edwin D., studies in geology and paleon- 
tology, ix, 196 
McLaughlin, Andrew C, viii 
McNish, Alvin G., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 

vii, 34, 44 
publication by, 58 

MacVeagh, Wayne, vi, xii 

magnetism, see atomic physics; geomagnetic investi- 
gations; solar research 

maize genetics, studies in, 7, 124, 148-152 



INDEX 



205 



Makemson, Maud W., publication by, 185, 199 
Mall, Franklin P., viii, 107 
Maloney, James O., publication by, 54, 200 
Manning, Winston M., biochemical investigations, 
viii, 75-91 

publications by, 104 
Marinelli, L. D., studies on the gene, 125, 143, 144 

publication by, 160 
Martin, Emmett V., viii 

publication by, 104, 200 
Martmez-Esteve, Pedro, studies on reproductive or- 
gans and their hormones, 112 

publication by, 121, 199 
Marvin, H. N., endocrine studies, 130 

publication by, 160 
Maya research, see anthropology; archaeology; history 

of Maya area 
Medical Research, Committee on, 4, 6 
Mellon, Andrew J., vi 

Meng, John J., studies in United States history, 183- 
184, 186 

publications by, 186 
Merriam, John Campbell, vi 

studies in paleontology, early man, and historical 
geology, 190-198 

publications by, 198 
Merrill, Paul W., studies in stellar spectroscopy, vii, 
3, 12, 13, 14 

publications by, 20 
Merwin, Herbert E., studies in geophysics, vii 
Meyer, Robert C, studies in atomic physics, vii, 42 
Miller, R. A., endocrine studies, 129-139 

publications by, 160 
Miller, Roswell, v, xix, 4 
Millikan, Robert A., studies in physics, ix, 62, 66-68 

publications by, 68 
Mills, Darius O., vi, xii 
Milner, Harold W., biochemical investigations, viii, 

75-91 
Minkowski, Rudolph, studies in stellar and nebular 
spectroscopy, vii, 3, 8, 15, 16 

publications by, 20 
Mitchell, S. A., studies in astronomy, ix, 4, 23-25 
Mitchell, S. Weir, vi, xii, xiii 
Moberg, E. G., studies in oceanography, 54 
Monroe, Parker, x 
Montague, Andrew J., vi 
Moore, Charlotte E., publications by, 20. See also 

Sitterly, Mrs. B. W. 
Morey, George W., studies in geophysics, vii, 28-29 

publications by, 29 
Morgan, Henry S., v, 4 

Morgan, L. V., studies in genetics, 171— 174 
Morgan, T. H., studies in biology, ix, 171-174 
Morley, Sylvanus G., studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 

r 7. 8 , 
publication by, 186 

Morris, Earl H., studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 179- 

180 

Morrow, William W., vi, xii 

Mount Wilson Observatory, vii, 3, y, 3-22, 25 

report of Director of, 3-22 
mouse genetics, studies in, 7, 125, 126-129 
Mudd, Seeley G., v 
Mulders, Elizabeth S., studies in solar physics, 3 

publications by, 21 



N 

National Defense Research Committee, 4, 27, 34 
nebulae and novae, studies on, 7, 3, 15-18 
Neddermeyer, Seth, studies on cosmic rays, 68 
Neher, H. Victor, studies on cosmic rays, 66 

publications by, 68 
nervous system, studies on, 6, 105, 11 8-1 19 
Newhouse, Walter H., studies in geophysics, ix 
Nicholson, Seth B., studies in solar physics, vii, 3, 5, 8 

publications by, 21 
Nielsen, Carl E., studies on cosmic rays, 62, 68-69 

publications by, 69 
Norman, I. G., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), 48 
nuclear physics, see atomic physics 
nutrition, studies in, 8, 163-165 
Nutrition Laboratory, viii, 8, 163-165 

report of Director of, 163-165 
Nye, William, publication by, 104 

O 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 33, 44-53. 
See also College (Alaska) Observatory; Huancayo 
Magnetic Observatory; Watheroo Magnetic Ob- 
servatory 

oceanography, see Carnegie, the 

Office of Scientific Research and Development, 3, 4, 
3, 19, 27, 31, 34, 55, 164 

Osborn, Elburt F., studies in geophysics, vii, 29 
publication by, 29 

Osborn, William Church, vi 



Packard, E. L., studies in paleontology, 194 

paleobotany, studies in, 74-75, 103, 192-193 

paleontology, studies in, 190-198. See also archaeol- 
ogy; paleobotany 

Parkinson, W. D., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), 47, 48 

Parkinson, Wilfred C, observatory work (terrestrial 
magnetism), vii, 44, 48 
publication by, 58 

Parmelee, James, vi 

Parsons, Wm. Barclay, vi 

Paton, Stewart, vi 

Peavey, R. C, studies in terrestrial magnetism, 42 

Pepper, George W., vi 

Perret, Frank A., studies in geophysics, ix 

Pershing, John J., v 

Pettit, Edison, studies in solar physics, vii, 3, 6, 11 
publications by, 21 

Phillips, M. L., publication by, 58 

photosynthesis, see biochemical investigations 

physical laboratory, Mount Wilson, 3, 18-19 

physics, see biophysical studies; cosmic rays; geo- 
physics; terrestrial magnetism 

physiology, studies in, 174-175. See also embryology; 
nutrition 

physiology of the fetus, studies in, 111-112 

Pickering, William H., studies on cosmic rays, 66 
publications by, 68 

Pierce, Keith, solar research, 5 

Piggot, Charles S., studies in geophysics, vii, 54 

planets, studies on, 8, 23 

Plant Biology, Division of, viii, 7, 71-104, 168 
report of Chairman of Division of, 71-104 



206 



INDEX 



plant biology, studies in, 7, 71-104, 168-169. $ ee a ^ so 
maize genetics; polyploidy investigations 

Plant Physiology, Laboratory for, viii. See also Plant 
Biology, Division of 

Pogo, Alexander, studies in history of science, viii, 

l8 .5 . 
publications by, 186 

Pollock, Harry E. D., studies in archaeology, viii, 177 

polyploidy investigations, 123, 124, 153-157. See also 

experimental taxonomy 

Posnjak, Eugene, studies in geophysics, vii 

Post-Columbian American History, Section of, viii. 

See also history of the Maya area ;, United States 

history 

post-war problems, 8—10 

Potter, James S., studies in mouse genetics, viii, 123, 

126-129 

publication by, 160 

Powell, Wilson M., studies in physics, ix, 62, 68-69 

publications by, 69 

Pratt, Philip C, studies on reproductive organs and 

their hormones, 114 

publication by, 121 

Prentis, Henning W., Jr., v, xix 

President, v, xi, xxi 

Office of the, x 

publication by the, 200 

Report of the, xix, xxi, 1—10 

presidents, former, vi 

Pritchett, Henry S., vi 

Proskouriakoff, Tatiana. studies in archaeology, viii, 

}77, 185 
Publications and Public Relations. Office of, x, xi, 5 

R 

Rauch, V. M., endocrine studies, 126, 129-139 
Rayner, Jeannette F., studies in nutrition, 163 
Redfield, Helen, studies in genetics, 171-174 
Redfield, Robert, studies in anthropology, ix, 1 80-1 81 
Reiner, L., studies in nutrition, 164 
reproductive organs and their hormones, studies on, 

6, 105, 112-116 
research associates, ix 

reports of, 23-25, 61-69, 167-175, 189-198 
Resser, Charles E., studies in paleontology, 197 
Reuyl, Dirk, studies in astronomy, 24 

publications by, 25 
Revelle, Roger Randall, studies in physical oceanog- 
raphy, 54 
Reynolds, Samuel R. M., studies on reproductive or- 
gans and their hormones, viii, 114 

publications by, 121 
Richardson, F. B., studies in archaeology, 177 
Richardson, Robert S., studies in solar physics, vii, 

3,5,7. 8 
publications by, 21 
Richmond, Myrtle L., studies in solar physics, 3, 8 

publications by, 21 
Riddle, Oscar, endocrine studies, viii, J, 125, 126, 
129-139 
publications by, 160, 161 
Roberts, Howard S., studies in geophysics, vii 
Roberts, Richard B., studies in atomic physics, vii, 42 
Rock, John, studies in embryology, 105, 108, 120, 
169-170 
publications by, 170 
Rollins, Reed C, desert investigations, 100, 101 
publication by, 104 



Rooney, William J., studies in terrestrial electricity, 

vii, 37 
Root, Elihu, vi, xii, xiii 
Root, Elihu, Jr., v, xix, 4 
Root, Howard F., studies in nutrition, 163, 164, 165 

publication by, 165 
Rosales, Juan, studies in social anthropology, 180, 181 
Rosenwald, Julius, vi 
Rossman, I., studies on reproductive organs and their 

hormones, 112 
publication by, 121, 199 
Rowe, John Howland, publication by, 186 
Roys, Ralph L., studies in post-Columbian American 

history, viii, 177, 181-183, 185 
Ruppert, Karl, studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 185 

publication by, 185, 187, 199 
Russell, G. Oscar, studies in physiology, 174-175 
Russell, Henry Norris, studies in astronomy, ix, 4, 7, 

9, 18, 24 
publications by, 21 
Ryerson, Martin A., vi 



Sanford, Roscoe F., studies in stellar spectroscopy, 
vii, 3, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17 
publications by, 20, 21 
Sansome, Eva R., studies on the gene, 124, 139-147 
Sapsford, H. B., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), 52 
publications by, 58 
Sarton, George, studies in history of science, viii, 184- 

l8 .5 . 
publications by, 187 

Satterthwaite, Linton, Jr., publication by, 186 
Schairer, John F., studies in geophysics, vii 
Scholes, France V., studies in post-Columbian Ameri- 
can history, viii, 177, 1 81-183, 185 
publication by, 186 
Schultz, A. H., studies in comparative anatomy, 117, 
118 
publication by, 121 
Scott, Walter E., studies in terrestrial magnetism, vii, 
34, 35, 44, 45 
publications by, 57, 58 
Seares, Frederick H., studies in astronomy, ix, 4, 10 
Seares, Mary Joyner, studies in stellar photometry, 

3, 4, 10, 11 

Seaton, Stuart L., observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism), vii, 52 

Seibert, H. C, publication by, 161 

Setchell, William Albert, publication by, 54, 200 

Seyfert, Carl K., publications by, 21 

Shapley, Alan H., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 34 

Shepard, Anna O., studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 
178-179 

Shepherd, Earnest S., studies in geophysics, vii 

Shepley, Henry R., v, xix, xxii 

Sherman, H. C, studies in nutrition, ix 

Sherman, Kenneth L., studies in terrestrial magnetism 
and electricity, vii, 36, 37, 52, 64 

Shook, Edwin M., studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 
179 

Shorr, Ephraim, endocrine studies, 136 

Shreve, Forrest, desert investigations, viii, 100-103 
publication by, 104 

Shutt, Ralph P., studies on cosmic rays, 65 
publications by, 65 



INDEX 



207 



Silsbce, H. B., publication by, 58 

Silverman, Leslie, studies in nutrition, 164-165 

publication by, 165 
Sitterly, Mrs. B. W., studies in solar physics, 18. See 

also Moore, Charlotte E. 
Skilling, William T., publication by, 21 
Smith, A., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 33 
Smith, A. Ledyard, studies in archaeology, viii, 177 

publication by, 185, 199 
Smith, Ernest K., studies on cosmic rays, 66 
Smith, G. C, endocrine studies, 126, 129-139 

publication by, 160 
Smith, James H. C, biochemical investigations, viii, 

75-91 

publication by, 104 
Smith, Robert E., studies in archaeology, viii, 177 
Smith, Theobald, vi 

Snow, Janice, studies in archaeology, 178 
social anthropology, studies in, 1 80-1 81 
sociology, see social anthropology 
solar research, 7, 3, 5-8. See also cosmic rays; ter- 
restrial magnetism 
Solier, Wilfrido du, publication by, 186 
Soule, F. M., studies in physical oceanography, 54 
Speert, Harold, studies on physiology of the fetus, 11 1 

publication by, 121 
Spoehr, Herman A., biochemical investigations, viii, 

7, .75791 

publications by, 104 

report of Chairman of Division of Plant Biology, 
71-104 
Spooner, John C, vi, xii 
stars, see stellar investigations 
Stebbins, Joel, studies in astronomy, ix, 4, 9 

publications by, 21, 22 
Steggerda, Morris, studies in anthropology, viii, 126, 
157-160 

publications by, 161 
Steiner, William F., studies in geophysics, vii 
stellar investigations, 3, 9-15, 23-25 
stellar spectroscopy, studies in, y, 3, 11-15 
Stewart, Robert M., desert investigations, 100 
Stock, Chester, studies in paleontology, ix, 193, 195 
Stock, Leo F., studies in United States history, viii, 
183-184 

publications by, 187 
Storey, William Benson, vi 
Stotz, Elmer, studies in nutrition, 163 
Strain, Harold H., biochemical investigations, viii, 

75-91 
publications by, 104 

Stratton, F. G. M., studies in astronomy, 4 
Straus, W. L., Jr., studies in comparative anatomy, 
116, 117 
publications by, 121 
Streeter, George L., studies in embryology, viii, ix, 
105, 107, 108, 109 
publication by, 122, 199 
Stromberg, Gustaf, studies in stellar spectroscopy, 
vii, 3 
publications by, 21 
Stromsvik, Gustav, studies in archaeology, viii, 177 
Strong, Richard P., v, xix, 4 

Stuart, S. L., studies in physical oceanography, 54 
Sturgis, Somers H., studies on reproductive organs 
and their hormones, 1 1 6 
publication by, 121 



sun, see solar research 

Sutton, Eileen, studies on the gene, 143 

Sverdrup, H. U., studies in physical oceanography, 54 

Swearingen, T., studies on cosmic rays, 66 

Swift, Dorothy R., x 

Swings, P., studies in astronomy, 4 



Taft, Charles P., v, xix 

Taft, William H., vi 

Tate, John T., studies in physics, ix 

Tattersall, W. M., publication by, 54, 200 

Tax, Sol, studies in social anthropology, viii, 181 

publication by, 187 
Taylor, M. J., studies in mouse genetics, 126-129 
terrestrial electricity, studies in, 32-33, 37-41 
Terrestrial Magnetism, Department of, vii, 3, 6, 7, 
31-59, 61, 62, 64 

report of Director of Department of, 31-59 
terrestrial magnetism, studies in, 7, 31-59. See also 

cosmic rays 
terrestrial sciences, vii, xi, 7, 27-69 

Committee on, v 
Thayer, William S., vi 

Thompson, J. Eric S., studies in archaeology, viii, 177, 
179 

publications by, 186, 187 
Thomson, Andrew, publication by, 54, 59, 199 
Torreson, Oscar W., studies in terrestrial magnetism 

and electricity, vii, 34, 37, 44 
Treadwell, Aaron L., publication by, 54, 200 
Trustees, Board of, v, xi, xix, xxi, xxii, 3, 4, 31 

Abstract of Minutes of, xix 

Committees of, v 

former, vi 
Tumin, Melvin, studies in social anthropology, 181 
Tunell, George, studies in geophysics, vii, 27-28 

publication by, 29 
Tuttle, O. F., studies in geophysics, 28 

publication by, 29 
Tuve, Merle A., studies in atomic physics, vii, 42 

U 

United States Antarctic Expedition of 1939-1941, 34 
United States History, Section of, viii. See also Post- 
Columbian American History, Section of 
United States history, studies in, 183-184 
Urry, William D., studies in geophysics, vii 



Vallarta, M. S., studies in physics, 61 
van Maanen, Adriaan, studies on stellar motions and 
statistics, vii, 3, 9 
publications by, 22 
Vargas F., Luis, studies on reproductive organs and 
their hormones, 115 
publications by, 122 
Vestine, Ernest H., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 

vh, 34> 35, 36, 37 
publications by, 58 
Villa Rojas, Alfonso, studies in social anthropology, 

viii, 180, 181, 185 
Visscher, F. E., endocrine studies, 129-139 
Vyssotsky, A. N., publications by, 25 



208 



INDEX 



W 

Wadsworth, James W., v, xix 

Wait, George R., studies in terrestrial electricity, vii, 
37, 38, 40, 44 
publications by, 58 
Walcott, Charles D., vi, xii, xiii 
Walcott, Frederic C, v, xix, xxii, 4 
Walcott, Henry P., vi 
Wallis, W. F., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 33, 34, 

43 
war activities, 3-4, 7, 3, 19, 27, 31, 71, 105, 123, 163 
Ward, E. N., studies in mouse genetics, 126-129 

publication by, 160 
Ware, Louise, studies in solar physics, 3, 4 
Warmke, Harry E., polyploidy investigations, viii, 

123, 153-157 
publications by, 161 
Waterfall, U. T., desert investigations, 100 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 31, 32, 33, 38, 39, 

40, 41, 44, 45, 46-48 
Weaver, Harold F., studies in astronomy, 4 
Weed, Lewis H., v, xix, xxii, 4 
Welch, William H., vi 
Wells, Harry W., studies in terrestrial magnetism, vii, 

34, 37, 4i, 42 
publications by, 58 
Wetmore, Alexander, publication by, 54, 200 
Wheeler, Hilda H., studies in anthropology, 157-160 
White, Andrew D., vi, xii 
White, Edward D., vi 



White, Henry, vi 

White, John, studies on cosmic rays, 66 
White, T. N., publications by, 58 
Whitford, A. E., stellar investigations, 9 

publications by, 21, 22 
Wickersham, George W., vi 
Wiener, M., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 56 
Wiggins, Ira L., desert investigations, 100, 10 1 

publications by, 104 
Williams, Emma T. R., publications by, 25 
Wilson, Charles B., publication by, 54, 59 
Wilson, Olin C, studies in stellar spectroscopy, vii, 3, 

14 
Wilson, Ralph E., studies on stellar motions and 
spectroscopy, vii, 3, 12 

publication by, 22 
Wolff, G., publication by, 161 
Woodward, Robert Simpson, vi 
Wright, Carroll D., vi, xii, xiii 
Wright, Fred E., studies in geophysics, vii 

publication by, 56 

report of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations, 61-62 



Zamenhof, S., publication by, 161 
Zeigler, Jean, studies in archaeology, 179 
Zies, Emanuel G., studies in geophysics, vii 
Zimmer, Esther M., studies on the gene, 141 
zoology, see biological sciences